ART APPRECIATION:
VALUE & SPACE
PROFESSOR PAIGE PRATER
T, R, 9:30-10:50AM
10 ELEMENTS OF ART:
1. COLOR
2. FORM
3. LINE
4. MASS
5. SHAPE

6. SPACE
7. TEXTURE
8. TIME/MOTION
9. VALUE
10.VOLUME
VALUE & SPACE
INTRO
• 2D = ILLUSION
• TECHNIQUES FOR CREATING ILLUSION OF DEPTH:

• VALUE: LIGHTNESS OR DARKNESS
• SPACE: ...
René Magritte, The Treachery of Images (“This is not a pipe”), 1929. Oil on
canvas, 23¾ x 32”. LACMA
BUCKMINSTER FULLER, GEODESIC DOME (ART
DOME), 1963–79, REED
COLLEGE, PORTLAND, OREGON
BUCKMINSTER FULLER‟S
GEODESIC DOME (1963-79)
• DEMONSTRATES THE EFFECT OF LIGHT ON
PLANES
• EACH OF THESE PLANES HAS A DIF...
VALUE: LIGHTS & DARKS
CHIAROSCURO
 ITALIAN FOR “LIGHT DARK”

 A METHOD OF APPLYING VALUE TO A TWODIMENSIONAL PIECE OF ARTWORK TO CREATE
THE IL...
VALUE: LIGHTS & DARKS

Pierre Paul
Prud‟hon, Stu
dy for La
Source, c.
1801. Black
and white
chalk on blue
paper, 21¾ x
15¼...
CARAVAGGIO, TH
E CONVERSION ON
THE WAY TO
DAMASCUS (1601).
HATCHING & CROSS-HATCHING
• HATCHING CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF
LINES, CLOSE TO AND PARALLEL TO EACH
OTHER
• CROSS-HATCHING (...
HATCHING
CROSS-HATCHING
PUT „EM TOGETHER AND
WHAT‟VE YOU GOT?

Michelangelo, Head
of a Satyr, c. 1520–
30. Pen and ink on
paper, 10⅝ x 7⅞”.
Musée ...
SPACE
• SIZE
• OVERLAPPING

• POSITION
• ALTERNATING VALUE AND TEXTURE
• CHANGING BRIGHTNESS AND COLOR

• ATMOSPHERIC PERS...
SPACE:
SIZE/OVERLAPPING/POSITION

Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,”
from Thirty-Six Views of Mou...
FUNNY!
SPACE: ALTERNATING VALUE &
TEXTURE
• Each area of light and
dark occupies different
amounts of
space, making the design
mo...
SPACE: CHANGING BRIGHTNESS
& COLOR
• LIGHTER AREAS SEEM TO BE CLOSER AS
DARK AREAS APPEAR TO RECEDE
• INTENSITY OF COLOR A...
Thomas Hart Benton, The Wreck of the Ole ’97, 1943. Egg tempera and
oil on canvas, 28½ x 44½”. Hunter Museum of
Art, Chatt...
SPACE: ATMOSPHERIC
PERSPECTIVE
 DISTANT OBJECTS LACK CONTRAST, DETAIL,
AND SHARPNESS OF FOCUS BECAUSE
SURROUNDING AIR IS ...
• ASHER BROWN
DURAND, KINDR
ED
SPIRITS, 1849.
OIL ON
CANVAS, 44 X
36”. CRYSTAL
BRIDGES
MUSEUM OF
AMERICAN
ART, BENTONVI
LL...
PERSPECTIVE
• ISOMETRIC : PARALLELS COMMUNICATE
DEPTH; USUALLY DIAGONAL PARALLEL
LINES
• LINEAR: LINES APPEAR TO CONVERGE ...
ISOMETRIC PERSPECTIVE
Graphic detailing isometric perspective: The
Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection
Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou and ...
LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
• USES MATH AND LINES TO CREATE THE
ILLUSION OF DEPTH IN A 2D ARTWORK
• BASED ON OBSERVATION OF SPACE I...
FILLIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, PERSPECTIVE
DRAWING FOR CHURCH OF SANTO SPIRITO
IN FLORENCE (1428).
1 POINT PERSPECTIVE
• SINGLE VANISHING POINT
• UNLESS THE VIEWER IS SITUATED IN
DIRECT LINE OF SIGHT IT IS NOT AS EASY
TO ...
1 POINT
PERSPECTI
VE
• EDITH HAYLLAR, A
SUMMER
SHOWER, 1883. OIL

