Sumatran rhinos Emi and Harapan in the Cincinnati Zoo
An undated hand out photo made available by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in Ujung Kulong, shows a Javanese rhino. The rhino has been poached to extinction in Vietnam, wildlife groups said on 25 Oct 2011. (AFP Photo/WWF)
Students to go to this page and read the http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/categories-and-criteria/2001-categories-criteria#categories
Dinerstein, Eric (2003). The Return of the Unicorns; The Natural History and Conservation of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08450-1.
BBC – Science news – 25th October 2011
http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/international/rhino-poached-to-extinction-in-vietnam-wwf/473891“The tragedy of the Vietnamese Javan rhinoceros is a sad symbol of this extinction crisis,” said Nick Cox of WWF’s species program in the Greater Mekong.He said efforts to protect natural habitat and deter poaching “were inadequate to save the Javan rhino” in the country and predicted the “continued situation will no doubt lead to the extinction of many more species in Vietnam.”The rhinoceros was believed to be extinct on mainland Asia until 1988 when one of the animals was hunted from the Cat Tien area, leading to the discovery of a small population.Javan rhinos are critically endangered, with barely 50 individuals left in a single group in a small national park in Indonesia.WWF said Asia’s voracious demand for rhino horn for traditional medicine continues to increase every year, meaning “protection and expansion of the Indonesian population is the highest priority.”The group said other species on the verge of extinction in Vietnam include the tiger, Asian elephant and Siamese crocodile.Agence France-Presse
Jakarta Globe Sunday 31st October 2011
an Strien, Nico (2005). "Javan Rhinoceros". In Fulconis, R.. Save the rhinos: EAZA Rhino Campaign 2005/6. London: European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. pp. 75–79.
Indonesia’s Rhino’s Liam Hammer Department of Science Global Jaya International School
BB Question #1 – What levels of taxonomy are the Sumatran Rhino(Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) and Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus)?A. They are subspecies of the Rhinoceros speciesB. They are both cousins of each otherC. They are both members of the same genusD. They are probably both members of the same family*Remember the rules of binomial classification
Sumatran RhinocerosThe Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is a member of thefamily Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It is the only extant speciesof the genus Dicerorhinus. Like the African species, it has two horns; the larger is thenasal horn, typically 15–25 centimetres while the other horn is typically a stub. A coatof reddish-brown hair covers most of the Sumatran Rhinos body.Members of the species once inhabited rainforests, swamps and cloudforests in India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China. The species is much better studied than the similarly reclusive Javan Rhinoceros, in part because of a program that brought 40 Sumatran Rhinos into captivity with the goal of preserving the species. The program was considered a disaster even by its initiator; most of the rhinos died and no offspring were produced for nearly 20 years, representing an even worse population decline than in the wild.
Javan RhinocerosThe Javan rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is amember of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. Itbelongs to the same genus as the Indian rhinoceros, and has similar mosaic skinwhich resembles armor, but at 3.1–3.2 m in length and 1.4–1.7 m in height, it issmaller. Its horn is usually less than 25 cm (10 inches), smaller than those of theother rhino species. It historically inhabited lowland rain forest, wet grasslands and large floodplains. The Javan rhino is mostly solitary, except for courtship and child- rearing, though groups may occasionally congregate near wallows and salt licks. Aside from humans, adults have no predators in their range.
The International Union forConservation of Nature (IUCN) Red Listhttp://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/categories-and-criteria/2001-categories-criteria#categories
IV. THE CATEGORIESEXTINCT (EX)A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/orexpected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over atime frame appropriate to the taxons life cycle and life form.EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW)A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the pastrange. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times(diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual.CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered (see SectionV), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.ENDANGERED (EN)A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered (see Section V), and it is thereforeconsidered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.VULNERABLE (VU)A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable (see Section V), and it is thereforeconsidered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.NEAR THREATENED (NT)A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, butis close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.LEAST CONCERN (LC)A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.DATA DEFICIENT (DD)A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distributionand/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution arelacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges thepossibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate.NOT EVALUATED (NE)A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.
