Art History Survey II: 15th &16th Century Art in Northern Europe/Iberian Peninsula

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A introduction to key artists, regions, religions, and history of the northern Renaissance and Iberian peninsula. Based off of Stokstad's Art History textbook, Volume II, 3rd edition.

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Art History Survey II: 15th &16th Century Art in Northern Europe/Iberian Peninsula

  1. 1. T, R, 12-1:20PM, Professor Paige Prater 15TH- 16TH CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE AND THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
  2. 2. MAP IT!
  3. 3. NORTHERN RENAISSANCE Humanism  Christianity (Protestant vs. Catholic: iconoclasm)  Observation/recording of nature  Civic life, prosperous economy  Revival of classical learning and literature  Rise of middle-class  More names of artists 
  4. 4. THE DUKES OF BURGUNDY  Most powerful rulers in northern Europe for most of the 15th century 1363-1404 Philip the Bold (acquires Flanders through marriage)  1404-1419 John the Fearless  1419-1467 Philip the Good; patron of Jan van Eyck  1467-1477 Charles the Bold  1477 Mary of Burgundy inherits Burgundy and marries Hapsburg heir Maximilian of Austria   Commercial centers: Ghent, Bruges, Tournai, and Brussels
  5. 5.  Melchior Broederlam, Champmol Altarpiece, 13931399. Oil on wood panel, Musée des Beaux-Arts,
  6. 6. SCULPTURE: CLAUS SLUTER Jean de Marville replaced by Claus for Philip the Bold’s Chartreuse de Champmol (Carthusian monastery)  Well of Moses, detail of Moses and David, 1395-1406 
  7. 7. MANUSCRIPT ILLUMINATION Jean, Duke de Berry, older brother of Duke of Burgundy; avid art collector!  The Limbourg (Paul, Herman, and John) Brothers, January, the Duke of Berry at Table. Très Riches Heures, 141116. Colors and ink on parchment. Musée Condé, Chantilly, France.
  8. 8. FIBER ARTS http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=26WASJHF46 A&list=PLAAEFE618A27 E29D2&index=37  Unicorn is Found at the Fountain from the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestry series, c. 1495-1505. Wool, silk, and silver-and giltwrapped thread (13-21 warp threads per inch). 12’1” x 12’5”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  9. 9. FLEMISH PAINTING SmartHistory, Khan Academy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WdDzs70Txjs&list=PLAAEFE6 18A27E29D2&index=23  Robert Campin, Mérode Altarpiece (triptych of the Annunciation) (open), c. 1425-28. Oil on wood panel. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  10. 10. DETAIL OF RIGHT WING OF TRIPTYCH -Oil vs. tempera -Ordinary to religious -light!  Robert Campin, A Flemish City, 1425-28. Oil on wood panel. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  11. 11. JAN VAN EYCK (AND HUBERT) Ghent Altarpiece: CLOSED – SmartHistory, Art History at Khan Academy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBfMweJPBrQ&list=PLAAEFE618A27E29D 2&index=25 OPEN – SmartHistory, Khan Academy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwJKfhLMhEk&list=PLAAEFE618A27E29D 2&index=24  Ghent Altarpiece (open), Adoration of the Mystic Lamb. Completed 1432. Oil on panel. Cathedral of Saint Bavo, Ghent.
  12. 12. JAN VAN EYCK “As I Can”  Man in a Red Turban, 1433. Oil on wood panel. The National Gallery, London.
  13. 13. JAN VAN EYCK  Double Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife, Giovanna Cenami, 1434. Oil on wood panel, 33 x22 ½”. The National Gallery, London.
  14. 14. ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN  No piece of existing art bears his name! Deposition, before 1443, possibly 1435-38. Oil on wood panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLf_oAkngP4&list=PLAAEFE618A27E29D
  15. 15. ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN  Last Judgment Altarpiece (open), after 1443, c. 1445-48. Oil on wood panel. Musée de l’ HôtelDieu, Beaune, France.
  16. 16. ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN  Last Judgment Altarpiece (closed), oil on panel.
