Cardiovascular System

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Cardiovascular System of The Body

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Cardiovascular System

  1. 1. The Major Hydraulic system of the body. By Paramjeet Singh Jamwal, M.Tech (ICE), 2nd Sem, SLIET, 2013-14
  2. 2. CardiovascularCirculation Heart Beat • Average 75 beats/min • Range 60-85 beats/min • Person standing, it will increase • Person sitting , it will decrease • Higher in woman & decrease with age • In infant 140 beats/min Blood volume • 75-80% is in the vein • 20% is in the arteries • Remainder is in the capillaries Blood Pressure • Systemic 95-140 mm Hg, average 120 mm Hg • Diastolic 60-90 mm Hg, average 80 mm Hg
  3. 3. TheHeart:InternalStructure
  4. 4. TheHeart:ConductionSystem
  5. 5. BloodPressure Diseased Heart • VentricularContractibility and rigid atherosclerotic arteries produce unwanted rise in blood pressure. Blood Pressure in different vessel • Aorta: 100 mm Hg • Terminal arteries: 40 mm Hg • Arterioles: 40-25 mm Hg • Capillaries: 25-12 mm Hg • Venules: 12-8 mm Hg,Terminal veins: <8 mm Hg • Vena cave: 3-2 mm Hg
  6. 6. CharacteristicsofBloodFlow StrokeVolume= •Cardiac output/ the number of heart beats per min Mean circulation time= •total amount of blood in circulation/cardiac output Mean velocity= •blood flow through a vessel/cross sectional area of vessel Blood Flow= •Blood Pressure/Flow Resistance Nicotine •Reduce the blood flow through the skin by narrowing the capillaries. Heart Attack •An obstruction of part of the coronary arteries. Angina pectoris •A reduced flow in coronary vessels can cause severe chest pain. Embolism •A blood clot in a vessel in the lung.
  7. 7. HeartSounds Auscultation • The technique of listening to sounds produced by the organs and vessels of the body. Lub-dub • Lub is caused by the closure of the atrioventricular valves, occurs at QRS & 30-45 Hz in range. • Dub is caused by the closing of the semilunar valves, occurs at the end of theT wave & 50-70 Hz in range. • The third heart sound sometimes heard are at below 30 Hz. Murmurs sounds in abnormal heart • Caused either by improper opening of valves. • Valves do not close completely. • A small opening in the septum. • 100-600 Hz range.
  8. 8. Reference LeslieCromwell, Fred J. Weibell, Erich A. Pfeiffer, “Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements” AN Presentation

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