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Differentiating Instruction to
Advance Literacy: Utilizing the
Past to Perfect the Future
NCSS 2010
Dr. Susan Santoli
Dr. ...
Session Overview
• Experiences in Differentiation?
• What is Differentiation?
• Differentiation Strategies
• Tips for Impl...
Imagine these scenarios…
Not all students are alike!
• Varying background knowledge
• Readiness
• Language
• Preferences in learning
• Interests
• ...
When you hear “differentiated
instruction,” what comes to
mind??
What Differentiated
Instruction IS
• Having a vision of success for students
• Realizing that not all students learn the s...
What Differentiated
Instruction IS NOT
• A different lesson plan for each student each day
• Assuming that all students le...
Elements of Differentiation
• The teacher focuses on the essentials
• The teacher attends to student differences
• Assessm...
• The teacher balances group and individual
norms.
• Teacher and students work together
flexibly.
All differentiation begins with
assessment!
Assessment
• Assessment is today’s
means of
understanding how to
modify tomorrow’s
instruction
• Think of assessment
for l...
The What…
1. Content
2. Process
3. Product
The How…
1. Readiness
2. Interest
3. Learning Profile
Content Process Product
According to Students’
Readiness Interest
Learning
Profile
Teachers Can Differentiate
The Access C...
Instructional Strategies that
Support Differentiation
• Anchor Activities
• Centers/Stations
• Layered Curriculum
• Tiered...
What do you do when…
– Students finish work early
and correctly
– Students finish tests or in
class assignments at
differe...
Anchor Activity
• Student activities that are designed to
extend and review already learned skills
• Self directed
• Can f...
Using Anchor Activities to
Create Groups
Teach the whole class to work independently and
quietly on the anchor activity.
H...
Examples of Anchor
Activities
• Journals or learning
logs
• Supplementary
readings
• Learning packets
• Learning/Interest
...
Examples of Anchor
Activities
Examples of Specific Anchor Activities
Enrichment Activities sites from sources such as
read...
ABC Books:
ABCs for Baby Patriots
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?m=hd1J&i=108500
Student ABC Book on World War I
What are some anchor activities
that you have used or might
use?
– Teacher creates an agenda that will last 2-3
weeks
– A particular time is set aside as agenda time
(each day, each week)...
Examples of Think Tac Toe
Projects
• East Asia
• 2008 Presidential Election
• American Presidents
• Industrial Revolution
Centers/Stations
• Spots for concentrated work on particular
skills or assignments or areas that students
move through tha...
Layered Curriculum
• Students have a variety of activities from
which to choose
• Choices are presented in layers, where
e...
Layered Examples
• Geography
• Egypt
• Economics
• Kathy Nunnley site
• Tiered Activities-used when a teacher
wants to make sure that students with
different learning needs work with the
same ...
• Great Depression Tiered Lesson Plan-
Library of Congress
http://web.archive.org/web/20070316174958/http://www.
primaryso...
Same content information,
different LEARNING PROCESS
• Everyone will answer these questions:
1. Describe what you see in the photograph.
Include as much detail as possible.
2....
• Tier 1: If we could hear the people talking
about their life, what would they be
saying?
• Tier 2: From what you see in ...
Same content information, same analysis
process, different PRODUCTS
• Tier 1: Create a timeline of the Dust Bowl and Great
Depression era. Include the following 10 events with
accompanying v...
Same task, 3 different
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Choose one of the primary sources below. Examine both
the information about ...
Tier 1: Dorothea Lange Photograph
of the Migrant Mother, 1936
Tier 2: Mrs. Mary Sullivan-August,
1940
A Traveler’s Line
Tier 3: American Life Histories,
Manuscript from the Federal
Writer’s Project, North Carolina,
1938
Nina Boone-North Carol...
Reflection
Academic/Learning
Contracts
Grapes of Wrath
•Written agreements between students and teachers
•What students will learn
•H...
Entry Points
• Middle Ages
• Immigration
• Industrial Revolution
Fandex Masters of
Western Art: Painters
Content Springboard for Academic/Learning Contract
• Written agreements between st...