ON PANEL, 21
X 17⅜”.
PRIVATE
COLLECTION
Masaccio, Trinity, c.
1425–6.
Fresco, 21‟10½” x
10‟4⅞”. Santa Maria
Novella, Florence, It
aly
2 POINT PERSPECTIVE
• TWO VANISHING POINTS
• RELIES ON HORIZON LINE
Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16‟8” x 25‟. Stanza della
Segnatura, Vatican City
2 POINT PERSPECTIVE
PERSPECTIVE: 3 POINT +
• NEEDS POINTS AWAY FROM THE
HORIZON LINE AND OTHER VARIATIONS
ON PERSPECTIVE
• MULTIPLE ANGLES THA...
HUMAN VIEW: CONE OF VISION
M. C. Escher, Ascending and
Descending, March 1960.
Woodcut, 14 x 11¼”. The M. C.
Escher Company, Netherlands
Perspective: 3
POINT (Bird‟s
Eye)
FORESHORTENING

Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Recumbent
Woman, 1525. Woodcut. Graphische Sammlung
Albertina, Vienna,...
Andrea Mantegna, The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, c.
1480. Tempera on canvas, 26¾ x 31⅞”.
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan,...
PRACTICE! WHICH TYPE OF
PERSPECTIVE?

Gustave Caillebotte, Paris Street; Rainy Day, 1877. Oil on canvas. Art
Institute of ...
Art Appreciation, Elements of Art: Value & Space
Art Appreciation, Elements of Art: Value & Space
Art Appreciation, Elements of Art: Value & Space
Art Appreciation, Elements of Art: Value & Space
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Art Appreciation, Elements of Art: Value & Space

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A brief overview of the elements of value and space, including isometric and linear perspective, within art. Based on Gateways to Art (2012).

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Art Appreciation, Elements of Art: Value & Space

