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Timeline : history of philosophy

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รูปภาพ infographic ประวัติและวิวัฒนาการแนวคิดทางปรัชญา ตั้งแต่ยุคโบราณจนถึงปัจจุบัน

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Timeline : history of philosophy

  1. 1. STE. V.lilIli'G FROM A6 REEF-IEIIT iroosooosrooroeoi from faster" & Lvgsusfn Gygfle '-'1 6th Century BCE - 529 CE‘ Physics. Mathtmttits. Predecessc-r Student M"°"°"'Y' 8'°L°9Y ‘Belore Common Era 3. Common Era (640—475 BCE) “ / “‘/ E Sohtth I'l . y r , , V J . ,1 c i M 4 ofltl2ing$'; l:h; l0vl BCE: ccntufll BCEI 3 I ‘ ' _ , mode oltheir origin / ‘I I Thalesol rmgmmnd. -r , '.nmmgg llenclitusol anddisappcarancc-. ' g‘ ‘ 1 . Milt-tus ofhlilems Ephasus '. ' . Alathemaucs, Pwngms Damon Hlysticisiii. Scion cc olsamos (570 BCE — 5th century BCE) I I , __y. _. ~13‘ ' I (Sch century BCE) :5 '1 _> . . *-r. I ‘J N "r . Xr-riophanes Parmenidcs Zeno of , / L V‘ L’ _, _ T oICo| ophon olElea Flea """“9°f“*°‘ ~ - Ir, - Clazcvmcvnao. Emwdodewy _ . / Metaphysics, Relationship ISDC WI Mn-gemum Leucippus Democritus between change ll: eternal unity (492 B“) ' V Believed in the doctrine of atoms, or smallprimary bodies infinite in number, indrvisible Ii lmperishable (Sch century BCE -375 BCE) ‘ . . . rillll-i. ‘ ILL) II ; i': l~. .‘Ii; l.‘ "ill . I.‘: iIl": " Protagoras Gorgiis itrppias Prodicus T I! ‘IWHN From [Greece Grammar, Relativity, ' ‘ ‘L’ L L A9"°“i= lWl (469 — Present day) / ,: .'I' The theory of forms, as well as a ’ V it ~' tlireelcld division ol philosophy Into %______________ , ‘ dialectic. ethics, 8. physics. Socrates Plato . — -’*’ T’-Illlifi‘ j i. i§iSuE“. .. (no _ 130 M3) Worlis S(lc= rltlfl(a| ly_TIOm the particular to the universal. ‘ ‘ Ph zlosophy as science. Ethics. .-1;”)-‘i‘l~" Zeno ol Oeapthes of Chrysippus I ‘ ‘'‘“’"‘ '‘"°‘ ‘'“°' _, f342-ml "IfIIIIIi| .'Il. I,‘ li. I "‘IIiI. K‘i' | ‘.? WTI. I.lI'il’ . .TI 'r'i ' -, Practical . ippIicatic~nolprevious thought. Lg’ ' 5' ‘I -: ~; (365 BC” Virtue is good, vIce is tsid, c-verything else - _« ' 3 ,7 in the wc-rldis indifferent. , ff ‘ Epicurus . _ ‘(cu - . L: ..“'. IJ' ‘, ’L‘-»r1.. '-‘. I_IL. ;lIvl ; ‘ ‘T "*”“* -——-——_. __‘ I ll-i . -.: .4‘ '; ".. l Pliyro Timon Arcesilaus I , , , , &Carn-eades Belrelinatoms, materialistic l. H.. ., Hr, .. (“H . . " ‘ —‘ rill" Mull’ "; <‘: P:: :"*r*s. *r: ::: ::: .. 1‘ ; ‘;; ... '.. ;;. ‘.. ... .;. ... .;. .L. -3 user ogy, t. e - . ‘V i (205 (E) ol, udgcnic~ntontl1ings - L _. - T3 ~. 3.4: ~ .5.. . C *7} ii. -. V‘ 1 E ‘i, I‘ . I Plotinusol Porphyry Proclus '7-‘. ‘7II'~—3"‘r ‘I W’ 7 lY‘°P°"‘ Sought truth to the highest , '.. ..‘i rt : t- Ll ‘~’? _y" H 5‘, ‘r ‘. I‘- , '). ~L'i‘ d99I9‘“°E P°”IbI"‘Y» A luslon ol Greek philosophy and eastem religion T"_5l"9 3l‘9ll5‘3L d? “b‘ Septuagint. Sought to rightrelations between (Mnwm pamwm “Mam ; "'“t‘n‘: ::'~"“E'°°L‘5‘~'i"‘L‘ God and hllnlfinl of or ' (155 BCE - 525 C9 ‘‘‘'. ''i’ l]"1iI' "TIN 11''» ({‘. .’