Art Appreciation: Value, Space (and Perspective)


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An in-depth look at value, space, one-point, two-point, and three-point (+) perspective in a discussion of the principles and elements of art.

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Art Appreciation: Value, Space (and Perspective)

  1. 1. Art Appreciation Professor Paige Prater T, R, 9:30-10:50AM
  2. 2. 10 ELEMENTS of Art: 1. Color 2. Form 3. Line 4. Mass 5. Shape 6. Space 7. Texture 8. Time/Motion 9. Value 10. Volume
  3. 3. Value & Space Intro • 2D = illusion • Techniques for creating illusion of depth: – Value: lightness or darkness – Space: distance between points or planes – Perspective: uses mathematical principles
  4. 4. René Magritte, The Treachery of Images (“This is not a pipe”), 1929. Oil on canvas, 23¾ x 32”. LACMA
  5. 5. VALUE: lights & darks
  6. 6. Buckminster Fuller, Geodesic Dome (Art Dome), 1963–79, Reed College, Portland, Oregon
  7. 7. Buckminster Fuller’s Geodesic Dome (1963-79) • Demonstrates the effect of light on planes • Each of these planes has a different relative degree of lightness or darkness – Value changes occur gradually – The relative DARK values INCREASE as the planes get further away and face away from the light – There is a value range of black, white, and EIGHT values of gray • Formerly used as a sculpture studio at Reed College in Portland, Oregon •
  8. 8. VALUE: lights & darks
  9. 9. Chiaroscuro  Italian for “light dark”  A method of applying value to a two-dimensional piece of artwork to create the illusion of three dimensions  Renaissance artists identified five distinct areas of light and shadow  Highlight, light, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow
  10. 10. VALUE: lights & darks Pierre Paul Prud’hon, Study for La Source, c. 1801. Black and white chalk on blue paper, 21¾ x 15¼”. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts
  11. 11. Caravaggio, The Conversion on the Way to Damascus (1601).
  12. 12. Hatching & Cross-Hatching • Hatching consists of a series of lines, close to and parallel to each other • Cross-hatching (lines overlap) is used to suggest values;greater sense of form and depth
  13. 13. Hatching
  14. 14. Cross-Hatching
  15. 15. Put ‘em together and what’ve you got? Michelangelo, Head of a Satyr, c. 1520–30. Pen and ink on paper, 10⅝ x 7⅞”. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
  16. 16. Space – Size – Overlapping – Position – Alternating value and texture – Changing brightness and color – Atmospheric perspective
  17. 17. Space: Size/Overlapping/Position Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,” from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  18. 18. Funny!
  19. 19. Space: Alternating Value & Texture • Each area of light and dark occupies different amounts of space, making the design more interesting • Note the change in visual texture from bottom to top • These visual layers create a sense of depth Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams, Northern Sung Dynasty, 11th century. Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 81¼ x 40⅜”. National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
  20. 20. Space: Changing Brightness & Color • Lighter areas seem to be closer as dark areas appear to recede • Intensity of color affects perception
  21. 21. Thomas Hart Benton, The Wreck of the Ole ’97, 1943. Egg tempera and oil on canvas, 28½ x 44½”. Hunter Museum of Art, Chattanooga, Tennessee
  22. 22. Space: Atmospheric Perspective  Distant objects lack contrast, detail, and sharpness of focus because the air that surrounds us is not completely transparent  The atmosphere progressively veils a scene as the distance increases  Contemporary filmmakers use this atmospheric effect to give the illusion of great depth
  23. 23. • Asher Brown Durand, Kindred Spirits, 1849. Oil on canvas, 44 x 36”. Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas
  24. 24. Perspective • ISOMETRIC : parallels communicate depth; usually diagonal parallel lines • LINEAR: lines appear to converge at points in space
  26. 26. Graphic detailing isometric perspective: The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou and the Grand Canal (detail)
  27. 27. LINEAR Perspective • Uses MATH and lines to create the illusion of depth in a 2D artwork • based on observation of space in the world • The theory of linear perspective was developed in detail by the fifteenth-century artist Leon Battista Alberti • The Italian Filippo Brunelleschi was the first artist to apply the theories of Alberti
  28. 28. Fillippo Brunelleschi, Perspective drawing for Church of Santo Spirito in Florence (1428).
  29. 29. 1 POINT Perspective • Single vanishing point • Unless the viewer is situated in direct line of sight it is not as easy to see how the perspective creates the illusion of a recession of space
  30. 30. 1 POINT PERSPECTIVE • Edith Hayllar, A Summer Shower, 1883. Oil on panel, 21 x 17⅜”. Private collection
  31. 31. Masaccio, Trinity, c. 1425–6. Fresco, 21’10½” x 10’4⅞”. Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy
  32. 32. 2 POINT Perspective • TWO vanishing points • Relies on horizon line
  33. 33. Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16’8” x 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City
  34. 34. 2 POINT Perspective
  35. 35. Perspective: 3 POINT + • Needs points away from the horizon line and other variations on perspective • multiple angles that need even more vanishing points • A vanishing point is placed above or below the horizon line to accommodate a high or low angle of observation – Worm’s-eye view: looking UP – Bird’s-eye view: looking DOWN
  36. 36. Human View: Cone of Vision
  37. 37. M. C. Escher, Ascending and Descending, March 1960. Woodcut, 14 x 11¼”. The M. C. Escher Company, Netherlands
  38. 38. Perspective: 3 POINT (Bird’s Eye)
  39. 39. FORESHORTENING Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Recumbent Woman, 1525. Woodcut. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, Austria
  40. 40. Andrea Mantegna, The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, c. 1480. Tempera on canvas, 26¾ x 31⅞”. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy