ART APPRECIATION:
BALANCE, SCALE,
PROPORTION,
TIME/MOTION,
EMPHASIS, CONTRAST &
RHYTHM
T, R, 9:30AM-10:50AM
Professor Paig...
Symmetrical
Asymmetrical

Radial

BALANCE: DISTRIBUTION OF
ELEMENTS (UNIFIED OR VARIED)
WITHIN A WORK
BALANCE: SYMMETRICAL
Ritual container from Gui, China, Shang Dynasty,
1600–1100 BCE. Bronze, 6¼ x 10¾”. University of Hong...
• Uneven distribution of value and
shape
• Visual“heaviness” of the
right side counteracted by
placing one shape lower on ...


Equidistance from a
single point

BALANCE: RADIAL
Amitayas mandala created
by the monks of Drepung
Loseling Monastery, ...


Unity, variety, and balance are central principles
that artists use to create visual impact



Unity gives a work a ce...
Bernini. Apollo
and Daphne,
1622-24.

Giacomo Balla. Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash,
1912.

TIME/MOTION


relative to our own size


MONUMENTAL



HUMAN SCALE



SMALL SIZE

SCALE
SCALE: MONUMENTAL
SCALE: HUMAN SCALE
Damien Hirst, Mother and Child (Divided), 1993
SCALE: SMALL SIZE
http://m.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/08/reveale
d-a-book-the-size-of-a-ladybug/278427/
Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, 1943. Oil on canvas,
16⅛ x 24”. Tate, London

SCALE: UNEXPECTED…
PROPORTION:
 Relationships

between sizes of parts

 Aids

expression and description (and
NATURALISM)

 Egypt
 Greece...
PROPORTION: EGYPTIAN CUBIT
PROPORTION: GOLDEN
SECTION, ETC.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tAZe6pP-FM
Poseidon (or Zeus), c. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’10½” high.
National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece

PROPORTION: GREEC...
 Golden

Rectangles is a technique
based on nesting inside each other
a succession of rectangles based
on the 1:1.618 pro...
PROPORTION: GOLDEN
RECTANGLE
PROPORTION: GOLDEN
RECTANGLE

Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away, 1858. Combination albumen print.
PROPORTION: GOLDEN
RECTANGLE
PROPORTION: RENAISSANCE

Raphael, School of Athens, 1510-1511. Fresco, 16’ 8” x 25’.
Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City.


Raphael’s sensitivity to proportion reflects his
pursuit of perfection



Magnificent scale = sense of importance



...


Drawing attention to particular content


VS SUBORDINATION (drawing attention away from
particular content)

EMPHASIS
Double-chambered vessel
with mouse, Recuay, Peru,
4th–8th century. Ceramic, 6”
high. Metropolitan Museum
of Art, New York
...
EMPHASIS
Jules Olitski, Tin Lizzie Green, 1964. Acrylic and oil/wax
crayon on canvas, 10’10” x 6’10”. Museum of Fine Arts,...
NO EMPHASIS
Mark Tobey, Blue Interior, 1959.
Tempera on card, 44 x 28”


The particular part of emphasis to which the artist
draws our eye

FOCAL POINT
PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, LANDSCAPE WITH THE
FALL OF ICARUS, C. 1555–8. OIL ON CANVAS,
MOUNTED ON WOOD, 29 X 44⅛”. MUSÉES ...
EMPHASIS & FOCAL POINT

• Directional Line
• Contrasting
Values

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith
Decapitating Holofernes, c....
EMPHASIS & FOCAL
POINT

 water is the focal point
conceptually as well as
visually

The Emperor Babur Overseeing his
Gard...
• 3 separate focal
points
• Position
• Shape
• Rhythm

Ando Hiroshige, “Riverside Bamboo
Market, Kyobashi,” from One Hundr...
CONTRAST



Very different elements right next to each other
Francisco de Zurbarán,
The Funeral of St.
Bonaventure, 1629. Oil
on canvas, 8' 2” x 7' 4”.
Musée du Louvre,
Paris, France
...


ALL the elements and principles of art can
serve to create EMPHASIS



Both actual and implied lines shape our
examina...