• Entry points-based on Gardner’s Theory of
Multiple Intelligences
– Begin topic with overview for whole class
– Allow stu...
Multiple Intelligences & The Arts
• Write and perform a song to teach concepts
• Creating charts, posters, graphs, or diag...
Geography
American History
Symbolism
Descriptive Words
Language
Visual Literacy
Consumerism
Pop Art, Collage & Recycling
Y...
Compacting
• Requires pre-assessment before beginning unit
of study or development of a skill
• Students who do well on th...
http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enriched/
giftedprograms/docs/ppts/compactingfixed.ppt
General Compacting Example
The Crusades
Web Quests Students complete an online quest
Think Quests Students create an onlin...
Getting Started….
• Start small
– Start with your favorite unit/lesson plan
– Begin by teaching all students an anchor act...
– Assess students before you begin to teach a skill or
topic
– Try creating one differentiated lesson per unit
– Different...
You cannot differentiate everything for
everyone every day!
Differentiation is an organized yet flexible
way of proactivel...
Differentiated Instruction
and ELL Students
• Differentiation benefits all students and is
especially effective for ELL st...
Social Studies can present
special challenges for ELLs
• Use of higher level thinking skills required
for reading and writ...
• Difficulty understanding what is said by the
teacher and being able to take notes
• Differences in educational system
• ...
Strategies
• Books on CD
• Open book quizzes
• Alternative projects
• Fill in the blank before essay
• Essays that relate ...
Making Content
Comprehensible
• Use illustrations/pictures
• Act it out
• Enlist the help of a bilingual dictionary or
wor...
Inviting ELLs to Achieve
• Plans some lessons/activities that are
relevant to the lives of ELL students
• Provide hands-on...
More classroom tips
• Avoid forcing students to speak
• Emphasize key words and concepts
• Use lots of repetitions
• Check...
Questioning Strategies
• “Point to the answer” strategy
• “Yes-no” with visual aid
• Break complex questions or tasks into...
Drama
• Charades/pantomime
• Readers’ Theatre
• Act as I read
• Create a Character
• Set Designing
• Puppets
Advance Preparation
• What vocabulary will be difficult
• What connections can I make to other
knowledge?
• What strategie...
• Clearly defined and written objectives
• Organizers, outlines, labels and pictures
• Supplementary materials
• Make it r...
Resources
Social Studies Activities and Handouts
Including English Language Learners in Social
Studies (ppt) presented by ...
• Making Social Studies Meaningful for ELL Students: Content and
Pedagogy in Mainstream Secondary School Classrooms
http:/...
Understanding the WIDA English Language
Proficiency Standards: A Resource Guide,
2007 Edition
http://www.wida.us/standards...
Questions or Comments?
Dr. Susan Santoli
ssantoli@usouthal.edu
Dr. Paige V. Baggett
pbaggett@usouthal.edu
Dr. Susan Fergus...
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1. final differentiated instruction workshop ncss 2010

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Differentiating Instruction to Advance LiteracyL Utilizing the Past to Perfect the future

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1. final differentiated instruction workshop ncss 2010

  1. 1. Differentiating Instruction to Advance Literacy: Utilizing the Past to Perfect the Future NCSS 2010 Dr. Susan Santoli Dr. Paige Baggett Dr. Susan Ferguson University of South Alabama Mobile, AL
  2. 2. Session Overview • Experiences in Differentiation? • What is Differentiation? • Differentiation Strategies • Tips for Implementing Differentiation • Differentiation Practice • Differentiating for ELL Students • Differentiation Practice • Resources
  3. 3. Imagine these scenarios…
  4. 4. Not all students are alike! • Varying background knowledge • Readiness • Language • Preferences in learning • Interests • Motivation
  5. 5. When you hear “differentiated instruction,” what comes to mind??