  17. 17. ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN  Portrait of a Lady, c 1455. Oil and tempera on wood panel, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  18. 18. PETRUS CHRISTUS  A Goldsmith in His Shop, Possibly Saint Eligius, 1449 Petrus Christus (Netherlandish, active by 1444, died 1475/76) Oil on wood; Overall 39 3/8 x 34 3/4 in. (100.1 x 85.8 cm); painted surface 38 5/8 x 33 1/2 in. (98 x 85.2 cm)
  19. 19. DIRCK BOUTS  Resurrection, c. 1455, distemper (water, chalk, and pigment) on linen
  20. 20. HUGO VAN DER GOES  Portinari altarpiece (open) – 1474-1476 – tempera and oil on wood panel. SYMBOLISM!!!
  21. 21. HANS MEMLING  Scenes from the Passion of Christ, 1470-71, oil on panel. Galleria Sabauda, Turin.
  22. 22. IN FRANCE  France vs. England    1422, King Charles VI dies, England claims throne for 9-monthold Henry VI of England Joan of Arc leads crusade to instate rightful heir, Charles VII (crowned 1429)+ Flamboyant (“flaming”) style: tracery
  23. 23. JEAN FOUQUET (1420-1481) Leading court artist  From Tours  Flemish realism  Agnès Sorel, court mistress (death mask)  Melun Diptych, right wing: Virgin and Child, c. 1451. Oil on wood panel, 37 ¼ x 33 ½”
  24. 24. JEAN FOUQUET (1420-1481) Étienne Chevalier, treas urer under Charles VII  St. Stephen  Original frame: blue velvet embroidered with gold & silver thread & pearls Melun Diptych, left wing. Étienne  Chevalier and Saint Stephen, 1451. Oil on wood panel, 36 ½ x 33 ½”
  25. 25. PIERRE ROBIN, CHURCH OF SAINTMACLOU, ROUEN, NORMANDY, FRANCE. 14321521; FAÇADE C. 1500-1514 “crockets” – small, knobby leaflike ornaments  Tracery everywhere! 
  26. 26. SPAIN & PORTUGAL Large collection of Flemish Paintings – Queen Isabelle of Castile  1492 – conquest of Granada  1492 – Columbus 
  27. 27. JUAN GÜAS, SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES, TOLEDO, SPAIN, BEGUN 1477
  28. 28. NUÑO GONÇALVES, SAINT VINCENT WITH THE PORTUGUESE ROYAL FAMILY, 1465-67. OIL ON WOOD PANEL.
  29. 29. IN GERMANY & SWITZERLAND Hanseatic League: association of cities & trading outposts  Rise of middle class: Fuggers (textile merchants to Hapsburg bankers)  International Gothic style vs. Beautiful style (Rhineland) vs. detailed visual depiction of natural world 
  30. 30. KONRAD WITZ, MIRACULOUS DRAFT OF FISHES, 1444, OIL ON WOOD PANEL.
  31. 31. THE BUXHEIM SAINT CHRISTOPHER, 1423. HAND-COLORED WOODCUT.
  32. 32. MARTIN SCHONGAUER, DEMO NS TORMENTING SAINT ANTHONY, C. 1480-90. ENGRAVING.
  33. 33. GEOFFREY CHAUCER, THE CANTERBURY TALES, 1484. PAGE WITH PILGRIMS AT TABLE (DETAIL).
  34. 34. ALBRECHT DURER (1471-1528) Foremost artist in northern Renaissance  Nuremberg, center of learning/business  Traveled: Basel, Switzerland and Italy  Published his own prints (fortune made)   1497: The Apocalypse
  35. 35.  Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1497-98. Woodcut, 15 ½ x 11 1/8” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  36. 36.  Self-Portrait, 1500. Oil on wood panel, 26 ¼ x 19 ¼”. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
  37. 37.  Adam and Eve, 1504. Engraving, 9 7/8 x 7 5/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art.
  38. 38.  Melencolia I, 1514. Engraving, 9 3/8 x 7 ½”. Victoria and Albert
  39. 39.  Four Apostles, 1526. Oil on wood panel, each panel 7’ ½” x 2’ 6”. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
  40. 40. MATTHIAS GRÜNEWALD  Isenheim Altarpiece (closed). From the Community of Saint Anthony, Isenheim, Alsac e, France. Oil on wood panel. Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, Fr
  41. 41. MATTHIAS GRÜNEWALD  Isenheim Altarpiece (open). 1510-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée
  42. 42. KEY EVENTS IN PROTESTANT REFORMATION 1517 – Martin Luther propounds his NinetyFive Theses at Wittenberg  1534 – Henry VIII of England breaks from Rome; founds Church of England  1555 – Lutheranism recognized in Germany by the Holy Roman Emperor at the Peace of Augsburg. 