. T‘‘ III) Many Roman philosophers tried to make philosophy accessible even to those outside of learned circles. SIIEPTIOISM “W” PHLLUWHY EPICUREAHISIA 5"““ Lucretius Ln . . EOLEOIIOISHI , ,”W, m,SM SIOIOISM , _ I E‘ - , I ‘ V 1 5 E ( I ' ' I - ’ - mm, Apuyegus ‘ Seneca the Cc-rriutus -Vrdltm or M_, d,, u,_, liigidius Younger Aurelius Figulus (I00 - S_25 CE) Y J: ' K _ , 3." Flashing out oltsasic 2 , "‘ , -s» L’ Ir , ‘ I y. ’ _ ‘ Christian concc-pts. The soul, ~ L “ -’ 77:” ~ ' 5 » ~ 9“ the trinrty, a.'idjustitying Justin lertulliin saint amen: or Drigen Athanisius of Saint Pceudo-Dsonysius Oirlsti-an views olssiencé -‘v'rfl~'l)'Y lrenaeus Alexandria r'l'%XCillCIl1'3 lluoustim‘ the Areopagite and history. (5th century — 16th century CE) ('iv: ':‘3‘i " Cl» . ,: ‘ 1 ~»; 'i, ««. i~' : :l "win . -rw-ii: I Igrw cw ': ::r= ‘I. I' ILLILH I "“"’“““"'3"‘ SIIHOLASIIOISM N75-S26 CEI (I100-T700) -_- I . Use ollogic, dialectic, ’ ~ '. and analysis t -» I ' techniques ol ancient 30,, .Nm . - - A $InN‘EfhE0'tlXI‘lOYc d Platonic reverence of reason and truth AMT": M Pew Eh°L““5 ’°L‘" 0”“ wmfam °' dégntgggfggsaucs 3" coupled with Christian allegoric-s. (3m°'L'“'7 M’"L°'d Mill"-35 5(°“l3 °d‘h""‘ ' I l4th-l7th century) (T462-T589l , .- (H29"538) , _ I _ , A scientific look at . y‘ , ‘ ‘T 4 the llllellefl as part I y ‘ ‘ A‘ 3,’, 1 ST th'e body. f v I ‘ _ . g y ’ ~ ' P-«tr» , M-no iigii . §’. ‘?Zi". ‘L? ..§’i. n Paulo! Alessandro Elijalidel llicoletto Agostino P°”‘P‘°““”' m”"""" method. Venice r'i(YI: I|Irll Medrgo Vcmia liilo Immortality ol the soul asjtistthed in ”492'‘61 7) Aristotelianytexts and V f pppyy , -«mom, to ‘°"""1‘"T3"*5- , . v ' 1 metaphysics and - ' ' , phiiosophyoflziw. ‘ laid loundation Francisco Pedro Francisco Francisco lor the law of de Vitoria da Fonseca de Toledo Suarel nations and the just war theory. (I304-I536) . r + Frincesco (olurrio Leonardo Poggio Lorenzo Rudolph . '.t. irio Juanluis Petrus De-siderius Niccolo Putrarca Salutati Bnini Bracciolini Vail. ) Agricola . 'il.10Tl0 Vrvc-s Ramus Ensmus Machiavelli lleightened emphasis on moral philosop‘iy, refomi, and the good lite instead of purely scholastic Aristotelian ism. (136064?) ‘T. ,' Recovered Platonic and neoplatonic texts mixed with humanism to provide .1 new frameworlr through which ' ’ philosophy led one closcr to God. George Cardinal lrlarsilio Giovanni Nicholas ludah I: -en Pietro Gem lstus Bessarion Ficino Paco del la of (us: Isaac Bembo Plethon Mirandola Abravenel (I304-1606) ’ ‘jl ; I Man is responsible for his _ ‘ happiness. The scholarly life (Mn H8” _ and ethical perfection are one, FINN’? EOMIS3 I" P"33WI'1' “T stoiclsms ability to work as if bill“ Ill‘ WAY ‘"4 "Wid- Francesco Justus therapy against distress. A ' " , 0"'“‘3" Pit-‘JSW 0" W 90°‘ pwma U933", and better than pagan good. Poggio Francesco Cosma Bracciolinl Filello llaimoridi (M69-1623) I ‘ I I I ll , -. (1473-1639) — '7 xx 4 7- I Giovanni Agrippavc-n Alichelde Francisco ' Lr V . , Picodella lie-ttesh». -im Montaigne Sanches , , ymandoh hicolaus 8c-rnardino Francesco Giordano lommaso Copernicus lelesio Patrizi Bruno Campanella The unreliability olthe senses and the inability to yustily what is knowledge. Used for attaclis on paganism, science, LlfldAFtSEOLt; lIMlISl1l. . 'i| ||| I'iiI. ‘ "III . |l. ‘l| I,"lI' (17th century-20th century) Rejection ol Aristotelian science and attempts at a more he nest scientific inquiry into the natural world. ll: Z : l.ilI| I.