Final Multicultural Awareness Portfolio


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Final Multicultural Awareness Portfolio

  1. 1. 35610804082415571500014693905836920167830574295-550545192405-3429000269176519240527362153412-14310200<br />367855521590323850179705Purpose of my PortfolioAt the age of 24, I have been in both familiar and unfamiliar territories when it comes to advising. For my portfolio, I made this a learning experience where I took what I knew, discovered, interviewed, and researched what others knew, and combine the information into my entire multicultural awareness portfolio.00Purpose of my PortfolioAt the age of 24, I have been in both familiar and unfamiliar territories when it comes to advising. For my portfolio, I made this a learning experience where I took what I knew, discovered, interviewed, and researched what others knew, and combine the information into my entire multicultural awareness portfolio.<br />-2286001746253175292100<br />5054600673105290820221615<br />Table of Contents<br />Title Page and personal purpose statement of project ………………………….............. 1<br />Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………………..2<br />Statement of Objectives, and Appendix ..…………………………………………………..…..3<br />Personal thoughts about my Multicultural Awareness<br />Favorite responses of Multicultural Definition<br />Ultimate Operational Definition of Multicultural Academic Advising………3-6<br />Special Populations:<br />Thoughts on topic<br />Olivia (Academic Probation) and Xavier (Undecided Student) Story Activity<br />Implications of two of many special populations<br /> Academic Advisors encounter………………………………………………………….7-11<br />After conversation with old advisor, Brenna Vogel (Marquette University Arts and Science general Advisor…<br />my concluding personal opinions how Multicultural principles can be applied to advising service delivery………………………………………..……12-13<br />Reflections on Interview with Mamadou Cellou Diallo, international student from Guinea, Africa<br />Demonstrates how Multicultural Advising is implemented into curriculum/academic setting………………………………………………………14-15<br />Definition of Retention<br />Annotated Bibliography of articles based on topic of student retention <br />Summary of Articles and Multicultural Academic Advising <br />Implications....................................................................................................................15-17<br />Case study of Patrick Coffey (college bound since young) and Travis Bennett <br />(unable to go to college)<br />Definition of White Privilege<br />Summary of case scenario and Free Association of reflection on activity<br />Demonstration of how privilege shapes both life experiences and path towards <br />decision of college enrollment………………………………………………………...18-20<br />Marquette University break down of their Institutional Climate<br />Define Institutional Climate<br />Statistics of Marquette (Awareness) and Influences of Institutional Climate<br />Programs Overall and mood of climate…………..………..……………..…….…20-21<br /><ul><li>Multicultural Advising Portfolio Self-Assessment Checklist…….…………………22</li></ul>Statement of Objectives<br />Demonstrate my increased cultural awareness throughout the progression of the Multicultural Aspects of Academic Advising class<br />Create a clear image of what Multicultural Advising means to me<br />Demonstrate the heightened importance that college facilitators should be fully aware and accepting of the various multicultural issues surrounding their students and use every aspect of this cultural identity while advising an individual in order to allow this student to reach his or her optimal potential <br />Appendix<br /><ul><li>Patrick Coffey Transcribed Interview (White Privilege) SECONDARY ATTACHMENTS.pptx
  2. 2. Mamadou Cellou Diallo Powerpoint interview (multicultural advising implemented into curriculum)
  3. 3. Travis Bennett Video Taped Interview (White Privilege) Mr. Bennett's Interview.pptx</li></ul>My Multicultural Self Awareness<br /> After talking to Brenna Vogel about multicultural advising, I really was able to finally talk out how I felt about institutional practices, the positive/negative aspects of each topic we learned in class, and how we each would go about practicing advising, her already an advisor herself etc. It was only then that I felt ready to approach the topic of my multicultural self-awareness. I was definitely ready with ideas before, but brainstorming and learning from such an important influence in my life, my undergrad academic advisor who has followed and supported my graduate school journey, I finally knew I was ready to make my final leap and express my awareness!<br />There are three things that I surmised in my mind that are important in my self-awareness journey. As an advisor, I believe you need to understand yourself before you can advise, see the advisees as people, and put yourself in their shoes. As I did interviews, literature reviews, and overall research I learned this entire portfolio was part of a critical learning experience. Unlike other students in this program, I did not have direct advising service experience, especially multiculturally related; what I did have was my abundant undergraduate experiences/other general life experiences that contributed to my overall sense of being.<br />I truly believe that to understand anything, or at this juncture, the concept of my own multicultural self-awareness, you need to first understand yourself. I truly believe that you cannot love, teach, help, understand, or even advise someone else until you (insert verb) yourself. Therefore, as an advisor, one must understand their personal relationship with multiculturalism and the existence of special populations in order to find where they fit on the multicultural spectrum. Then, they can become aware and able to positively contribute to multicultural advising as a whole. <br />18472152955925As people, we ALL can fit into a “special category,” just like those studied in class in the multicultural groups. When you break it down, we are ALL different, having ALL different circumstances, therefore really making us ALL the same.” –Melanie Lachecki4000020000As people, we ALL can fit into a “special category,” just like those studied in class in the multicultural groups. When you break it down, we are ALL different, having ALL different circumstances, therefore really making us ALL the same.” –Melanie LacheckiAlso, one must see the advisee as a person instead of the labeled multicultural “different” student sitting in the advisee chair. When I first sat down to interview my undergraduate advisor, Brenna Kean, I knew it was going to be more of a free association structure of us comparing