  43. 43. LANDSCAPE PAINTING Albrecht Altdorfer, Danube Landscape, c. 1525. Oil on vellum on wood panel, 12 x 8.5”. Alte Pinakothek, Muni ch.  No human subject or religious 
  44. 44. FRANCE  Jean Clouet, Francis I, 1525-30. Oil and tempera on wood panel, 37 ¼ x 29 1/8,” Musée du Louvre, Paris.
  45. 45. FRANCE  Château of Chenonceau, Touraine, France. 1513-21; gallery on bridge, finished, c. 1581
  46. 46. FRANCE  Pierre Lescot, West Wing of the Cour Carré, Palais du Louvre, Paris. Begun 1546.
  47. 47. FRANCE Fontainebleau – renovate medieval hunting lodge (1530-1570)  Gardens and grottos 
  48. 48. SPAIN  Charles V, grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella abdicated the throne in 1556  Philip II (1556-1598) ascends the throne: king of Spain, the Netherlands, and the Americas  Navy destroyed by English in 1588  Northern Netherlands revolt Arts – sponsored by Church and nobles  Aesthetic taste: heraldry, luxurious armor, textiles 
  49. 49. SPAIN – 16TH CENTURY  El Escorial in Madrid, 1563-84 – monastery palace complex  House, court, government and burial spaces for Spanish kings
  50. 50. SPAIN – 16TH CENTURY PAINTING  El Greco, Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586. Oil on canvas, 16’x11’10”, Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spai n.
  51. 51. EL GRECO  View of Toledo, c. 1610. Oil on canvas, 47 ¾ x42 ¾”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
  52. 52. NETHERLANDS  Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1505-15. Oil on wood panel, center panel 7’ 2 ½” x 6’ 4 ¾” , each wing 7’ 2 ½” x 3’ 2”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  53. 53. INTERIOR  Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1505-15. Oil on wood panel, center panel 7’ 2 ½” x 6’ 4 ¾” , each wing 7’ 2 ½” x 3’ 2”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  54. 54. DETAILS – HIERONYMOUS BOSCH
  55. 55. DETAIL – HIERONYMOUS BOSCH
  56. 56. NETHERLANDS  Bitter religious and political conflict  Spanish Hapsburg rulers vs. Protestant Reformation  1568 revolt…independence 80 years later!  1579 -7 northern Protestant provinces declared United Provinces (present day Netherlands)…but Catholic Flanders separated (present-day Belgium)  Reformation: patrons OUTSIDE the church  Painting, textiles, ceramics, wood and metal; graphic design  Textiles: Raphael’s cartoons for the Sistine Chapel’s tapestries were woven by Pieter van Aelst in Brussels!
  57. 57. JAN GOSSAERT  Saint Luke Painting the Virgin Mary, 1520. Oil on panel, 43 3/8 x 32 ¼” . Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  58. 58. MARINUS VAN REYMERSWAELE  The Banker and His Wife, 1540. Oil on panel, 33 ¾ x 45 7/9”. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.
  59. 59. PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER  The Fall of Icarus, c. 1555-56. Oil on Panel transferred to canvas. 29 x 44 1/8”. Konenklijke Musea voor Schone Kunsten van Belgie, Brussels.
  60. 60. PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER  Return of the Hunters, 1565. Oil on wood panel, 3’10 1/2”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  61. 61. ENGLAND: HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER  Henry VIII, 1540. Oil on wood panel, 32 ½” x 29 ½”. Galleria Nazionale d’ Arte Antica, Rome.
  62. 62. ARMOR FOR ROYAL GAMES  Jacob Halder, Armor of George Clifford, Third Earl of Cumberland. Made in royal workshop at Greenwich, England, c. 1580-85. Steel and gold, 5’ 9 ½” . The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
  63. 63. ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE  Robert Smythson, Hardwick Hall, Shrewsbury, England. 1591-97.

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