Major Aircrash


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Major Aircrash

  1. 1. 1 Table of contents Introduction……………………………………….2 Contents Chronology Major Aircrash Disaster..3 How It Happen…….………………………..5 What Problem Causes Aircrash…..…..6 Investigation………………………………….7 Solution ………………………………………..8 Conclusion…………………………………………9 Bibliography………………………………………10
  2. 2. 2 Introduction ravelling by air is often referred to as one of the safest means to move from one point to another. Despite this high safety level, aircraft crashes can happen. This assignment gathers data about these air crash : Causes ,How it happen, Kronology Major Disaster, Solution and Investigation Flying can be very scary for some. Many people would rather not ride in an airplane because of fear of being involved in a tragic plane crash. This is just common since aviation accidents really do happen at times.Aviation accidents can lead to disastrous results. Passengers are at risk every time they travel by airplane or other aircrafts. They can never tell if an unforeseen tragedy will cause them their lives, or injure them severely. It is unnerving to think that it might be the last time they will be stepping in on a plane. When we talk of aviation accidents, what does this specifically refers to? The International Civil Aviation Organization defines aviation accidents as an incidence connected with an aircrafts operation, which happens between the points any individual embarks the aircraft. These have the objective of flying and, wherein:someone was seriously or fatally injured,the aircraft sustained structural failure or damage; or the aircraft is missing or is entirely inaccessible. In summary, an aviation accident is an occurrence other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations. An accident in which the damage to the plane is considered irrecoverable, or in which the plane is destroyed is frequently called as a hull loss. The most ordinary causes of accidents involving these aircrafts are:Pilot error,Federal Aviation Administration regulations violations,Faulty equipment,Structural or design problems,Negligence of Federal Air Traffic Controllers,Negligence in a third party's selection of a carrier,Negligence of Flight Service Station employees,Bad weather condition,Contaminated fuel,Improper maintenance. Air transportation accidents involve a number of legal issues. Depending on the situation, claims may belong in federal or state court. Treaties and conventions cover accidents concerning international flight.Plane accidents survivors and the surviving loved ones of a plane crash victim are protected under the law. Federal, state and international laws afford various levels of rights to these poor individuals. T
  3. 3. 3 Chronology Major Aircrash Disaster World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001 American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 Killed 2,752 March 27, 1977, Tenerife disaster KLM Boeing 747 attempted take-off and collided with a taxiing Pan Am 747 Pilot error, Air Traffic Control error, communications problems, fog, and airfield congestion due to a bombing and a second bomb threat at another airport 1996 Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision invole Saudia Flight 763 and Air Kazakhstan Flight 1907 Three hundred and forty-nine passengers and crew died from both aircraft. Flying in opposite directions at the same altitude. Pan Am Flight 103 was a Boeing 747-121 Destroyed by a terrorist bomb Killed all 243 passengers Iran Air Flight 655 Shot down by US missiles on Sunday 3 July 1988 Killing all 290 passengers and crew aboard, including 66 children, ranking it seventh among the deadliest airline disasters. PartnAir Twinprop 340-80 Sept 8 1989 Chatter plane Caught in Turbulence while flying nearby F -16 Counterfeit or Bogus aircraft spare part ,actuator, bolt Uncertified FAA Black Market Concorde supersonic aircraft(3 km every 6 second) July 25 2000 Take off only 120 second Incursion on runaway Aicraft tyre break attach to wing create spark and explode 113 killed Pan Am747 Lockerbie Oct 26 1988 Structure failure Terrorist Bomb 256 killed Air India 1986 Terrorrist bomb American Eagle Flight 4184 Turbulence Fly various airspace Flight Crew behaviour on the aircraft ATC untrained Aircraft control surface frozen(Icing) Artificial Horizon malfunction
  4. 4. 4 Kazakhstan and Saudi Arabia Head On Collision Mid air collision Flying same altitude difference direction Bumpy ride cause by Turbulence Pilot mislistening ATC Pilot did not pay attention Poor communication Outdated technology ATC need to install new radar equipment April 1975 American Airforce Lockhead C-5A Galaxy Operation Babylift One of the largest plane in the world Cargo door break up Hydraulic leaking Latches not lock properly Crash landing 150 killed 175 survive 747 -400 China Airlines flight 611 Shattered in mid air China worst airlines safety in the world Flight break up Nicotine from cigarette smoke cause corrision on fuselage Shattered on pressurize air Structure failure South African Airways Helderberg 747 combi Smoke on flight Emergency descent open exit door Crash in second 159 killed Alaska Airlines 261 Additional control surface not function Stabilizer jammed 100 killed TWA flight 800 Centifugel fuel tank explode Shattered in pieces on mid air flight Japan Airlines 123 Tail Fin of the Airplane explode and missing in flight Hyraulic failure Pressurrize Pilot get Hypoxia giving wrong command A/c Bulkhead not properly maintain Maintain 30 minutes flying before crash 6 May 1937 Airship Hindenburg 1910 Zeppelin provided the first commercial air service for passenger 3x larger than 747 ,68 mph Explode End of Airship Zeppelin Travel