and contrasting ideas. While we both worked together, it seemed it was a collaborative effort on sorting out the views on multicultural advising rather than me playing the role of the interviewer and she the interviewee. Instead, we were both people working on a common goal. This brings me to my point concerning multicultural advising awareness. We are all people. Each and every person involved in the advising process, or any communication process, cannot be helped until the “helper” sees the “helpee” as a basic person first. As Brenna explained the main message she learned as a master’s student of education at Notre Dame, we both concluded and agreed with her quote “Kids are Kids.” This message demonstrates that all students have the come commonality of being people, and to be a good advisor, one must realize that assumptions about your advisee will only hinder your helping process. It is here where one gets to know that individual personally where the true advising magic begins. By servicing the person first, whether black, white, gay or straight etc., topics of multicultural advising will subsequently be addressed without even trying because they will naturally come out. Therefore, no one is labeled and the lines of communication are opened for conversation built on respect, openness, and acceptance. As Brenna was my advisor, I was her advisee. Now as she is being interviewed, I am the on interviewing her. As stated in the beginning, however, all labels were dropped; we were just communicating. We became equal with a common goal to help each other and let our progress naturally flow. Consequently, and most importantly, there was a definite increase in our multicultural awareness. <br />Finally, to become multiculturally aware in an advising setting, you need to walk in the shoes of an advisee. I am going to talk about my story about fitting into the label of a “special population” advisee. This story will be brief, more so because I do not like talking about it. Yet, this is exactly the reason it is so important to do. How do you think people in the “multicultural realm” or population feel? By putting myself in the shoes of these individuals, as I am actually one of them, I truly know and feel their difficulties. This knowledge allows me to help as a future advisor due to my multicultural awareness. Here is my story…<br />Story<br />All my life, I have had this certain medical condition. I don’t usually like to talk about it, yet it always comes up. I walk around with it as close to my heart, as confidential as I can make it. I have been judged, stereotyped, and everything in between; I feel I am a special population that was academically advised at Marquette University. After two drop out sessions due to this condition, I truly was down in the dumps. Most people would say buck it up, and just keep chugging, but the situation was more than that. It was such a challenge, and what I really needed at that time was support. My grades and academic success has always been good, but when something like an illness takes that out of your control, no amount of A’s can help you succeed when a requirement was to be present in class. After my first official hospital stay while being in college, I was told I could have incompletes. Slowly, everything was taken away from me. Certain advising staff did not help me at all, and I saw my life crumbling before my eyes. However, for some reason my family for the first time in my life came to my aid. Also, I grew very fond of my general advisor, Brenna Kean (Vogel now, as she is married.) If it weren’t for the support of these people, I do not think I would be here today. Here in existence, here in graduate school, or here striving to succeed. Truly, if I did not have an academic advisor to help me and take my hand and believe in me, I do not know where I would be today. I am still struggling with everything, yet it truly gives me hope. Also, when I walked into the room to meet Brenna for the first time, I thought one thing, and that was “this girl is JUST LIKE ME.” To have such a role model, and then in addition she helped with my problem, I truly felt that I was understood even though a lot of Marquette gave me the cold shoulder. Of course I will never hate Marquette because I can look at the positive experiences I received, and just as we are learning the importance of dealing with populations in multicultural advising, I felt I was discovered and pushed to succeed because this topic was just that, important. I felt important, and I would like to contribute the importance on by working in advising and passing the love/aid along.<br />Multicultural Advising Definition<br />My Operational Definition of Multicultural Advising<br />Multicultural Advising is defined as the process by which an advisor enters into a helping relationship with his or her advisee with knowledge, cultural awareness, and mindfulness of said advisee’s multifaceted identity, both at an individual and cultural level, not dissecting the two as separate entities. This allows the relationship to foster and benefit from the understanding of both as cultural beings with similarities and differences, all of which allow the advisor to guide the student in their educational endeavors. Multicultural Advising is analyzed through both advisor and advisee rating of overall experience based on these three areas.<br />listening empathically<br />listening empathically is to assume difference between oneself and the other <br />focusing on meaning<br />Advisor understood what the student meant to communicate<br />Advisor communicated what was meant for the student to understand <br />ongoing exploration of personal competence<br />Verification that helping relationship is ongoing process and should be consistently monitored <br />Showing how to use system: Advising<br />Special Populations<br />531812521653500My quote from a previous discussion posting…<br />“While reading about probationary students, one might think, well of course, a person is bad in school, [probably] drinks too much, doesn't focus, and does not have any goals. Of course this is the extreme case, but I use it to prove a point. There are SO MANY types of students that can end up on probation, including the underprepared students, overextended students, students with nonacademic issues, first year, first generation, and transfer students, student scholars, and students making judgment mistakes. What I would like to pose to the class is, who if anyone could NOT fall into one of these categories? I believe we all could fit into one, and therefore, I believe this demonstrates an overarching theme. As an academic advisor, one needs to look at the details of the student. Whether a student is an international genius, white volleyball player, shy freckled kid (secretly has it all together,) or a talkative first year that tells the advisor she has everything under control (her mother just died last year.) As advisors, I think we also need to be counselors and be ready for anything. […] We need to find out about our students. In closing, one needs to KNOW their students because any student has the ability to fall behind, and with your help, they all also have the ability to succeed.”