Pamela B. WitterGeorgia Southern University ITEC 7530 – Module 4 Dr. Kennedy
Children struggling in school with delayed skills or other disabilitiesmay qualify for support services, allowing them to be taught in a specialway.The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004 is a lawensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation.IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide earlyintervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.The goal of IDEA is to keep students in the least restrictiveenvironment so an effort is made to keep students in the generalclassroom as much as possible. = Reference http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/learning/iep.html For more information about IDEA, visit http://idea.ed.gov
1. Teacher, parent or doctor initiates communications regarding a student having difficulty in the classroom2. Teacher notifies school counselor or psychologist3. Information is gathered and compiled regarding the students progress or academic issues4. Child may be tested for a specific learning disability or other impairment to help determine qualification for special services. 1. To be eligible for special services, the disability must affect functioning at school. 2. To determine eligibility, a multidisciplinary team of professionals will evaluate the child based on their observations; the childs performance on standardized tests; and daily work such as tests, quizzes, classwork, and homework5. Evaluation team develops a comprehensive evaluation report (CER) that compiles their findings, offers an educational classification, and outlines the skills and support the child will need.
If a child is identified as a special needs student:1. Team develops an Individualized Development Program (IEP). IEPs provide specific, measurable short-term and annual goals for each of the student’s needs. 1. Review the IEP annually to update the goals and make sure the levels of service meet the student’s needs. IEPs may be changed at any time on an as-needed basis.2. Support services may include special education, speech therapy, occupational or physical therapy, counseling, audiology, medical services, nursing, vision or hearing therapy, and many others.Reference: Kid’s Health from Nemours. Individualized Education Programs Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/learning/iep.html#
Differential Instruction (sometimes referred to as differentiated learning) involves providing students with different avenues to acquiring content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiated_instructionAdditional Resources:TeachNology at http://www.teach- nology.com/tutorials/teaching/differentiate/planning/Partners in Learning at http://performancepyramid.muohio.edu/Differentiated- Instruction.html
•Children with disabilities often require assistance to enhancesocial, emotional and cognitive growth.•Many technologies are available from low to high tech, butthey are often under utilized.•Assistive technology (AT) helps students participate inactivities as independently as possible.•Technology helps students move, communicate andparticipate.Reference: LD Online at http://www.ldonline.org/article/8088
Assistive technology or adaptive technology (AT) isan umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, andrehabilitative devices for people with disabilities and alsoincludes the process used in selecting, locating, and usingthem. AT promotes greater independence by enabling peopleto perform tasks that they were formerly unable toaccomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, byproviding enhancements to or changed methods ofinteracting with the technology needed to accomplish suchtasks.Reference: Assistive Technology - Wikipedia athttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assistive_technology
"No-technology" or "no-tech" refers to any assistive devicethat is not electronic. No-tech items range from a piece offoam glued onto the corners of book pages to make turningeasier to a study carrel to reduce distraction. "Low-technology" or "low-tech" devices are electronic but do notinclude highly sophisticated computer components, suchas an electronic voice-recording device or a "talking watch"(Behrmann & Schaff, 2001). "High-technology" or "high-tech" devices utilize complex, multifunction technologyand usually include a computer and associated software.Reference: Education.com athttp://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Assistive_Technology/
Step 1: Collect child and family information. Begin the discussionabout the child’s strengths, abilities, preferences and needs. Whatstrategies have been found to work best?Step 2: Identify activities for participation. Discuss the variousactivities within the environments that a child encounters throughoutthe day. What is preventing him/her from participating more?Step 3: What can be observed that indicates the intervention issuccessful? What is his/her current level of participation and whatobservable behaviors will reflect an increase in independentinteractions? What changes (e.g., number of initiations, expressionattempts, responses, reactions, etc.) will you look for?
