think green

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think green

  1. 1. A Presentation on THINK GREEN “Environmental Awareness” PADMA DHAR GARG M. Tech (NIT – JAIPUR)
  2. 2. Pollution Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment Major types of pollution: • Water pollution • Air pollution • Land pollution • Noise pollution
  3. 3. Water Pollution
  4. 4. Causes of water pollution Point sources Waste from factories Waste from sewage system Waste from power plants Waste from underground coalmines Waste from oil wells Non-point sources Carried by rain and snow from land Fertilizers runoff Deposition of air pollutants Storm water drainage
  5. 5. Effects of water pollution
  6. 6. Air pollution
  7. 7. Causes of air pollution • Incomplete combustion from heaters furnaces and vehicles • Burning fossil fuels • Motor vehicles and industries • Sulfur containing compounds of fossil fuels • Burning of fossil fuels • Deforestation Carbon dioxide Sulfur dioxide Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides
  8. 8. Causes of air pollution •Wild fire •Methane from live stock •Volcanic eruptions •Air-conditioning and refrigerants •Diesel engines •Power plants •Windblown dust •Wood stoves •Metal refineries •Battery manufacturers Lead Particulate matter Natural pollutants CFCs
  9. 9. Consequences of Air Pollution
  10. 10. Greenhouse Effect
  11. 11. Greenhouse Effect
  12. 12. Global Warming
  13. 13. Acid Rain
  14. 14. Acid Rain Effects
  15. 15. Ozone Layer Depletion
  16. 16. Ozone Layer Depletion Effects • Effects on humans • Decreased immunity • Skin cancer • Eye damage • Increased production of vitamin D • Effects on crop • Reduction in crop yield • Effects on marine life • Lower fish harvests
  17. 17. Land Pollution
  18. 18. Causes of Land Pollution • Construction • Agriculture • Domestic waste • Industrial waste
  19. 19. Effects of Land Pollution • Deforestation • Reduced animal shelter • Soil degradation • Ground water pollution • Animals and birds fatality • Intoxication of fruits, vegetables and crop
  20. 20. Noise Pollution
  21. 21. Causes of Noise Pollution Noise pollution sources Stationary Mobile Traffic Industrial Construction Neighborhood
  22. 22. Effects of Noise Pollution
  23. 23. Singrauli Son river
  24. 24. POWER PLANT DETAIL UNIT MW SSTPP NTPC ltd. 2000 Existing VSTPP (NTPC) NTPC ltd. 4260 Existing RhSTPP (NTPC) NTPC ltd. 3000 Existing Sasan ultra mega power project Reliance power ltd. 3960 Under construction Chitrangi power project Reliance power ltd. 3960 Under construction Mahan super thermal power project Essar global 1800 Under construction Mahan captive thermal power plant Hindalco industries Ltd. 900 Under construction Jaypee nigrie super thermal power project Jaypee group 2640 Under construction DB power M.P.Limited Dainik bhaskar 1320 Under construction Renu sagar Hindalco industries Ltd. 960 Existing Anpara UPSEB Govt. of U.P. 1630 Existing LANCO power anpara LANCO power 1200 Existing Anpara D BHEL & Govt. of U.P. 1200 Under construction
  25. 25. Air quality standards in India Pollutants Time-weighted average Industrial areas Residential rural and other areas Sensitive areas Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Annual average 24 hours 80 µg/m3 120 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 Oxide of Nitrogen as (NOx) Annual average 24 hours 80 µg/m3 120 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 Suspended particulate matter (SPM) Annual average 24 hours 360 µg/m3 500 µg/m3 140 µg/m3 200 µg/m3 70 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 Respire-able particulate matter (RPM) Annual average 24 hours 120 µg/m3 150 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 50 µg/m3 75 µg/m3 Source: Air Pollution Control in India: Getting the Prices Right by Maureen Cropper, Shama Gamkhar, Kabir Malik, Alex Limonov, and Ian Partridge, January 3, 2012
  26. 26. Emission standards in India Capacity` Pollutant Emission limit Coal based thermal power plant Below 210 MW Particulate matter 350 mg/Nm3 Above 210 MW Particulate matter 150 mg/Nm3 Units located in protective areas irrespective of generation capcity Particulate matter 150 mg/Nm3 Power generation capacity Stack height (meters) Less than 200/210 MW H = 14 (Q) 0.3 Where Q is emission rate of SO2 in kg/hr H = stack height in meters 200/210 MW or less than 500 MW 220 500 MW and above 275 Source: Air Pollution Control in India: Getting the Prices Right by Maureen Cropper, Shama Gamkhar, Kabir Malik, Alex Limonov, and Ian Partridge, January 3, 2012