  6. 6. What Differentiated Instruction IS • Having a vision of success for students • Realizing that not all students learn the same way • Allowing students some choice in their routes to learning • Providing opportunities for students to demonstrate knowledge they know and move forward • Offering lessons of varying degrees of difficulty to meet the same standard • Combining whole class instruction with individual and/or group work
  7. 7. What Differentiated Instruction IS NOT • A different lesson plan for each student each day • Assuming that all students learn by listening and writing • Assigning more work to students who have demonstrated mastery • Only for students who need acceleration • Giving all students the same work/assignments all of the time
  8. 8. Elements of Differentiation • The teacher focuses on the essentials • The teacher attends to student differences • Assessment and instruction are inseparable • The teacher adapts content, process and/or products • All students participate in respectful work • Collaboration between teacher and student
  9. 9. • The teacher balances group and individual norms. • Teacher and students work together flexibly.
  10. 10. All differentiation begins with assessment!
  11. 11. Assessment • Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction • Think of assessment for learning vs. assessment of learning • Assessment should always have more to do with helping students grow, than cataloging their mistakes From Carol Ann Tomlinson
  12. 12. The What… 1. Content 2. Process 3. Product
  13. 13. The How… 1. Readiness 2. Interest 3. Learning Profile
  14. 14. Content Process Product According to Students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Teachers Can Differentiate The Access Center. Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)
  15. 15. Instructional Strategies that Support Differentiation • Anchor Activities • Centers/Stations • Layered Curriculum • Tiered Lessons • Entry Points • Use of the Arts • Academic Contracts • Compacting
  16. 16. What do you do when… – Students finish work early and correctly – Students finish tests or in class assignments at different rates – You need to work with certain students on specific information/skills
  17. 17. Anchor Activity • Student activities that are designed to extend and review already learned skills • Self directed • Can free up classroom teacher to work with small groups or individual students • Can be used to begin the day, when students complete an assignment, when students are stuck and waiting for help (Tomlinson, 2001)
  18. 18. Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups Teach the whole class to work independently and quietly on the anchor activity. Half the class works on anchor activity. Other half works on a different activity. Flip-Flop 1/3 works on anchor activity. 1/3 works on a different activity. 1/3 works with teacher---direct instruction. 1 2 3 www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enriched/giftedprograms/docs/anchor.ppt
  19. 19. Examples of Anchor Activities • Journals or learning logs • Supplementary readings • Learning packets • Learning/Interest Centers • Investigations • Research projects • Think-tac-toe (example to follow) • Learning Contracts (example to follow) • Webquests or web activities • Silent reading
  20. 20. Examples of Anchor Activities Examples of Specific Anchor Activities Enrichment Activities sites from sources such as readwritethink from the International Reading Association (http://www.readwritethink.org) Others might include: • Content related crossword puzzles • A listening center • A video center • Learning packets on specific information or a specific skill ABC Books
  21. 21. ABC Books: ABCs for Baby Patriots http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?m=hd1J&i=108500
  22. 22. Student ABC Book on World War I
  23. 23. What are some anchor activities that you have used or might use?
  24. 24. – Teacher creates an agenda that will last 2-3 weeks – A particular time is set aside as agenda time (each day, each week) – Students generally determine the order in which they’ll complete agenda items – This could also be a choice of projects or assignments Agendas-personalized list of tasks that a student must complete in a specified time
  25. 25. Examples of Think Tac Toe Projects • East Asia • 2008 Presidential Election • American Presidents • Industrial Revolution
  26. 26. Centers/Stations • Spots for concentrated work on particular skills or assignments or areas that students move through that contain different assignments • Holocaust Centers • Environmental Center
  27. 27. Layered Curriculum • Students have a variety of activities from which to choose • Choices are presented in layers, where each represents a different type of thinking or depth of understanding • C represents Core Concepts • B represents Application • A represents Critical Thinking
  28. 28. Layered Examples • Geography • Egypt • Economics • Kathy Nunnley site
  29. 29. • Tiered Activities-used when a teacher wants to make sure that students with different learning needs work with the same essential ideas and use the same study skills Examples from ss textbook resources
  30. 30. • Great Depression Tiered Lesson Plan- Library of Congress http://web.archive.org/web/20070316174958/http://www. primarysourcelearning.org/teach/best_practices/diff_inst ruct_bulletin_sec.pdf • Standard for lesson plan: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by identifying the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal.