<br />7956557239000<br />Olivia’s Story<br />Why People Live Olivia end up on Academic ProbationConsequences of those on Academic ProbationUnderpreparedOverextendedStudent with nonacademic issuesFirst year, first generation, transfer studentStudent scholarStudent making judgment mistakeRepeat classesPay more money to continueWill not graduate on timeLow self-esteem, afraid to tell parentsTempted to drop outLose motivationDo not know where to go now ???<br />Olivia Mercer was an excellent student; she always had been. She was excellent with time management, focusing on studies while not getting distracted, and organizing her planner. Everything was color coded and her life seemed very intact. At the age of nineteen, this young, African American student found out that her mother was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Life as she had known it was about to change. She was not one to get help, and her family had always said that if anyone could do it, she could. Therefore, she kept plugging along, now the oldest of her siblings and the sole provider for her family because her mom was at home sick on disability. Many weeks, Olivia was working greater than fulltime hours, and her job was twenty minutes away from the Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. She had already been accustomed to her 18 credit semesters, and her mom was diagnosed in the middle of her sophomore fall semester. Soon, she came bogged down with having to move home, take care of her mother and two siblings, rush to work, and handle her 18 credits in pre-med. Before she knew it, she received a letter stating that she was close to academic probation. She pushed on, dedicated to all her priorities. The next semester, she sadly ended up on academic probation. She was then asked to a mandatory meeting with her academic advisor. <br />Meeting with Advisor<br />863606216015What Olivia AccomplishedShe was not alone, and it is ok to ask for help! Overwhelmed students, no matter how smart they are, can sometimes need the help. The situations in her life were out of her control, and Michelle, her academic advisor, was here to help!00What Olivia AccomplishedShe was not alone, and it is ok to ask for help! Overwhelmed students, no matter how smart they are, can sometimes need the help. The situations in her life were out of her control, and Michelle, her academic advisor, was here to help!150558514909800The first thing Olivia’s Academic Advisor, Michelle, wants her to know is that she is not alone in this struggle. She should not be ashamed nor discouraged about college because it is clear she is extremely bright. If anything, she should be applauded for taking on such a mature role in her family as the sole provider. That is a lot of responsibility and definitely a far greater achievement than most 19 year olds. Seeing that Olivia is wearing a cross necklace on her chest, she asks her if she believes in God. With the answer of “very much so,” Olivia is told that sometimes God gives the toughest challenges to those who are the strongest. She must be a quite a strong woman. Michelle next tells Olivia that she wants to take an active interest in helping her move out of academic probation. She speaks of the fact that in her circumstance, she may want to reduce her credit limit. It is even ok to withdrawal from a class or two at this difficult time. Michelle talks to Olivia about making a list of priorities. They do it right in the office and work on something she can either change or adjust in her life. After knowing she can reduce her credits, Michelle also lets Olivia know about some of the campus jobs, which would allow her the flexibility of doing school and working at the same location. Also, work study would be applicable in her case. Michelle ends by giving Olivia a hug and saying that she wants to see her every Tuesday. They decide that noon is a very good time, one of the only times Olivia has on her schedule. They are to eat lunch together and work on supporting Olivia in her tough time. Michelle also lets Olivia know about a free psychological service center (run by the psychology department) that has free counseling services. Olivia says thank you so much and realizes that having someone support her, and knowing it is ok to have this support, may be just what she needs. Michelle hugs her again and says she cannot wait to see her again next Tuesday. “We will work through this together,” Michelle says, and for the first time ever, Olivia believes it. <br />Xavier’s Story<br />“Why is there always so much pressure to make up my mind about my whole life,” Xavier yells into the courtyard as he exits the Arts and Sciences building after having a meeting with the department about finalizing his major. He is only 18, just a starting freshman, and he has no idea WHY he needs to know so soon. Such pressure, and the only reason he feels like he hasn’t decided in the first place is because his parents want him to go into dentistry like his father. If they could just leave him alone for a second, he could actually think about what he wanted to do, and this would be a lot easier. Xavier looks around the courtyard and all the happy students playing Frisbee and football. “Why are they all happy? Oh that is right, because they have things figured out!” Xavier just does not know what to do with himself, and he feels like he has no where to go. He has an advisor, but he only met with him once. His name was Matthew, he thinks… Xavier asks himself why he is even thinking about his academic advisor. He is only there to help with scheduling classes, and worst of all, his academic advisor is back in that horrid building he just exited all anxiously. Xavier goes back to his dorm, turns on the TV to drown out his problems, and starts to check Facebook and his email. Low and behold he has gotten an email from his advisor. Terrified to open it, he finally does. It actually isn’t half bad. His advisor wants to meet to, did he read that right? him! “Well,” Xavier says to himself, “I’ll take anything at the point I am now. I’m desperate.” He mentally prepared himself for the meeting, scheduled the next day. Here goes nothing!