The Major Hydraulic system of the body.
By Paramjeet Singh Jamwal, M.Tech (ICE), 2nd Sem, SLIET, 2013-14
• Average 75 beats/min
• Range 60-85 beats/min
• Person standing, it will increase
• Person sitting , it will decrease
• Higher in woman & decrease with age
• In infant 140 beats/min
• 75-80% is in the vein
• 20% is in the arteries
• Remainder is in the capillaries
• Systemic 95-140 mm Hg, average 120 mm Hg
• Diastolic 60-90 mm Hg, average 80 mm Hg
• VentricularContractibility and rigid
atherosclerotic arteries produce
unwanted rise in blood pressure.
Blood Pressure in different vessel
• Aorta: 100 mm Hg
• Terminal arteries: 40 mm Hg
• Arterioles: 40-25 mm Hg
• Capillaries: 25-12 mm Hg
• Venules: 12-8 mm Hg,Terminal veins:
<8 mm Hg
• Vena cave: 3-2 mm Hg
•Cardiac output/ the number of heart beats per min
Mean circulation time=
•total amount of blood in circulation/cardiac output
•blood flow through a vessel/cross sectional area of vessel
•Blood Pressure/Flow Resistance
•Reduce the blood flow through the skin by narrowing the capillaries.
•An obstruction of part of the coronary arteries.
•A reduced flow in coronary vessels can cause severe chest pain.
•A blood clot in a vessel in the lung.
• The technique of listening to sounds produced by
the organs and vessels of the body.
• Lub is caused by the closure of the atrioventricular
valves, occurs at QRS & 30-45 Hz in range.
• Dub is caused by the closing of the semilunar
valves, occurs at the end of theT wave & 50-70 Hz
• The third heart sound sometimes heard are at
below 30 Hz.
Murmurs sounds in abnormal heart
• Caused either by improper opening of valves.
• Valves do not close completely.
• A small opening in the septum.
• 100-600 Hz range.
LeslieCromwell, Fred J.
Weibell, Erich A.