  27. 27. Distribution of deaths attribution to emission in India (In 2008) Pollutants No. of deaths Total deaths per plant PM 2.5 29 SO2 499 NOx 123 Total 659 Deaths per ton of emission PM 2.5 0.023 SO2 0.010 Nox 0.009 Source: Air Pollution Control in India: Getting the Prices Right by Maureen Cropper, Shama Gamkhar, Kabir Malik, Alex Limonov, and Ian Partridge, January 3, 2012
  28. 28. SHARDA DEVELOPMENT & ENVIRONMENT COORDINATION COMMITTEE, SINGRAULI Regd. NGO with Govt. of India
  29. 29. Objectives of • To eradicate the ill-effects of development and effecting our environment directly or indirectly. • To bring positive changes in the society by public awareness. • To reduce the side effects of the rapid development and commercialization on agricultural sector through better use of technology. • To curb the root cause for the growth of bacteria, viruses’ causing seasonal diseases is to be prevented. • To provide technical monitoring of pollution. • To reduce domestic pollution. • To compensate pollution by increasing green area.
  30. 30. Plantation of trees Trees: • Help to settle out, trap and hold particle pollutants (dust, ash, pollen and smoke) that can damage human lungs. • Absorb CO2 and other dangerous gasses and, in turn, replenish the atmosphere with oxygen. • Produce enough oxygen on each acre for 18 people every day. • Absorb enough CO2 on each acre, over a year's time, to equal the amount you produce when you drive your car 26,000 miles.
  31. 31. How trees help reduce pollution
  32. 32. Collection and disposal of domestic waste • Distribution of dustbins to each house. • Collection and proper disposal of domestic waste with the help of Nagar Nigam. • Recycling of the waste as much as possible.
  33. 33. • Every year, around 500 billion (500,000,000,000) plastic bags are used worldwide. • India's plastics consumption is one of the highest in the world. Plastic
  34. 34. Non-biodegradable
  35. 35. Kills animal life
  36. 36. Pollutes and degrades environment
  37. 37. Has adverse effects on human health • The daily used polybag contains lead and cadmium. • lead and cadmium are toxic elements which can adversely effect human body.
  38. 38. • If burnt, releases Hydrogen Cyanide, a carcinogenic gas. Contributes all types of pollution
  39. 39. Polythene Bag Substitute
  40. 40. Polythene Bag Substitute JUTE BAGS PAPER BAGS
  41. 41. Why should we shift from Polythene Bags? • Non biodegradable • If dumped in the soil causes harm to the plant life • Threatens the life in the water bodies • Polythene is harmful for animals if swallowed
  42. 42. How are Jute Bags made? • Jute bags are manufactured from natural jute and can be bought at a very cheap price starting from Rs.20
  43. 43. Advantages Of Jute bag • Biodegradable • One of the strongest natural fibers • Relatively cheap to buy • Durable • Jute crops require little water • Jute has low pesticide and fertilizer needs.
  44. 44. Advantages Of Jute bag
  45. 45. Advantages Of Paper Bags • 100% reusable, recyclable and biodegradable. • Can be made at home too. • A renewable resource - comes from trees. • Require less energy than plastic to be recycled • Pose less of a threat to wildlife
  46. 46. Other Remedies • Fabric biodegradable bags. • Foldable a cotton bags for Ladies. • Reusable Nylon bags. • Donate old news papers to make paper bags and packets. • Use a wicker basket.
  47. 47. Fly Ash
  48. 48. Fly Ash based bricks
  49. 49. Structures made from Fly Ash bricks Then Now
  50. 50. Structures made from Fly Ash Germany Spain Denmark Greece France
  51. 51. Comparison of fly ash based bricks with clay burn bricks Sl. No. Items Conventional clay burnt bricks Fly Ash based bricks 1. Dimension in mm(LXWXH) 250mmX125 mmX75mm 190mmX90 mmX90mm 230mmX110 mmX75 2. Colour Red Grey Grey 3. Basic Ingredient earth or clay fly ash fly ash 4. Density (gm/cc) 1.60-1.70 1.80-1.90 1.80-1.90 5. Dry weight(in kgs) 3.75-4.00 2.80-2.90 3.3- 3.5 6. Common building bricks compressive strength (kg/cm2) 50-65 70-90 75-100 7. Water absorption (in %) 15-25 10-15 10-15 8. Breakage 5-7 1/2 percent Less than 1% Less than 1%

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