<br />Why people like Xavier are undecided or consequently end up in Wrong MajorFear the unknown, lack of interest, unknowledgeable about aid he or she can receive, pushed to pick major, picks major with quickest path to graduation, picks a major to avoid certain classwork (ex. English major so no math classes)If getting ready to transfer (going to community college first,) brief time to discover limits the student exploration because needs to know collaborating transfer classes right awayWith specific programs (ex. Pre-med/pre-dental,) although not needing to declare, already have to follow required curriculum, which stunts explorationTime limits (usual by sophomore) in which you have to decide, sometimes right away to be admitted to school, and sometimes able to declare major as “undecided”Negative connotation of “undecided major” as it is somewhat a bad thing to not know right away<br />Meeting with Advisor<br />“So do you like football,” Matthew asks Xavier as he walks into the door. “What??” Xavier responds. Matthew re-asks his question. Football. Do you like it?” Xavier finally catches on and starts to explain how he loves it. He is originally from Illinois and loves the Chicago Bears. Matthew laughs about how he is lucky he is not a packer fan, so liking the Bears is ok in his book. He then moves into the topic at hand, about how he bets Xavier is having one hell of a time finding a major. “There are so many in this place!” his advisor exclaims. “Would be hard for me.” Xavier, a little apprehensive to open up to this strange guy, but intrigued that he actually said hell, starts to explain his dilemma. At the end, Xavier tells his advisor that he is basically lost. “Have you ever taken tests to see what you like to do, or what you would be good at?” Matthew asks. He starts to tell him how one time he took a test and it said he would be a great coroner. They both laugh, and Xavier feels a bit more at ease. Matthew turns to the computer and pulls up some psychological tests. They actually do them together so Xavier does not think there is something wrong with him. Usually hearing the word “psychology” makes him nervous like he did something wrong. His parents always gave him this idea, yet he never understood it because helping people is amazing, and who doesn’t like taking fun tests! After taking the tests, they both start laughing because his results gear him towards…you guessed it, the psychology field. “I knew it,” Xavier said. Matthew asks him what is holding him back. Xavier explains about the expectations of his parents and how he 2065655152844500never really thought he had a choice in his career path. With all this pressure from the school, however, he still could not fill out the form stating that he wanted to go pre-dentistry. Matthew immediately sympathizes with Xavier and tells him how many students have this problem. He asks him what he really wants to do with the rest of his life. Xavier tells him straight out, “I really want to do psychology.” His advisor looks at him and says “tell you what I am going to do. I am going to make a special request to your favorite friends on the floor above, those pestering you about picking a major, and I want you to take the next two weeks to really think about what you want to do with your life. AND, better yet, whatever you choose, you can come back and see me 10 times and change it. I do not care. All I want you to know is that I know you have to confidence to do what you want to do. It is just hiding behind that insane obsession you have with the Chicago Bears.” Xavier laughs for what he feels like is the 100th time, and he goes, “Ok, Matthew, you have a deal!” <br />259715417830What Xavier AccomplishedMatthew, his academic advisor, empathized on how hard it is to pick a major that is going to serve for the rest of his life. With parental pressure, school pressure, and personal confusion on what he wants to do, it is clear he may need some guidance that focuses on what he wants to do and the positives of picking a major. Career assessments and personality inventories, therefore making learning about himself and what he wants to do, are definitely in order! 0What Xavier AccomplishedMatthew, his academic advisor, empathized on how hard it is to pick a major that is going to serve for the rest of his life. With parental pressure, school pressure, and personal confusion on what he wants to do, it is clear he may need some guidance that focuses on what he wants to do and the positives of picking a major. Career assessments and personality inventories, therefore making learning about himself and what he wants to do, are definitely in order! <br />Multicultural Principles applied to Service Delivery:<br />Marquette University as special case study school<br />037508GO… GO…00GO… GO…<br />5273566853353GO MARQUETTE!GO GO GO!00GO MARQUETTE!GO GO GO!<br />5118103001010All colleges are different, yet for the Arts and Science Department, a department I am the most familiar with at Marquette University, multicultural delivery is up to the discretion/responsibility of the individual advisor, although initially instilled by the advisor administration to be aware of and treat the advisee as a whole person.00All colleges are different, yet for the Arts and Science Department, a department I am the most familiar with at Marquette University, multicultural delivery is up to the discretion/responsibility of the individual advisor, although initially instilled by the advisor administration to be aware of and treat the advisee as a whole person.<br />Important strategies to use that are directed at the<br />multicultural population<br /><ul><li>Caring and counseling
  4. 4. (counseling = advising) To be an advisor, you need to care about the whole person and therefore be a counseling aid for the student in order to meet their individual needs
  5. 5. Accountability
  6. 6. Student knows somebody is concerned with the welfare of him/her, not only as a student, but as a person
  7. 7. Organizational structure
  8. 8. Structure that can guide the student step by step, helping with their original goal of autonomy to do these things themselves, yet knowing they had a strong basis of structure to start with
  9. 9. Repetition
  10. 10. One must say the same topic in different versions and often, allowing each individual type of student to understand the message/important information in his or her own desired manner, as there are numerous learning styles and personality characteristics that enter an office
  11. 11. Do not make assumptions
  12. 12. Many students can hide what they are feeling or give off what they do not mean to give off. You need to learn the entire person and not make assumptions about who they are, what they desire, and how you feel they need to be helped. You need to learn the student, and then you can start your advising process.
  13. 13. Pegging a student can be very damaging
  14. 14. A student with money does not always have it all together
  15. 15. A first generation college students may be fine with his transition
  16. 16. A white student may be struggling to pay for college
  17. 17. A homosexual man may have gone through his coming out and acceptance stage earlier in high school, therefore not being so much of a crisis as a junior in college
  18. 18. Focus on progress made
  19. 19. State/structure your dialog under the plan of positive connotation instead of a negative light
  20. 20. Ex. You got 15 credits done this semester, and you successfully completed all of them! VS. You took the lowest amount of credits this semester. We need to get you up to par so that you can graduate on time.
  21. 21. Multicultural Advising implemented into
  22. 22. curriculum/academic setting
  23. 23. Due to Cellou being in Dallas, Texas, we used technology
  24. 24. (Messenger) to conduct our interview
  25. 25. Due to different ways in which people communicate via the internet, format and some grammar/spelling may have been altered for easier reading, yet most was kept original as to not taint the actual interview quality/authenticity</li></ul>My Thoughts<br />Overall, I definitely realized that different schools have different ways of advising their multicultural students. At my university, I was aware of a multicultural room where students could hang out and meet. This particular program Cellou talks about it absolutely amazing. Not only is in proactive, as students are involved in it before they even start college as freshman, but it is interactive and allows the students and advisors to bond, enjoy supporting relationships, and it is definitely a source of information for the international students. With the trust built right away, students are in no way afraid to seek help and feel that the school (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee) is behind them 100%. As Cellou stated, they really wanted to help and cared a lot.<br />I tried to ask questions about how Cellou, and obviously hinting at all the students coming to this school, would find out about this program. I see many educational programs present, yet the effort for advertising and more importantly the effort to maintain the students (retention) seems to trickle off once the program is in place. Knowing his great relationship with his sister, I know she took an active role in communicating with the school about her brother well before her brother, Cellou, even made his was to America. Therefore, I think this scenario definitely highlights the importance that schools need to make these programs accessible and known about. If Cellou was on his own and came to the school, I wonder if he would have still entered the program. With his initial shy attitude, he may not have sought out help to find out if their were aiding programs, and therefore, institutions have to think about this aspect when trying to help multicultural students.<br />I really want to highlight on the fact that the advisors in the English as Second Language program did not only introduce themselves and have active meetings with these students, yet they actually had a very structured way of running the program. There was a special time limit, every other Friday, and they did not only facilitate the outings, yet they went along. Soon, as Cellou mentioned, each student started to feel more comfortable with one advisor and went to them more consistently. I this all advisors were helpful due to the fact that they wanted to help. It wasn’t just a job, yet a choice. Also, with many advisors to choose from, each student could connect to the one that was bonding material in his or her eyes, and I really like this feature of the program because it highlights on the fact that the students are individuals. Therefore, by having variety of people to go to for help, it was easier for these international students to assimilate into the college atmosphere. They did not feel like outsiders, and they had someone that met their individual personality, educational, and personal needs.<br />Cellou was also paired up with an English speaking individual. They wanted to know either African or French, both in which Cellou has told me he speaks fluently, and Cellou could therefore learn English. I think this is a wonderful use of “killing two birds with one stone,” and also it allows one not only to learn from a classroom yet actually interact with the learning. As one of my articles states in my Learning Principles class for the K-State master’s program, research has demonstrated that the institution needs to reconsider the ways people learn. Much of our learning is in fact out of the classroom. Consequently, Cellou was allowed to actually interact while learning the language and work on personal relationships within the university as well. I think this approach helped to make Cellou a well-rounded person, and he definitely was shown that the university cares about him , his learning, and his future success at the university. <br />The previous explanations all pool into the topic of<br />RETENTION<br />as efforts and abilities of Academic Advising, Administration, the Institution, and <br />Programs influence retention of the students!<br />Definition of Retention<br />“There are two extremes of student retention. Normal progression, typical of a stayer, or retained student, occurs when a student enrolls each semester until graduation, studies full-time, and graduates in about four years. A dropout, or leaver, is a student who enters college but leaves before graduating and never returns to that or any other school. Between these two extremes are transfers, students who begin studies at one institution and then transfer to another. From the student's perspective, transferring is normal progress. From the perspective of the institution where the student first enrolled, the student has dropped out.”<br />Predictors of First-Year Student Retention in the Community College <br />Summary: This study first emphasized its population, community college members, and the reasons in which they were different than 4 year universities. The different factors included they were usually older, minority student, and part time, this being compared to 4 year universities. The students were involved in a quantitative, retrospective study with the independent variables ranging from age, programs involved in, receipt of financial aid, etc., and the dependent variable being the rate of student retention. The participants were predominately female (56%) and White (66%); they had a median number of 12 semester hours, which would be part time. The findings are as follows: Retention rates for one semester, fall-to-spring varied from as low as 65.7% to 70.7%. They were consistent at a 45.8% drop-out-rate for an entire year, from fall-to-fall. The positive correlations with high retention were successful completion of developmental reading and math courses, receiving financial aid, taking an internet course, semesters enrolled in the first semester, and participation in student support services. Negative correlations include students age and semester hours dropped during the first semester. Student ethnicity and education level of parents were not associated with retention. <br />Relevance: I think the most relevant things in this article in reference to what academic advisors can do about this situation are as follows: I believe it is very important that academic advisors learn to function with technology and are able to correspond and help students over the internet as well as in the classroom. Such support will actively keep the student involved and also demonstrate that the student cares for a student, usually only part-time and one who has various other obligations or responsibilities, judging that they are choosing a 2 year institution. Also, it is quite noticeable that programs help students stay involved and work on their academics. I find that this article helped demonstrate the need for staff involvement in the students. Clearly a rate of almost 50% dropout is detrimental to the success of the institution and more importantly the success of the individual. Therefore, one must become more involved in the lives of these individuals and not let the positive open-door enrollment policies for community colleges turn negative by also letting the individuals walk out.<br />Future implications: I think this article stressed the differences between community colleges and 4 year institutions. I would like to see a follow-up study where they actually include both types of institutions in a study. It is understood that these populations are VERY different, yet with increased efforts to retain the community college students, it is definitely a goal to push them to continue on with their bachelors, and therefore a study of the collaboration of the two types of institutions is definitely in order. <br />Settling into Campus Life: Differences by Race/Ethnicity in <br />College Involvement and Outcomes <br />Summary: This article does a student test and more affirm Bean’s theory of retention that college persistence (retention) is relation to the interaction between attitudes and behaviors. He states that students come to college with certain attitudes that will therefore be affirmed or disproved through campus experience; some may therefore be reformed. These beliefs have a high relationship to whether a student will stay at the particular college. Consistent affirmations are correlated with staying at the college. Tinto is also mentioned with his belief that students have to integrate into the college environment and interactions with the community of the campus and crucial in the student retention process. Two findings stuck out to me, one already mention by Bean, and one found in the study relating to Black and Hispanic minority students. The first has been briefly mentioned above, yet stated more clearly, those who become more involved in campus life have better outcomes, such as school success and eventual graduation (retention.) As for the minority students, an interesting concept emerges. These minority students tend to have lower grades and are more likely to leave college. It stated that negative stereotypes about actual abilities result in academic underperformance. The constant fear and pressure of these stereotypes has a student become unattached to the school , and he or she does not feel a part of their education environment and also therefore does not own their responsibility or desire to succeed in this environment.<br />Relevance: I believe that academic advisors can learn two things from this article. First, due to the fact that it is so important that students become assimilated into the college environment and also structure their views towards a positive outlook on what they are getting out of the education, I believe academic advisors need to pick up on this and become an active part of this development process. They cannot just “be there,” yet must actively make themselves available for the students in order to show and help them have a positive experience. It is crucial because the student’s retention in the school is on the line. Also, speaking about the minority students, I think it is very important that advisors become culturally aware of white privilege and the stereotypes that can influence a minority student to become distant from the school environment. If they lose the desire to succeed because they do not feel like they belong or are backed up, it may be impossible to keep a student in the school and help them graduate.<br />Future implications: I believe future studies should definitely focus on not only why students are dropping out, yet what one can do about it. Although I remarked on two articles, I have browsed many in order to pick two of the best. In many of the articles, I either see them based on the students or the faculty. I think we need to start seeing studies combining the two because without this interaction, neither party can succeed.<br />Definition of White Privilege<br />“White privilege is defined as unearned benefits, which in our society are determined by light skin color and the white race. Without exploration of White identity development, societal messages of the dominant culture, or agents, are reinforced; this indicates that Whiteness need not be studied because it is the norm, the implication is that any race other than White is perceived as abnormal. This perspective of abnormal contributes to notions of racism. (Wolfe-Taylor 19).