  31. 31. Same content information, different LEARNING PROCESS
  32. 32. • Everyone will answer these questions: 1. Describe what you see in the photograph. Include as much detail as possible. 2. Compare and contrast your home to the home you see in the photograph. What is similar and what is different? 3. In addition to the first two questions, student pairs will each receive one of the following questions based on academic readiness level.
  33. 33. • Tier 1: If we could hear the people talking about their life, what would they be saying? • Tier 2: From what you see in the photograph, explain how you think this room might be used by the family and why. • Tier 3: Assess the Great Depression’s social and economic impact on this family from the evidence in the photo.
  34. 34. Same content information, same analysis process, different PRODUCTS
  35. 35. • Tier 1: Create a timeline of the Dust Bowl and Great Depression era. Include the following 10 events with accompanying visuals and written description. • Tier 2: Create a scrapbook depicting the life of a child affected by the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. Include information about where the child lives, his/her family’s economic and social situation, recreation, education, and prospects for the future. • Tier 3: In the role of a political candidate, create a persuasive speech proposing actions to address the concerns of the Dust Bowl farmers during the Great Depression. Incorporate information about the farmers’ economic, social and political problems and propose how the government can and cannot assist them. Support your plan with evidence from both primary and secondary sources.
  36. 36. Same task, 3 different SOURCES OF INFORMATION Choose one of the primary sources below. Examine both the information about the item and the item itself. Take notes of important details that will help you answer the following question: WHAT WERE SOME OF THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION ON PEOPLE?
  37. 37. Tier 1: Dorothea Lange Photograph of the Migrant Mother, 1936
  38. 38. Tier 2: Mrs. Mary Sullivan-August, 1940 A Traveler’s Line
  39. 39. Tier 3: American Life Histories, Manuscript from the Federal Writer’s Project, North Carolina, 1938 Nina Boone-North Carolina
  40. 40. Reflection
  41. 41. Academic/Learning Contracts Grapes of Wrath •Written agreements between students and teachers •What students will learn •How they will learn it •Time period for learning experience •How they will be evaluated •Usually opportunity for student choice •Could be tiered activities •Could be an anchor activity
  42. 42. Entry Points • Middle Ages • Immigration • Industrial Revolution
  43. 43. Fandex Masters of Western Art: Painters Content Springboard for Academic/Learning Contract • Written agreements between students and teachers • What students will learn • How they will learn it • Time period for learning experience • How they will be evaluated • Usually opportunity for student choice • Could be tiered activities • Could be an anchor activity
  44. 44. • Entry points-based on Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences – Begin topic with overview for whole class – Allow students to select entry points for investigation Source: http://connect.in.com/gardner-multiple-intelligence/photos-1-1-1-1501aebf4e77af79d3a75ba0a40e8173.html
  45. 45. Multiple Intelligences & The Arts • Write and perform a song to teach concepts • Creating charts, posters, graphs, or diagrams • Creating a Web page or PowerPoint project • Making a videotape or film • Creating pie charts, bar graphs, etc. • Making a photo album • Creating a collage • Designing a mindmap • Making a map • Using color and shape • Developing or using Guided Imagery • Understanding Color Schemes Multiple Intelligences & Social Studies
  46. 46. Geography American History Symbolism Descriptive Words Language Visual Literacy Consumerism Pop Art, Collage & Recycling Your ideas
  47. 47. Compacting • Requires pre-assessment before beginning unit of study or development of a skill • Students who do well on the pre-assessment should not have to continue work on what they already know • A plan for meaningful and challenging use of student time will be developed • Can also be used in giving homework assignments
  48. 48. http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enriched/ giftedprograms/docs/ppts/compactingfixed.ppt
  49. 49. General Compacting Example The Crusades Web Quests Students complete an online quest Think Quests Students create an online quest or complete one posted by other students
  50. 50. Getting Started…. • Start small – Start with your favorite unit/lesson plan – Begin by teaching all students an anchor activity- meaningful work done individually and silently – Early on, you may want to ask some students to work with anchor activity and others to work on a different task which also requires no conversation or collaboration – Try a differentiated tasks for only a small block of time – Grow slowly, but grow
  51. 51. – Assess students before you begin to teach a skill or topic – Try creating one differentiated lesson per unit – Differentiate one product per semester – Find multiple resources for a couple of key parts of your curriculum – Give students more choices about how to work, how to express learning or which homework assignments to do – Develop and use a two day learning contract, then a 4 day, etc.