Recurrence of an element




Motif – repeated design as a unit within a pattern

Repetition creates UNITY
comes from ...
RHYTHM/PATTERN
Suzanne Valadon, The Blue Room, 1923. Oil on canvas, 
35½ ×
45⅝”. Musée National d’Art Moderne,
Centre Georges Pompidou, ...
GREAT MOSQUE OF CÓRDOBA,
PRAYER HALL OF ABD AL-RAHMAN I,
784–6
Huqqa base, India,
Deccan, last quarter of
17th century. Bidri ware
(zinc alloy inlaid with
brass), 6⅞ x 6½ in.
Metropolit...
Chuck Close,
Self Portrait, 1997. Oil
on canvas, 8’6” × 7’.
MOMA, New York
MOTIF VS. RANDOMNESS
• Dada
movement
• “chance”
• Random
arrangement
Hans Arp, Trousse d’un
Da,1920–21. Assemblage of
drif...
Art Appreciation- Principles & Elements of Art:  Balance-Scale-Proportion-Time/Motion-Emphasis-Contrast-Rhythm
Art Appreciation- Principles & Elements of Art:  Balance-Scale-Proportion-Time/Motion-Emphasis-Contrast-Rhythm
Art Appreciation- Principles & Elements of Art:  Balance-Scale-Proportion-Time/Motion-Emphasis-Contrast-Rhythm
Art Appreciation- Principles & Elements of Art:  Balance-Scale-Proportion-Time/Motion-Emphasis-Contrast-Rhythm
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Art Appreciation- Principles & Elements of Art: Balance-Scale-Proportion-Time/Motion-Emphasis-Contrast-Rhythm

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A brief introduction to the principles and elements of art, specifically balance, scale, proportion, time and motion, emphasis, contrast, rhythm and pattern. Based on Part One of "Gateways to Art" (2012).

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Art Appreciation- Principles & Elements of Art: Balance-Scale-Proportion-Time/Motion-Emphasis-Contrast-Rhythm

