Introduction to Islamic Art: Art History Survey I

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A fly-over survey of Islamic art and architecture, prior to the Reconquista.

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Introduction to Islamic Art: Art History Survey I

  1. 1. Humay and Humayun in a Garden (1430). From a lost Khamseh by Khwaju Kirmani. Art History: Islamic Art T, R, 12-1:20PM Professor Paige Prater
  2. 2. Prince Carried By an Angel (1380-1390). Lost manuscript from Baghdad.
  3. 3. The Five Pillars of Islam  First Pillar: (shahadah) There is only one God and Muhammad is his prophet.  Second Pillar: (salat) Prayer 5x daily, facing Mecca (east)  Third Pillar: (zakah) voluntary giving of alms (1/40th of one’s assets)  Fourth Pillar: (sawm) month of Ramadan, dawn-to-dusk fast  Fifth Pillar: (hajj) pilgrimage to Mecca (if physically/financially able to do so)  Simple garments  Circumambulating the Kaaba  Kissing the Black stone  Sacrifice (usually a sheep) in memory of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son at God’s command
  4. 4. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 CE
  5. 5. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 CE  First great monument of Islamic art  Third most holy site in Islam  Muhammad’s “Night Journey”  Shrine over rock completed by Umayyads in 691-692  Byzantine trained Syrian artisans  Oldest surviving written Qur’anic verses on interior frieze  Arcades and ambulatories (aisles) in concentric circles
  6. 6. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 CE  Interior & cutaway drawing
  7. 7. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 CE
  8. 8. ARCHES
  9. 9. MSHATTA Palace in Amman, Jordan, 743-744 (probably)  16’ high frieze across façade’s base  High-relief rosettes
  10. 10. MSHATTA Palace in Amman, Jordan, 743-744 (probably)  Palatial hunting lodge by Umayyad caliphs  Entertain/impress local chieftains  East and West sides unfinished  472 foot long sides  Towers/bastions on outer walls/gates  Large central court and mosque  Domed audience hall/private apartments
  11. 11. MOSQUE PLANS  Hypostyle (shown)  Four-iwan  Centrally-planned
  12. 12. Four-iwan Mosque plan
  13. 13. Centrally-planned mosque
  14. 14. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, 836-875 CE
  15. 15. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, 836-875 CE  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4l3NT1L_SqQ  Early form of mosque + new additions:  Hypostyle mosque  Repeated bays and aisles  Minaret –huge tower for calls to prayer  Qibla wall (closest to Mecca)  Central mihrab niche (holy space)  Maqsura (ruler’s enclosure in front of the mihrab)  Minbar (pulpit)
  16. 16. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, 836-875 CE interior
  17. 17. The Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain
  18. 18. The Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain, 965.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULptVmaMjYw  Rick Steves on Cordoba: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7YvNMDy_h3g  Visigothic Christian church site>Umayyad began to build in 785>3x expanded later (620x460’ today; 1/3 is the courtyard)
  19. 19. The Great Mosque at Cordoba – horseshoe arches
  20. 20. The Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain - mihrab
  21. 21. The Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain
  22. 22. Muqarnas Dome, Hall of the Abencerrajes, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 1354-1391 CE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iEse JViidy8
  23. 23. Bowl with Kufic Border, 9-10th Century, Samarkand, Uzbekistan.  Earthenware with slip, pigment, and lead glaze; 14 ½” diameter  Mimics Chinese Porcelain; Samarkand connected to Silk Road  “Knowledge: the beginning of it is bitter to taste, but the end is sweeter than honey”
  24. 24. Textile with Elephants and Camels or Shroud of Saint Josse, Khurasan or Central Asia, before 961  Dyed silk, fragment  “Glory and happiness to the Commander Abu Mansur Kukhtakin. May God prolong his prosperity.”
  25. 25. Page from the Qur’an (Surah II: 286 and title Surah III) in Kufic script, Syria, 9th Century.  Black ink pigments, and gold on vellum  8 1/8” x 11 1/8” .
  26. 26. Courtyard, Masjid-I Jami, Isfahan, Iran 11-18th century (14th century iwan vault, 17th century minarets)
  27. 27. Tile Mosaic Mihrab Madrasa Imami, Isfahan, Ir an, founded 1354.  Outer inscription Surah 9: duties/Five Pillars  Framing the pointed arch: sayings of the Prophet  Central panel in Kufic and cursive: “The mosque is the house of every pious person.”
  28. 28. Mamluk Glass Oil Lamp, Syria or Egypt, c. 1355  Glass, polychrome enamel, and gold, 12”  Inscription on flared neck Surah 24:35 “God is the light of the heavens and the earth His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp, the lamp in a glass, the glass as a glittering star.”
  29. 29. Carpet-making  Flat weave vs. pile/knotted  Warp: vertical strands; dyed, covers weft.  Weft: horizontal/cross-wise strands; usually undyed Kilim weaving pattern Symmetrical (Iran) and Asymmetrical knot (Turkey)
  30. 30. Medallion Rug, Variant Star Ushak Style  16th Century, wool  10’3”x7’6 ¼”
  31. 31. Mosque of Sultan Selim, Edirne, Turkey. 1568-1575  Ottoman Empire  Architect Sinan (1489-1588)  102’ dome (larger than Hagia Sophia!)

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