  52. 52. You cannot differentiate everything for everyone every day! Differentiation is an organized yet flexible way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to meet kids where they are and help them to achieve maximum growth as learners.
  53. 53. Differentiated Instruction and ELL Students • Differentiation benefits all students and is especially effective for ELL students who may have difficulty with – Understanding the material they are hearing or reading – Communicating their knowledge of the material
  54. 54. Social Studies can present special challenges for ELLs • Use of higher level thinking skills required for reading and writing • Lack of familiarity with historical terms, government processes, and vocabulary • Amount of text covered and ELL’s inability to tell what is important in the text and what is not
  55. 55. • Difficulty understanding what is said by the teacher and being able to take notes • Differences in educational system • Lack of experience in expressing personal opinions in class • Concepts that do not exist at all in some cultures Haynes (2005) in Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners by Cruz and Thorton
  56. 56. Strategies • Books on CD • Open book quizzes • Alternative projects • Fill in the blank before essay • Essays that relate to the students • Accessing prior knowledge
  57. 57. Making Content Comprehensible • Use illustrations/pictures • Act it out • Enlist the help of a bilingual dictionary or word for word translator • Use scaffolding to build up to new concepts • Check for prior knowledge
  58. 58. Inviting ELLs to Achieve • Plans some lessons/activities that are relevant to the lives of ELL students • Provide hands-on lessons with activities that will allow for early success for ELLs • Communicate individually with ELLs as much as possible • Give students sufficient wait time
  59. 59. More classroom tips • Avoid forcing students to speak • Emphasize key words and concepts • Use lots of repetitions • Check often for understanding • Provide graphic organizers to aid in study • Set reasonable study goals • Help them find key concepts
  60. 60. Questioning Strategies • “Point to the answer” strategy • “Yes-no” with visual aid • Break complex questions or tasks into steps • Ask simple “how” and “where” questions
  61. 61. Drama • Charades/pantomime • Readers’ Theatre • Act as I read • Create a Character • Set Designing • Puppets
  62. 62. Advance Preparation • What vocabulary will be difficult • What connections can I make to other knowledge? • What strategies does my ELL need to develop? • What assessment will realistically test the knowledge of my ELL without penalizing his/her level of learning?
  63. 63. • Clearly defined and written objectives • Organizers, outlines, labels and pictures • Supplementary materials • Make it relevant • Links to past experience and potential experience
  64. 64. Resources Social Studies Activities and Handouts Including English Language Learners in Social Studies (ppt) presented by Cruz and Thorton at NCSS 2008 To access this ppt, go to: http://www.coedu.usf.edu/main/ Departments/seced/Faculty/Thorton.html
  65. 65. • Making Social Studies Meaningful for ELL Students: Content and Pedagogy in Mainstream Secondary School Classrooms http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol162006/ahmad.pdf • Teaching the English Language Learner in the Social Studies Classroom http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/teaching_ell.ph tml • Resources to Help ELL Students http://www.mcsk12.net/SCHOOLS/peabody.es/ell.htm • Teaching Social Studies to ESL Students http://www.suite101.com/content/teaching-social-studies-to-esl- students-a129303 • Passport to Learning: Teaching Social Studies to ESL Students by Barbara’ Cruz, Joyce Nutta, and Jason O’Brian. NCSS: 2003. • Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners by Barbara’Cruz and Stephen Thorton, NY: Routledge, 2009.
  66. 66. Understanding the WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards: A Resource Guide, 2007 Edition http://www.wida.us/standards/Resource_Guide_web.pdf
  67. 67. Questions or Comments? Dr. Susan Santoli ssantoli@usouthal.edu Dr. Paige V. Baggett pbaggett@usouthal.edu Dr. Susan Ferguson ferguson@usouthal.edu

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