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Introduction to satellite communication


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Introduction to satellite communication

  1. 1. Introduction to satellite communication<br />
  2. 2. Contents:<br /> What is satellite?<br />About Satellite Communication<br />Classification of Satellite Communication<br />Kepler’s laws<br />
  3. 3. What is satellite?<br />A Satellite is a solid object which revolves around some heavenly body due to the effect of gravitational forces which are mutual in nature. <br />The first satellite that was used for communication purpose in INDIA was ARYABHATTA and it was launched in 19th April.1975. <br />It was made and assembled by an organization called Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). <br />In the year 1981, a satellite named APPLE was launched in space which was the first Indian Experimental communication satellite<br />
  4. 4. Satellite Communication System:<br />
  6. 6. Active Satellite:<br />Active satellites are complicated structures having a processing equipment called Transponder which is very vital for functioning of the satellite. <br />These transponders serve dual purpose i.e. provides amplification of the incoming signal and performs the frequency translation of the incoming signal to avoid interference between the two signals.   <br />
  7. 7. Passive Satellite:<br />Passive satellites are relay stations in space. <br />A passive satellite can be further subdivided into two types, namely Natural satellites and artificial satellites.<br />A moon is a natural satellite of earth. <br />But spherical balloon with metal coated plastic serve as artificial satellites.<br />
  8. 8. History of Kepler<br />Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer and mathematician of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. <br />His work was largely based on the work of his mentor, Tycho Brahe. <br />Kepler was able to use Bahe's precise measurements (made before telescopes) to determine, mostly by trial and error, three laws that described the motion of the five planets then known.<br />
  9. 9. Three laws of Planetary Motion:<br />Law of orbit<br />Law of areas<br />Law of Time period<br />
  10. 10. Law of orbit:<br />The orbit of a planet/comet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun's center of mass at one focus<br />This is the equation for an ellipse: <br />  <br />
  11. 11. Law of Area:<br />A line joining a planet/comet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.<br />
  12. 12. This empirical law discovered by Kepler arises from conservation of angular momentum.<br />Thus, a planet executes elliptical motion with constantly changing angular speed as it moves about its orbit.<br />
  13. 13. Law of Time Period:<br />The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their semimajor axes:<br />Ta2 / Tb2 = Ra3 / Rb3<br />Kepler's Third Law implies that the period for a planet to orbit the Sun increases rapidly with the radius of its orbit. <br />Thus, we find that Mercury, the innermost planet, takes only 88 days to orbit the Sun but the outermost planet (Pluto) requires 248 years to do the same.<br />
  14. 14. Graph showing time taken by each Planets to orbit the sun<br />
  15. 15. Thought N Taught By Padmasree.J<br />