  1. 1. ART APPRECIATION: BALANCE, SCALE, PROPORTION, TIME/MOTION, EMPHASIS, CONTRAST & RHYTHM T, R, 9:30AM-10:50AM Professor Paige Prater
  2. 2. Symmetrical Asymmetrical Radial BALANCE: DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS (UNIFIED OR VARIED) WITHIN A WORK
  3. 3. BALANCE: SYMMETRICAL Ritual container from Gui, China, Shang Dynasty, 1600–1100 BCE. Bronze, 6¼ x 10¾”. University of Hong Kong Museum
  4. 4. • Uneven distribution of value and shape • Visual“heaviness” of the right side counteracted by placing one shape lower on the left Muqi, Six Persimmons, Southern Song Dynasty, c. 1250. Ryoko-in, Dailoxu-ji, Kyoto, Japan BALANCE: ASYMMETRICAL
  5. 5.  Equidistance from a single point BALANCE: RADIAL Amitayas mandala created by the monks of Drepung Loseling Monastery, Tibet
  6. 6.  Unity, variety, and balance are central principles that artists use to create visual impact  Unity gives a work a certain oneness or cohesion  Variety is expressed in contrast and difference  Created by the use of different kinds of lines, shapes, patterns, colors, or textures  Balance is imposed on a work when the artist achieves an appropriate combination of unity and variety REHASH
  7. 7. Bernini. Apollo and Daphne, 1622-24. Giacomo Balla. Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. TIME/MOTION
  8. 8.  relative to our own size  MONUMENTAL  HUMAN SCALE  SMALL SIZE SCALE
  9. 9. SCALE: MONUMENTAL
  10. 10. SCALE: HUMAN SCALE Damien Hirst, Mother and Child (Divided), 1993
  11. 11. SCALE: SMALL SIZE http://m.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/08/reveale d-a-book-the-size-of-a-ladybug/278427/
  12. 12. Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, 1943. Oil on canvas, 16⅛ x 24”. Tate, London SCALE: UNEXPECTED…
  13. 13. PROPORTION:  Relationships between sizes of parts  Aids expression and description (and NATURALISM)  Egypt  Greece>Rome>Renaissance  Golden Section  Golden Mean  Fibonacci Sequence
  14. 14. PROPORTION: EGYPTIAN CUBIT
  15. 15. PROPORTION: GOLDEN SECTION, ETC. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tAZe6pP-FM
  16. 16. Poseidon (or Zeus), c. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’10½” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece PROPORTION: GREECE
  17. 17.  Golden Rectangles is a technique based on nesting inside each other a succession of rectangles based on the 1:1.618 proportions of the Golden Section  The shorter side of the outer rectangle becomes the longer side of the smaller rectangle inside it, and so on  =elegant spiral shape PROPORTION: GOLDEN RECTANGLE
  18. 18. PROPORTION: GOLDEN RECTANGLE
  19. 19. PROPORTION: GOLDEN RECTANGLE Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away, 1858. Combination albumen print.
  20. 20. PROPORTION: GOLDEN RECTANGLE
  21. 21. PROPORTION: RENAISSANCE Raphael, School of Athens, 1510-1511. Fresco, 16’ 8” x 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City.
  22. 22.  Raphael’s sensitivity to proportion reflects his pursuit of perfection  Magnificent scale = sense of importance  Parts of each figure are harmonious in relation to each other and portray an idealized form  Double emphasis on the center brings our attention to the opposing gestures of two famous Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle PROPORTION: SCHOOL OF ATHENS
  23. 23.  Drawing attention to particular content  VS SUBORDINATION (drawing attention away from particular content) EMPHASIS
  24. 24. Double-chambered vessel with mouse, Recuay, Peru, 4th–8th century. Ceramic, 6” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York EMPHASIS
  25. 25. EMPHASIS Jules Olitski, Tin Lizzie Green, 1964. Acrylic and oil/wax crayon on canvas, 10’10” x 6’10”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts
  26. 26. NO EMPHASIS Mark Tobey, Blue Interior, 1959. Tempera on card, 44 x 28”
  27. 27.  The particular part of emphasis to which the artist draws our eye FOCAL POINT
  28. 28. PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, LANDSCAPE WITH THE FALL OF ICARUS, C. 1555–8. OIL ON CANVAS, MOUNTED ON WOOD, 29 X 44⅛”. MUSÉES ROYAUX DES BEAUX-ARTS DE BELGIQUE, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM
  29. 29. EMPHASIS & FOCAL POINT • Directional Line • Contrasting Values Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, c. 1620. Oil on canvas, 6’6⅜” x 5’3¾“. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy
  30. 30. EMPHASIS & FOCAL POINT  water is the focal point conceptually as well as visually The Emperor Babur Overseeing his Gardeners, India, Mughal period, c. 1590. Tempera and gouache on paper, 8¾ x 5⅝”. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England
  31. 31. • 3 separate focal points • Position • Shape • Rhythm Ando Hiroshige, “Riverside Bamboo Market, Kyobashi,” from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, 1857. 15 x 10⅜”. James A. Michener Collection, Honolulu Academy of Arts, Hawaii
  32. 32. CONTRAST  Very different elements right next to each other
  33. 33. Francisco de Zurbarán, The Funeral of St. Bonaventure, 1629. Oil on canvas, 8' 2” x 7' 4”. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France CONTRAST
  34. 34.  ALL the elements and principles of art can serve to create EMPHASIS  Both actual and implied lines shape our examination of a work of art by directing the movement of our gaze  Contrasts between different values, colors, or textures can sometimes be so dramatic and distinct that we cannot help but feel drawn to that area of a work REHASH…
  35. 35.  Recurrence of an element   Motif – repeated design as a unit within a pattern Repetition creates UNITY comes from repetition! PATTERN
  36. 36. RHYTHM/PATTERN
  37. 37. Suzanne Valadon, The Blue Room, 1923. Oil on canvas,  35½ × 45⅝”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
  38. 38. GREAT MOSQUE OF CÓRDOBA, PRAYER HALL OF ABD AL-RAHMAN I, 784–6
  39. 39. Huqqa base, India, Deccan, last quarter of 17th century. Bidri ware (zinc alloy inlaid with brass), 6⅞ x 6½ in. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York MOTIF
  40. 40. Chuck Close, Self Portrait, 1997. Oil on canvas, 8’6” × 7’. MOMA, New York
  41. 41. MOTIF VS. RANDOMNESS • Dada movement • “chance” • Random arrangement Hans Arp, Trousse d’un Da,1920–21. Assemblage of driftwood nailed onto wood with painting remains, 15 x 10½ x 1¾”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

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