  5. 5. 5 How It Happen pproximately 80% of all aircraft accidents occur shortly before or during take-off and landing. These are usually said to have been caused by 'pilot error', although these days this is more often referred to as 'human error', to emphasise that pilots are simply human beings. Mid-flight disasters are rare, although not entirely unheard of. They have occasionally been caused by bombs or other terrorist activity, such as the 1988 Lockerbie disaster. Mid-air collisions are unlikely, though they do occasionally happen. Structural failures are also extremely rare, but they have occurred. Other Causes such as Low Visibility,Collision,Bomb on Plane,Navigation Failure,Engine Failure,Control Surface Failure,Icing,Human and others. A survey of 1,843 plane crashes between 1950 and 2006 determined the causes of the accidents to be as follows:- Pilot Error 53% Mechanical Failure 21% Weather 11% Other Human Error (eg lack of communication, improper maintenance etc) 8% Sabotage and Terrorism 6% Other Causes 1% This study, and many previous ones, have always shown pilot and other human error to be significantly higher than all other causes added together. This is now an area on which a lot of research is done. Aspects of aircraft design can play a part in accidents. Inadequate design can make pilot error more likely. For example, in early aircraft, many switches and levers which performed different functions looked very similar. These days it has been realized that this is not a good idea, and everything is done to make sure that pilots cannot mix up the various controls. A
  6. 6. 6 What Problem Causes Aircrash viation accidents occur in a variety of different situations with different kinds of aircraft. The most common aviation accidents are those involving commercial airlines, but many disasters also occur with private airplanes, military aircraft, commercial and private helicopters. The laws and regulations governing plane crashes are based on a variety of factors such as the type of aircraft, the nature of passengers, and the purpose of the flight. There are many reason or problem that can causes Aircrash such as: Nature – Thunderstorm, Jet Wash, Air Pocket, Turbulence,Weather, {in some case Airbus(Lightning Strike)using electrical than mechanical} Human Error – Pilot Mistake, Get Hypoxia,ATC Mistake,Maintenance Problem, Aircraft System Error – Navigation System(IRS),GPS Calibration,Instrument Failure,Engine Failure,Aircraft Control Surface Error. Bird Strike Runaway Incursion Counterfeit or Bogus part ben using for aircraft And, many times, the accidents were avoidable. Structural defects, pilots’ errors,maintenance,deficiencies, design defects, air traffic safety controller decisions and many other factors can contribute to why a plane crashes. The main root cause is human error. In order to try and eliminate this as a source of accidents, crews are requested to follow a strict training routine. Next come aircraft failures, but these are less likely when it comes to modern aircraft. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is the government agency responsible for investigating a crash and determining the cause of an airplane crash. Among the factors attributed by the NTSB for initiating the sequence of occurrences leading to either a minor accident or serious plane crash are pilot error and aircraft malfunction. Even if weather conditions, such as turbulence or ice build up during the cruise or descent phase of the flight, are a factor in a plane going down, these weather conditions generally are foreseeable and the handling of the aircraft in these conditions is part of a pilot’s training. A
  7. 7. 7 Investigation he main federal agencies concerned with aviation regulations and laws are the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and (AAIB) Air Accident Investigation Branch . The FAA is the main regulatory body for aviation safety and standards. It has enforcement powers, as well as the ability to issue and revise regulations related to all aspects of air travel safety research, manufacture, and navigation. When an airplane crash the first thing they need to search is 2 Black Box; The Conversation on The Cockpit and The Flight Data Recorder (FDR) for rescue and search.There are Beacon to this black box but only last for 30 days. On the other hand, the NTSB investigates aviation accidents and offers proposals to enhance future air safety. Another duty of the Board is to function as a "court of appeals" for cases involving pilots or other aviation workers against the FAA. The NTSB has neither regulatory nor enforcement powers. Nine-teen out of 20 passengers survive in plane crash.Nearly half of the plane crash incidents are caused by pilot error.Common causes of air crash (in respective order): mechanical failure, weather, and sabotage.Other causes of air disaster: air traffic control error, bird strike, cabin fire, flaws in aircraft design, explosive devices, fuel starvation, high-jacking, lightning, pilot shot by passengers, pilot incapacitation. The Geneva-based Aircraft Crashes Record Office (ACRO) compiles statistics on aviation accidents of aircraft capable of carrying more than six passengers, not including helicopters, balloons, or fighter airplanes. The ACRO announced that the year 2007 was the safest year in aviation since 1963 in terms of number of accidents Liability in general aviation accidents vary depending on the cause of the accident. T