Criteria for Threatened SpeciesPopulation trait Vulnerable Endangered Critical 20% in 10 yrs 50% in 10 yrs 80% in 10 yrsObserved decline or 3 generations or 3 generations or 3 generations Geographical < 20 000 km2 < 5000 km2 < 100 km2 range < 10 locations < 5 locations single locationTotal population N < 10 000 N < 2500 N < 250 N = population size Ns < 1000 Ns < 50 Ns = subpopulation sizes Ns < 250 Projected > 20% in 10 yrs > 20% in 5 yrs > 25% in 3 yrs decline or 3 generations or 2 generations or 1 generation Probability > 20% in 20 yrs > 50% in 10 yrs > 10% in 100 yrs of extinction or 5 generations or 3 generations
BB question #2 -Study the categories of endangered animals and then decided which levels the Sumatran Rhino and Javan Rhino belong.A. Both are critically endangeredB. The Sumatran Rhino is endangered and the Javan Rhino is critically endangeredC. Both are endangeredD. Javan Rhino is extinct from the wild and the Sumatran Rhino is critically endangeredE. Other options
• The Javan Rhino species is critically endangered, with only one known population in the wild, and no individuals in captivity.
Answer BB question #2 = Aboth are critically endangered, in fact, the Javan Rhino is possibly the most endangered mammal on earth.
Rhino Poached to Extinction in Vietnam: WWF October 25, 2011A critically endangered species of rhino has been poached toextinction in Vietnam, wildlife groups said on Tuesday after thecountry’s last Javan rhino was found dead with its horn hacked off.The Javan rhinoceros was pronounced extinct in Vietnam by WWF and the InternationalRhino Foundation (IRF) after all dung samples in a 2009 and 2010 survey at Cat Tien NationalPark — the only known habitat — were confirmed to have been from the animal.“The last Javan rhino in Vietnam has gone,” said Tran Thi Minh Hien, WWF Vietnam countrydirector. “Vietnam has lost part of its natural heritage.”In a new report, WWF suggests poaching was the likely cause of death for the rhino, whichwas found in April 2010 with a bullet in its leg and its horn removed in the national park insouthern Vietnam, around 160 kilometers from Ho Chi Minh City.The group said “ineffective protection by the park was ultimately the cause of the extinction”and warned that illegal hunting to supply the wildlife trade threatened the futures of otherrare animals in the country. http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/international/rhino-poached-to-extinction-in-vietnam-wwf/473891
BB #3 – Is this article bad news for the Javan Rhino? A. Yes B. No C. Depends The Ecology of Java and Bali 1996 tells us that this is not a problem because the males roam much more than the females in order to make and protect their terroritory, so that only the males are caught on camera.
BB #4 – how do we study these animals?A. Capture, Mark, Release and RecaptureB. Visual Surveys & TransectsC. Camera traps and fecal samplesD. Ex situ – study these animals in zoos and wildlife parks.
• Scientists and conservationists rarely study the animals directly due to their extreme rarity and the danger of interfering with such an endangered species. Researchers rely on camera traps and fecal samples to gauge health and behavior.
In captivity• A Javan rhinoceros has not been exhibited in zoos in a century. In the 19th century, at least four rhinos were exhibited in Adelaide, Calcutta and London. A total of at least 22 Javan rhinos have been documented as having been kept in captivity, and it is possible that the number is greater as the species was sometimes confused with the Indian rhinoceros.• The Javan rhinoceros never fared well in captivity. The oldest lived to be 20, about half the age the rhinos will reach in the wild. The last captive Javan rhino died at the Adelaide Zoo in Australia in 1907 where the species was so little known that it had been exhibited as an Indian rhinoceros
A painting from 1861 depicts the hunting of R. s. sondaicus
Good news – sort ofTwo adult rhinos with theircalves were filmed in amotion-triggered videoreleased on February28, 2011 by WWF andIndonesias National ParkAuthority, which proved thatit is still breeding in the wild.https://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=3MhB4coUrYAhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=fvwp&NR=1&v=QTELuPmncGM 2009
Where to now ?• Is it worth the money ?• Are there better things to spend our money on ?• Save Ujung Kulon, save the Rhino ?