Is a genus of trypanosomatid protozoa, which
causes a fatal vector-borne parasitic disease called
It is spread by the bite of sandflies of the genus
Phlebotomus in the Old World, and of the genus
Lutzomyia in the New World.
• is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world
(after malaria) and is endemic in many parts of
Africa, Asia and South America.
donovani, tropica, mexicana
, braziliensis, etc.
• L.lainsoni, etc
Are essentially the parasites of visceral organs.
Promastigote forms found in sand fly and in culture.
Amastigote forms found in man in
reticuloendothelial cells of
mesentric lymph node.
(same in all species)
• The parasite exists in
2 forms;1. Amastigotes –
2. Promastigotesflagellar stage
Occurs in the vertebrate host
Occurs in the sand fly
divides by binary fission at 37oC.
divides by binary fission at 27oC.
There are round or oval ;2-4µm along
They are spindle shaped ;15-20 µm in
Nucleus relatively larger and situated
length & 1-2µm in width.
Nucleus smaller and situated in the
middle of the cell or along the side of
Life cycle of other species of Leishmania are similar to
L.donovani except that
• amastigotes reside in the large mononuclear cells
of the skin
• Amastigotes found in reticuloendothelial cells
and lymphatic tissues of skin
• amastigotes are found in reticuloendothelial cells
and lymphatic tissues of skin and mucus
MODE OF TRAMSMISSION
1. Mainly by the bite of sand fly (vector) Phlebotomus
2. LesS frequently by:
accidental inoculation of cultured promastigotes in the lab.
Males are affected more (due to increased exposure to sand
flies through the occupation and leisure activities).
• Human:- in Indian subcontinent
• Rodents:- in Africa
• Foxes:- in Brazil and Central Asia
• Dogs :- In China
2. Spleen enlargement
4. Darkening of the skin (KALA AZAR, MEANING “BLACK FEVER)
Complications:- pneumonia, TB, dysentery, uncontrolled haemorrhage
Prognosis:- With an early treatment, cure rate >90%
If not treated, death occurs within 2 years.
Leishmaniasis is divided into clinical syndromes
according to what part of the body is affected most.
1. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL)
caused by L.donovani
part of the body affected most is
( most common type)
Old world CL:- caused by
L.tropica, L. aethiopica
New world CL:- caused by
L.mexicana, L.braziliensis, L.g
c) Dermal leishmanoid or Post
Part of the body most affected
Caused by L. braziliensis
and occasionally by
Part of the body affected
most is skin and mucous
membrane of nose and
SYNONYMS OF LEISHMANIASIS
Thick film method
Direct Evidences (contd......)
1. Peripheral blood by thick
Amastigotes in a macrophage
Direct Evidences (contd......)
2. Blood culture in N.N.N.
Promastigote from culture in NNN medium
Direct Evidences (....contd)
3. Biopsy material obtained
lymph node puncture,
sternal or iliac crest
Amastigote form in a stained smear
Promastigote in culture in NNN medium
Amastigotes of L. donovani.
PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Reduction of sand
by killing all the infected dogs in the
cases of zoonotic kala-azar.
by insecticides mainly
DDT, dieldrin, malathion
Education in the
exposure to sand fly
About the causes and modes of
transmission of leishmaniasis.
using insect repellent, bed nets and window
mess as needed.
There are No
Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis.
Inhibits glycolytic enzymes and fatty acid
Binds with ergosterol leading to the altered
permeability to cations, water, glucose and affect
Inhibits DHFR and interferes with aerobic glycolysis
in protozoa, also inhibits protein synthesis
Effects cell-signaling pathways and synthesis of the
treatment of secondary
Blood transfusion in