  8. 8. 8 Solution hen riding planes, it is important that we remember the following tips that can save us or help us survive a plane crash. Studies show that a person who thinks and acts quickly during a plane crash has a better chance of survival compared to people who are panicky and lack knowledge in plane crash survival tips. These are some survival tips according to air safety expert and FFA investigator : 1. Passengers should know the location of each emergency exit. Count the rows between the seat and the nearest emergency exit so in case that the cabin is filled with smoke, passengers can find their way out. 2. Always read the safety procedure and emergency plans which are posted from the back of each seat. 3. Know the proper position when there is an emergency landing. Passengers should sit in a brace position (head down and hug knees). 4. Stay low when the cabin is filled with smoke and crawl immediately toward the exit. 5. Get away from the crash site as soon as possible. 6. Wear long-sleeves and pants that will provide better insulation in case of a fire. Closed shoes are also better than flip-flops and sandals to protect the feet from sharp debris, metals, and broken glasses. According to experts, the first minute and a half after the accident is the most crucial period. After the plane crashes, fire often follows. According to a study, most passengers will not die from a burn injury but from inhalation of toxic fumes.People who sit near the tail of a plane are 40 percent more likely to survive compared to those passengers sitting in the first few rows near the cockpit. Boeing and Airbus both place huge emphasis on aircraft safety equipment, which is now a billion dollar industry in its own right. Major safety devices now standard in modern aircraft include: Evacuation Slides to aid passenger escape in a major emergency Advanced avionics such as computerized auto-recovery systems and alert systems Improvements in turbine engine durability Landing gear that can be lowered even after loss of power and hydraulics. Train and experience Flight Crew Aircraft part Certified by FAA W
  9. 9. 9 CONCLUSION any major problem can causes an Aircrash but mostly of human error.To ensure safety flight the passenger and crew need to follow the instruction carefully.Safety on the aircraft is important.On maintenance part the person who incharge should make sure all the compartment is in good condition and to maintain regularly.But accident can happen. To be safe, the Federal Aviation Authority advices passengers to count the rows between their seats and the exit as this will give them an idea of how far they are away.Dress Accordingly. One way of surviving a plane crash with fewer injuries is by wearing comfortable clothes wherein one can run and move around with lesser effort. It would not be ideal to wear high-heels, skirts, slippers, and other similar attire when boarding planes as they will not be helpful in running or sliding down the fabric in case of emergency.Wearing of comfortable jeans, lace-up shoes and comfortable top is more effective in surviving plane accidents.Read and Listen to Safety Information. Some ignore pre-flight instructions given by attendants as they have heard it all before. But, passengers must keep in mind the safety information as it could help them decide of what should be done in a flight glitch. Reading the information card found in front of seats will further educate passengers of actions they can do in events of these unfortunate accidents.Be Ready for Landing. In case there would be an emergency landing, passengers might have time to position themselves correctly to reduce the risk of injuries during impact. Also, passengers of a plane that needs to land should keep away sharp objects that may cause harm to him or to other passengers. Correct landing positions are indicated in the information card and will possibly prevent whiplash or concussions.Get Away From the Plane. After the plane lands and passengers are able to move, they must quickly evacuate the aircraft as there is a high possibility that it will explode or be burned. The above are just some of the things that will help you in case you meet an unfortunate aircraft accident. These accidents can be caused by pilot error, mechanical failure, or many other factors that could go wrong in your flight. One must always keep in mind the above Plane Crash Survival Tips as it can help in surviving a tragedy such as a plane crash. Make sure all the aircraft part is qualified by FAA.There 95% part using in airlines are counterfeit sell in Black Market.Theres more than 5000 company that making this business. M
  10. 10. 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. For Books: Author(s) Year Title City Publisher AMC 2010 Airport Management KL AMC 2. For Internet Sources: Article Title URL (Internet Site Address) National Geographic Aircraft Investigation Mayday Aircrash Disaster Surviving Aircrash Passengers-Can-Do/659586 1001 Aircrash Aviation Accident Database Aviation Accident Attorney commercial-airline Genereal Law Litigation-In-Plane-Accidents/670097 The Causes of Aircraash a96858 Plane Crash Survival Tips Improving-Your-Chances-Of-Surviving-In-Air-Accident/642009 Aviation accident & incident 3. For Educated Person and Other Periodicals: Name(s) Position Zuliana bt Ismail Lecturer