  1. 1. ART APPRECIATION: VALUE & SPACE PROFESSOR PAIGE PRATER T, R, 9:30-10:50AM
  2. 2. 10 ELEMENTS OF ART: 1. COLOR 2. FORM 3. LINE 4. MASS 5. SHAPE 6. SPACE 7. TEXTURE 8. TIME/MOTION 9. VALUE 10.VOLUME
  3. 3. VALUE & SPACE INTRO • 2D = ILLUSION • TECHNIQUES FOR CREATING ILLUSION OF DEPTH: • VALUE: LIGHTNESS OR DARKNESS • SPACE: DISTANCE BETWEEN POINTS OR PLANES • PERSPECTIVE: USES MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES
  4. 4. René Magritte, The Treachery of Images (“This is not a pipe”), 1929. Oil on canvas, 23¾ x 32”. LACMA
  5. 5. BUCKMINSTER FULLER, GEODESIC DOME (ART DOME), 1963–79, REED COLLEGE, PORTLAND, OREGON
  6. 6. BUCKMINSTER FULLER‟S GEODESIC DOME (1963-79) • DEMONSTRATES THE EFFECT OF LIGHT ON PLANES • EACH OF THESE PLANES HAS A DIFFERENT RELATIVE DEGREE OF LIGHTNESS OR DARKNESS • VALUE CHANGES OCCUR GRADUALLY • THE RELATIVE DARK VALUES INCREASE AS THE PLANES GET FURTHER AWAY AND FACE AWAY FROM THE LIGHT • THERE IS A VALUE RANGE OF BLACK, WHITE, AND EIGHT VALUES OF GRAY • FORMERLY USED AS A SCULPTURE STUDIO AT REED COLLEGE IN PORTLAND, OREGON • HTTP://YOUTU.BE/JN3FMX1TYT8
  7. 7. VALUE: LIGHTS & DARKS
  8. 8. CHIAROSCURO  ITALIAN FOR “LIGHT DARK”  A METHOD OF APPLYING VALUE TO A TWODIMENSIONAL PIECE OF ARTWORK TO CREATE THE ILLUSION OF THREE DIMENSIONS  RENAISSANCE ARTISTS IDENTIFIED FIVE DISTINCT AREAS OF LIGHT AND SHADOW  HIGHLIGHT, LIGHT, CORE SHADOW, REFLECTED LIGHT, AND CAST SHADOW
  9. 9. VALUE: LIGHTS & DARKS Pierre Paul Prud‟hon, Stu dy for La Source, c. 1801. Black and white chalk on blue paper, 21¾ x 15¼”. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Willi amstown, Ma
  10. 10. CARAVAGGIO, TH E CONVERSION ON THE WAY TO DAMASCUS (1601).
  11. 11. HATCHING & CROSS-HATCHING • HATCHING CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF LINES, CLOSE TO AND PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER • CROSS-HATCHING (LINES OVERLAP) IS USED TO SUGGEST VALUES; GREATER SENSE OF FORM AND DEPTH
  12. 12. HATCHING
  13. 13. CROSS-HATCHING
  14. 14. PUT „EM TOGETHER AND WHAT‟VE YOU GOT? Michelangelo, Head of a Satyr, c. 1520– 30. Pen and ink on paper, 10⅝ x 7⅞”. Musée du Louvre, Paris, Franc e
  15. 15. SPACE • SIZE • OVERLAPPING • POSITION • ALTERNATING VALUE AND TEXTURE • CHANGING BRIGHTNESS AND COLOR • ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE
  16. 16. SPACE: SIZE/OVERLAPPING/POSITION Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,” from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  17. 17. FUNNY!
  18. 18. SPACE: ALTERNATING VALUE & TEXTURE • Each area of light and dark occupies different amounts of space, making the design more interesting • Note the change in visual texture from bottom to top • These visual layers create a sense of depth Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams, Northern Sung Dynasty, 11th century. Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 81¼ x 40⅜”. National Palace
  19. 19. SPACE: CHANGING BRIGHTNESS & COLOR • LIGHTER AREAS SEEM TO BE CLOSER AS DARK AREAS APPEAR TO RECEDE • INTENSITY OF COLOR AFFECTS PERCEPTION
  20. 20. Thomas Hart Benton, The Wreck of the Ole ’97, 1943. Egg tempera and oil on canvas, 28½ x 44½”. Hunter Museum of Art, Chattanooga, Tennessee
  21. 21. SPACE: ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE  DISTANT OBJECTS LACK CONTRAST, DETAIL, AND SHARPNESS OF FOCUS BECAUSE SURROUNDING AIR IS NOT COMPLETELY TRANSPARENT  THE ATMOSPHERE PROGRESSIVELY VEILS A SCENE AS THE DISTANCE INCREASES  CONTEMPORARY FILMMAKERS USE THIS ATMOSPHERIC EFFECT TO GIVE THE ILLUSION OF GREAT DEPTH
  22. 22. • ASHER BROWN DURAND, KINDR ED SPIRITS, 1849. OIL ON CANVAS, 44 X 36”. CRYSTAL BRIDGES MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, BENTONVI LLE, ARKANSAS
  23. 23. PERSPECTIVE • ISOMETRIC : PARALLELS COMMUNICATE DEPTH; USUALLY DIAGONAL PARALLEL LINES • LINEAR: LINES APPEAR TO CONVERGE AT POINTS IN SPACE
  24. 24. ISOMETRIC PERSPECTIVE
  25. 25. Graphic detailing isometric perspective: The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou and the
  26. 26. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE • USES MATH AND LINES TO CREATE THE ILLUSION OF DEPTH IN A 2D ARTWORK • BASED ON OBSERVATION OF SPACE IN THE WORLD • THE THEORY OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE WAS DEVELOPED IN DETAIL BY THE FIFTEENTHCENTURY ARTIST LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI • THE ITALIAN FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI WAS THE FIRST ARTIST TO APPLY THE THEORIES OF
  27. 27. FILLIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, PERSPECTIVE DRAWING FOR CHURCH OF SANTO SPIRITO IN FLORENCE (1428).
  28. 28. 1 POINT PERSPECTIVE • SINGLE VANISHING POINT • UNLESS THE VIEWER IS SITUATED IN DIRECT LINE OF SIGHT IT IS NOT AS EASY TO SEE HOW THE PERSPECTIVE CREATES THE ILLUSION OF A RECESSION OF SPACE
  29. 29. 1 POINT PERSPECTI VE • EDITH HAYLLAR, A SUMMER SHOWER, 1883. OIL ON PANEL, 21 X 17⅜”. PRIVATE COLLECTION
  30. 30. Masaccio, Trinity, c. 1425–6. Fresco, 21‟10½” x 10‟4⅞”. Santa Maria Novella, Florence, It aly
  31. 31. 2 POINT PERSPECTIVE • TWO VANISHING POINTS • RELIES ON HORIZON LINE
  32. 32. Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16‟8” x 25‟. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City
  33. 33. 2 POINT PERSPECTIVE
  34. 34. PERSPECTIVE: 3 POINT + • NEEDS POINTS AWAY FROM THE HORIZON LINE AND OTHER VARIATIONS ON PERSPECTIVE • MULTIPLE ANGLES THAT NEED EVEN MORE VANISHING POINTS • A VANISHING POINT IS PLACED ABOVE OR BELOW THE HORIZON LINE TO ACCOMMODATE A HIGH OR LOW ANGLE OF OBSERVATION • WORM‟S-EYE VIEW: LOOKING UP
  35. 35. HUMAN VIEW: CONE OF VISION
  36. 36. M. C. Escher, Ascending and Descending, March 1960. Woodcut, 14 x 11¼”. The M. C. Escher Company, Netherlands
  37. 37. Perspective: 3 POINT (Bird‟s Eye)
  38. 38. FORESHORTENING Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Recumbent Woman, 1525. Woodcut. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, Austria
  39. 39. Andrea Mantegna, The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, c. 1480. Tempera on canvas, 26¾ x 31⅞”. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy
  40. 40. PRACTICE! WHICH TYPE OF PERSPECTIVE? Gustave Caillebotte, Paris Street; Rainy Day, 1877. Oil on canvas. Art Institute of Chicago.

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