‘l. <lIl‘ (I596-I716) _ _ I , ‘ - -V, ‘» (l632-l776l | Rene Baruch llicolas corona 7, ““'°"“‘ °. ”‘"°“’*fid9“ ‘“°‘*"’ P”. Descartes Spinoza Malebranciie leibnil e_ wounded '" “p"'('"(° and F“'7"mL evidence. Senso'y perception is A response to scholasticism through skepticism. Involved in the formation ofide-as, Ordinary methods of science and reasoning are John George David rather than innate notions, lain l: -Ie but not false. locke Berkeley Hume z’ * ‘’| I|. Illll: i’: IIlIllIl"ll' (1568-1895) I. ‘ ‘ Rethouqht the need for » I. I C V ‘ political structures, discussed ' ‘ _. ' A what makes a govemment ‘ ‘ good, what rights and Thomas John lean-Jacques Jeremy James Ioh n Stuart Karl Friedrich lreedc ms we have, and what Hobbes Locke Rousseau Bentham Mill Mill Mani Engels duties citizens have. | ‘2rll: lr. '.l». l:I lllii. -I| l~‘l. ‘. 5PI))), ’D)Dp)’ ED) (172.: .1924) ‘ ’ ’ t r » o i i . / - Related to skepticism in the assertion that reality is i 3 but a construct of our mind, and probably immatc-rial. / / ' ' Immanuel Johann Gec-rg~: -Vi’. Friedrich W. Arthur Francis I N ant 6 am ieb Enedrtcli Joseph Schopenhauer Herbert - F" h A ll~ cl Sch-‘'- 8 dl ‘ . ~ lc tc cg c ng ra L, pip Il8l3-I980) Q I ’ I l l ‘ ' '. ’.l. lll. .I. llll. . _. A "7 (1339-2oo7l ' ' “ , »— , Soren Friedrich Nari Gabriel Martin lean-Paul r‘ 3 Nierlregaard Wilhelm Jaspers Marcel Heidegger Sartre - r llietzsche . ‘ E. lpc'llrltt(c'S ofthc individual are central. Moral and am, “ ‘li"‘: “.n Mm Rkymd S(It’llllE'l'-I thinking are not enough. a further set of Sande“ Pei, “ hm“ ONE), Rum, categones based on authenticity is necessary. The function of thought is not to describe, represent or minor reality, Instead thought isatool lur . ‘ . _ pro. -diction, action, and problem solving. ‘). |j. I|| ‘,| ; P‘| Ifi, (I859-I961) , ._ ; I.‘l; lI. "lli *lII| |.| .‘lIl'lll' ‘ (1343-1970) , ~_ ‘ Edmund Martin I-lauricc ' . llusserl Heidegger . V‘erIeau-Ponty c ,4 . ' C Creating a scientific and objective-centered method Ior looking Gottlob Bertrand George Morin Rudolf Ludwig at topics normally regarded as Frege Russell Edward Schliclt Camap Wittgenstein Moor: subjective. Namely, our experiences d - . Empliasrs on clarity, lonnal loqlc, analysis of an ‘C nmoumw language, and the natural sciences. |l: I|| I_. ‘l. I2l’ ulilllllilll 'llIlI, IiY| I"lI' (I889-1976) ‘E Pushto eschew traditional philosophical _ _ , ' theories. tlciicl that traditi anal philosophical _ ‘ ; programs are rooted in linguistic mista'-; es ‘ '- committed by philosophers. Rernedied by the [udwlg )1, Gilbert my words are used in everydiy use. Wittgr-nstc-in Austin Ryle ririiriiiir r~ri: iiI. 'iuii: i:i°fI , <. o’k»1. ililllililiilr‘ ligki1:‘: r Ilia’? . isii, :,Iais. ,'-« I 'l’I_lg, t”i‘~ji, ,’I_L: :I. |I"rgll. |‘I_ilil, lil: l3PF rriuir. i:i; i,i. 'iio~ : l:_Il_| .iIllII'3:lf‘ (1901-2009) (I933-p= resentl . . ' I ' . "‘ , . . ‘ i A- ? I . ._ _' . _ s - ~ xx 1 _. r 1 3; ' ‘ r Jacques Claude amp; Miami Jacques W. V. Donald fligharfl pillar, Lacan Levi-Strauss D. _-leuze Foucault Derrida Ouine Davidson gm, pumam One major theme is the instability of the human sciences. Closely associated to American pragmatism. Advocates Humans are exceedingly complex, and it is impossible to a detachment lrom objective truth with an emphasis escape human structures so as to study them. on utility, convention, and social progress. Hi-, ,". vl_Itrr-, ‘i - ; .‘; lu. 'sl llLul'. lLILl - J i, _,i iT1'i-I_““{; LL-‘PLII «Ill -. . : ;'l‘E. I »Iu llilgil ‘. pltlll l (tr p, lI‘i‘. ,«‘. r . ip Jll" 31» I r. _._‘; _, . '-, r_r pizrm .71}, ‘F'_‘iY‘-f]: ' r . ~ gtrulriiif to rig. i. - . '. l"p'. lTll‘, .iil‘I. ‘.I‘ | li~. :'

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