Step 4: Brainstorm AT solutions. With the activity and desiredoutcomes established, you are now ready to discuss possible solutionswith educators, family members, physical therapist, and other peoplewith whom the child interacts on a weekly basis. Do the child’s needsinclude supports for movement, communication and/or use ofmaterials? Start with what is available in the environment (what otherchildren use) and consider adaptations to those materials. A range ofoptions that address specific support areas should be considered.
Step 5: Try it out. Determine when the AT intervention will begin andcreate an observation plan to record how the child participates with theAT supports.Step 6: Identify what worked. Selecting AT interventions is acontinuous learning opportunity. Reflect on your plan and discuss whatworked. What didn’t work? What should be done differently? Makemodifications as needed and try again. Only by trying the AT cancertain factors such as technology placement, amount of force,mounting, number of choices, etc. be determined and adjusted.Reference: LD Online at http://www.ldonline.org/article/8088
You are a teacher who has a few students that require you to differentiate your instruction. Three have been diagnosed with ADHD, while one has an auditory disability, and requires a special device in order to hear. In addition, you have a number of students that have mild learning disabilities that impact all areas, especially reading and writing. As you prepare for the school year, you ask yourself, "What resources do I have in order to help me meet my students needs?"
Children with ADHD often have difficulty adjusting to thestructured environment of a classroom, determining whatis important, and focusing on their assigned work. They areeasily distracted by other children or by nearby activities inthe classroom. Resources should be individualized. ADHD – High TechBuilt on technology originally used by NASA and the U.S. Air Force, thesolution–called “Play Attention”–reportedly taps into brain wavesthrough a red bike helmet lined with sensors. The sensors sendinformation to a computer that in turn controls the outcome ofscenarios on the computer screen. As the brain waves change, theoutcome on the computer screen changes.Reference eSchoolNews at http://www.eschoolnews.com/2004/07/29/new-technology-offers-help-for-adhd-students/
ADHD – No/Low Tech•Assign student a seat with the least distractions while in closeproximity to the teacher•Eliminate excessive noise•Eliminate excessive visual stimuli and classroom clutter•Keep directions short and to the point•Provide an individualized written schedule•Allow student to chew gum to burn excess energy and keep theirmouth engagedReference LO Online at http://www.ldonline.org/article/8797#instructional
Auditory– High Tech•Personal FM systems can send a teacher’s voice from a wirelessmicrophone worn by the teacher through FM radio waves directly to asmall receiver worn by the student with hearing loss.•Soundfield systems send the teacher’s voice from a microphone toone or more speakers positioned close to the child or mounted to awall. This allows more than one student to use the systemsimultaneously.•Infra-red (IR) systems through which sound is transmitted usinginfrared light waves.Reference: American Speech Language Hearing Association athttp://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Hearing-Assistive-Technology-for-Children/
Auditory – Low Tech•Translation Services are available which allow the words of aspeaker to be transcribed, by a trained individual using akeyboard, into text displayed on a monitor, screen, or laptopcomputer, used by the students who are hard of hearing ordeaf.•Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM) may be aconsideration as hearing loss can impact competency inreading.Reference: American Speech Language Hearing Association athttp://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Hearing-Assistive-Technology-for-Children/
Mild Learning Disability– High Tech•Word Processing /Proofreading Software•Speech Recognition Software•Audio Books and Publication•Optical Character Recognition Devices•Alternative/Overlay Keyboards•Paper-Based Computer PensReference: Great Schools at http://www.greatschools.org/special-education/assistive-technology/702-assistive-technology-for-kids-with-learning-disabilities-an-overview.gs
Mild Learning Disability – Low Tech•Graphic Organizers•Light Board•Grip Pens•Book Holders•Page Turners•HighlightersReference: Great Schools at http://www.greatschools.org/special-education/assistive-technology/702-assistive-technology-for-kids-with-learning-disabilities-an-overview.gs
Georgia Project for Assistive Technology athttp://www.gpat.org/resources.aspx?PageReq=GPATImpp