<br />Who was Privileged enough to go to college? <br />Free Association Journal Entry: Summary of thoughts after interviews and analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles<br />I first want to state that I think free association would be best for this sort of reflection because it will allow me to just think and express what I am feeling on a topic that if otherwise censured could skew what I truly learned/felt.<br />The first thing that jumped out at me was the obvious fact that Mr. Bennett did not truly believe in white privilege. I did the best I could to describe it to him, but his unknowing demeanor and answers after gave me even better insight to something we may not even think about.<br />First, could there be a reaction to privilege by any of the “other groups” as, how should I say, they believe it does not exist because its existence would show a weakness? This may be a stretch, but I could see myself doing something like that. If I already know I cannot do something, I need to right off the bat find a way I can and change the way I am thinking. Maybe a protective strategy? Knowing Mr. Bennett personally, I truly believe he does feel we all are on an equal playing field. However, he also shows signs of protecting his pride at times. Therefore, my reasons are merely speculative, but relevant just the same.<br />Also, I was amazed when he said that whites actually have it harder. Other cultures, he stated, can get aid, while white better have some connections. It seems to me amazing yet enlightening to hear from an individual one would stereotype to be against white privilege to state not only that we are on an equal playing field, but whites actually have it harder. My conclusions on this are that (also merely speculative) I was speaking to a man that did not have college on the top of his priorities, and not because of choice, but because of necessity. His mother is dying and he supports a family of 5. When you think about Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this boy needs to feed the family before he can go to college and reach “self-actualization.” I believe, however, that he is reaching it in his own way He found it through experience, sweat, blood, and tears, therefore concluding his life as, how he stated it, merely what it is. There are no regrets because there cannot be any regrets. This is his life, and he has no room to think of privilege and what he can’t have. He does what he can and has succeeded in his own eyes.<br />Speaking on the peer reviewed articles I read, I really think our educational system is having a battle between pride and success. If you really think about it, the more educated people we have in our country, the better it should run. However, I feel that various people are choosing to instead “hold their heads up high,” and the importance of hierarchy and privilege are unfortunately outweighing an overall plan to push our country forward. Another example of this would be the fact that our CEO’s if failing in a company are fired without room to succeed. Other countries believe in the philosophy of slow and steady wins the race, and also, it is now who should be allowed to be educated, but the philosophy that everyone has a right to be educated. I am not saying that America’s educational system is a complete disaster. How could it be when people all over the country flock to our schools to receive a better education. However, instead of having pride outweigh success in our educational systems, we should have success come from the pride that we do have this reputation of a great school system, and with this educational ability, the US should have no problem teaching the citizens to advance America. Why has this not happened? I believe it is privilege. We have too much pride and therefore can only afford luxury to those of high status. Soon, however, we are going to realize that being white, having money, and being perceived as normal will only get us so far.<br />I will conclude my thoughts on Mr. Coffey’s interview. First I will speak on how he described his growing up in terms of college and how I feel about that. I will tie this to how I agree with him that privilege is more based on economics in terms of college, this being my opinion. Second, I will address how I think overall undertone of privilege in our society has to do with being white.<br />As I listened to Mr. Coffey talk about how 100% of his high school went to college, I was astonished. As a white person myself, I could not help but compare his experiences with my own. I definitely did not grow up going to a private school. I did not even know what college was until we had to take our ACTs. I remember calling my aunt and asking her what a bachelor and master’s degree were. I definitely did not know there was a Ph.D. I was also told at this point by my parents that they did not know if I could even go to college. Without my grades and therefore a scholarship, I still do not know if I would have even been able to go. In the long run, for me, college all comes down to money. It is very hard for me to therefore decipher a lot of things about white privilege. I have been in the dark for so long about college that the only way I could distinguish what it means to be privileged (normal) was to do the interviews I did. Therefore I am very thankful because this whole time I thought I was the one getting tossed aside in our society. I truly see now that it is all based on perspective, and I am very thankful for the goal of this section of my portfolio, to become more aware of privilege and how it affects everyone's life. <br />All in all, however, I truly believe white people are privileged in society. My main example would be how I never have to really explain my actions. I will always be whoever I want to be. Due to the fact that I am a woman, I definitely have felt the effects of “isms.” I have been told countless times to go get a man because I was not able to do what he was able to do, especially in a work environment. I think, however, that this allows me to understand what I do in fact have because no matter what, I will always be a step ahead of other races. I do not need to explain myself as much, and I will always be the teacher, mother, student, or citizen. I never have to explain why I am white. <br />Institutional Climate (Marquette’s) Influence on Multicultural Advising<br />I chose to focus my attention on my undergraduate university, Marquette University, and look at how their institutional climate influences multicultural advising. <br />3715385-92075Definition of Institutional Climate“The psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values (personal and cultural values) of an institution.”Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, (2001) Strategic Management. Houghton Mifflin.00Definition of Institutional Climate“The psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values (personal and cultural values) of an institution.”Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, (2001) Strategic Management. Houghton Mifflin.<br /><ul><li>171450-34290000Let us first look at the statistical and basic structure of </li></ul>Marquette University to become aware of its institutional climate<br />563562536449022733040513027978101911353223895183515<br />51181003937076418971383125920517526046587108781421640013462033026351346202629535141605<br />171894514605221234020447039014406159534290003136903019666461362699385256540<br />Location and Quality of LifeRegistered Student OrganizationsAreas of StudyStudent servicesStudent BodyQuality of Life Rating: 76Fire Safety Rating: 71Green Rating: 96Environment:Metropolis (population 300,000 or more)Campus size: (number of acres): 93Academic GroupsChamber OrchestraDebating Club Fraternities Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual GroupsInternational Student GroupsLiterary MagazineMinority Student GroupsPolitical Discussion GroupsRadio Station Religious GroupsSinging Groups Social ServicesSororitiesStudent Union Theater ProgramUndergraduateCommunicationsArts and SciencesBusinessHealth SciencesNursingEngineeringEducationPost GraduateGraduateDentalLawDaycareHealthLesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Support GroupsDescription: Gay-Straight Alliance (student group), GLB Group through University MinistryMinority Support Groups: Description: The Multicultural Center, a part of the Office of Student Development in the Division of Student Affairs, was established in 1972 as a focal point for the interaction and activities of students of color.Total Enrollment: 8,081 students% Female: 52%% Male: 48%% Out of State: 57%American Indian or Alaskan Native: 0.37%Asian: 4.32%African-American: 4.83%Hispanic: 5.57%Caucasian: 79.85%Race/ Ethnicity Unknown: 0.54%International: 1.74%Full-Time: 95.2%Part-Time: 4.8%Number of Foreign Countries Represented:77<br />How Institutional Climate Influences Academic Advising<br />As advisors, we keep in mind the surrounding areas of our particular university and understand their impact on the students, therefore keeping in mind to not make assumptions about their feelings/behavior, treat them like a person part of the community, and let issues/concerns naturally come out<br /><ul><li>Knowing where to point a student
  26. 26. Programs that Marquette has set in place to help some multicultural students before (EOP), during (FFP), and for their future (McNair Scholarship Program) while attending Marquette
  27. 27. Source: Marquette University Registrar’s office explanation of programs at
  28. 28. PRE-COLLEGE- EOP
  29. 29. Federally funded program by TRIO; getting and teaching young students about college environment to get them on right track when young!
  30. 30. CURRENT: FFP- Freshman Frontier Program
  31. 31. getting those with the potential for Marquette up to the admission requirements before they enter school
  32. 32. FUTURE: McNair Scholarship program
  33. 33. preparing first generation students, minorities, etc. for future in graduate and research work
  34. 34. Future implications of our new provost, John Pauly, as he plans to improve and universalize the Advising Process.
  35. 35. According to Brenna Kean, the new provost walked around all of Marquette’s campus with the idea to revamp the structure of advising at MU
  36. 36. Wishes to improve and universalize the advising process to improve student services, satisfaction, and retention</li></ul>Multicultural Advising Portfolio Self-Assessment Checklist<br />Directions: This matrix is designed as a practical tool for students as they identify and evaluate their multicultural advising skills to<br /> include in their multicultural advising portfolio. Students are invited to rate themselves on each dimension. In each box, a student can list<br /> examples of multicultural advising performance in that area. If you have strong evidence in self-awareness for example, in the first box you <br />would list activities that demonstrate your strong evidence rating. What you list is entirely up to you. It could be attending community <br />events, doing reading, attending lectures, or volunteer activities. This rating scale is designed as a student-learning tool to guide a student’s <br />multicultural advising skill development.<br />355092030480May 5th, 201000May 5th, 201067627531115Melanie Rita Lachecki00Melanie Rita Lachecki<br />Name: ____________ ________________________________Date: _____________________________________________<br />Self -Rating of Multicultural advising Performance<br />Content Areas Strong evidence Some Evidenceminimal evidence Very little evidence No Evidence <br /> 5 4 3 2 1<br /><ul><li>Shows Multiculturaladvising Self-Awareness(Awareness)Thoughts after discussion with Brenna VogelMy StoryDefines multicultural advisingoperationally.(Awareness)Favorite responsesof other's definitionsExtensive Operational DefinitionAppliesmulticultural advising to academic settings& curriculum. Interview with Mamadou DialloReflections on InterviewApplies multicultural principles toadvising service deliveryAssessment of Artsand Science structure List of strategies to useUnderstands how privilege shapes multicultural advisingMr. Bennett and Mr. Coffey's Privilege activityReviewed ArticlesJournal on bothShows how multiculturaladvising influencesstudent retention Definition of retentionAnnotated BibliographyRecognizes howinstitutional climate influences multicultural advising.Analysis of Marquette UniversityPrograms and Overallmood of institution</li></ul>Copyright 2006 Doris Wright Carroll, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Kansas State University. Manhattan, KS. <br />Revised 11/16//08dwc<br />