Politics & Governance with Philippine ConstitutionTransition of Philippine Government:Spanish Government – Government during the Revolution
Transition of Philippine GovernmentAge of Conquest• Need for spice, expansion of empire• Closure of usual trade route• Discovery of new trade route
Transition of Philippine Government Ferdinand Magellan
Transition of Philippine Government In Search of New Lands: The Coming of Magellan Ferdinand Magellan (Fernhao Magalhaes) – a member of the Portugues nobility Was wounded in Morocco which left him lame for life. Conceived the idea of a passage to the West or around South America to reach the Moluccas or Spice Islands
Transition of Philippine Government Left Portugal when the King refused to compensate him for his service and, support his plan to take a westward route to reach the MoluccasIn Spain Reached Spain in 1517, met with influential people who helped him secure support for his plan
Transition of Philippine Government One of those who supported him was Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca, Bishop of Burgos and Head of the Royal Council of the Indies. The contract for the expedition was granted by King Charles and signed on March 18, 1518. Magellan was named Captain-General.
Transition of Philippine Government Magellan‘s Fleet – Trinidad, Concepcion, Victoria, Santiago, Victoria, San Antonio
Transition of Philippine Government Magellan‘s Route
Transition of the PhilippineGovernment Magellan‘s Arrival Reached the island of Homonhon on March 16, 1521 but only stepped foot two days later. He befriended the local Chieftain named Kalambu (Calambu). Kalambu, impressed with the armory used by Magellan‘s men performed the Kasi-Kasi (blood compact) to seal his friendship with Magellan.
Transition of Philippine Government In Cebu (Sugbu), Magellan, with Datu Kalambu, made a blood compact with Humabon after the latter had won his trust and friendship. Humabon also converted to Christianity and was named Carlos. Magellan made Humabon the king‘s representative in Cebu and promised to unite the local chieftains under his (Humabon) authority
Transition of the PhilippineGovernment Lapu-Lapu‘s refusal and Magellan‘s death Lapu-Lapu‘s rival Zula informed Magellan that the former refused to accept the new political system and, pay tribute. Magellan with an army of 60 steel-clad Spaniards, three vessels and Cebuanos invaded Mactan, the territory of Lapu-Lapu Magellan‘s leg was hit with a posion arrow and his face was struck with a bamboo spear.
Transition of Philippine GovernmentMagellan‘s death
Transition of Philippine Government Other expeditions Led by Captain Garcia Jofre de Loaysa Sebastian Cabot Alvaro Saavedra Ceron Ruy Lopez de Villalobos Miguel Lopez de Legazpi – the most successful expedition - spent his own resources to finance the expedition
Governments during the Spanish Era Political Set – up (1565 – 1821) KING OF SPAIN Viceroy of Mexico Council of Indies Governor - General
Governments during the Spanish Era Political Set – Up KING OF SPAIN Council of Indies Ministerio de Ultramar Governor General
Governments during the Spanish Era Beginning of the Spanish rule The king issued a decree in 1568, instructing Legazpi to establish towns, cities and encomiendas to be distributed to deserving soldiers/who helped in the pacification of the natives. What is an encomienda?
Governments during the Spanish Era Encomienda Comes from the verb encomendar meaning to commend or commit to one‘s care Originally, the encomienda was a feudal system used in Spain to reward deserving generals and conquerors during the Spanish wars of recovery of territory This system was introduced by the Spanish crown to reward deserving Spaniards
Governments during the Spanish Eraand attract others to settle in the colonies. Encomienda in the Philippines was not a land grant per se, but rather a system of land distribution that brought benefits to the encomenderos/officials and institutions. The encomenderos has certain rights and priviledges over a piece of territory including the inhabitants and the collection of tributes (taxes)
Governments during the Spanish Era Duties and Responsibilities of the encomendero:2. Keep peace and order3. Protect the inhabitants4. Spread Christianity5. Educate the people6. Collect tax (Tributes)
Governments during the Spanish Era Types of Encomienda2. Royal – owned by the King3. Private – owned by private persons or charitable institutions4. Ecclesiatical – owned by religious ordersThe system was abolished in the 19th century & was replaced by provinces, cities, etc., which then divided the government into 2, national and local
Governments during the Spanish Era Executive BranchCentral/National GovernmentGovernor General‘s broad powers: Executive Legislative – which led to the expression obedezco pero no complo Judicial Military Diplomatic Religious – due to Patronato Real
Governments during the Spanish era Checks to Gubernatorial powers:2. Residencia – conduct trial of an outgoing governor- general and officials by incoming governor general for purposes of punishing those guilty of corruption.3. Visitador – sent to the colony to check the conditions in the colony4. Royal Audiencia – similar to the Supreme court; served as advisory body to the governor; audited the expenditures of the government.5. Archbishop and clergy6. Complaints by subordinate officials and citizens sent to the king‘s court.
Governments during the Spanish era Local Governments2. Provincial Government Provincial Alcaldia Corregimiento (ex. Cordilleras)
Governments during the Spanish era2. City Government – Ayuntamiento 2 Alcaldes ordinarios Cabildo (city council Regodores (councilors) Alguacil mayor (chief constable Escribao (Secretary)
Governments during the Spanish3. Municipal Government – unit of government in towns or pueblos Headed by gobernadorcillos (open to non-Spaniards or natives) First occupied by pre-colonial chieftains and their descendants and later elected by an Electoral Board composed of outgoing gobernadorcillo and principalia (prominent land or property owners) The gobernadorcillo was later replaced by a capitan or capitana
Governments during the Spanish Era Functions of a Gobernadorcillo Preparation of pardon or tribute list Recruitment and distribution of men for draft labor Polos y servicios Gobernadorcillo Communal public work Military Conscription Postal Clerk Judge in civil suits involving 44 pesos or less
Governments during the Spanish Era Assistants Gobernadorcillo Constables Teniente del BarrioSupernumeraries Secretary 4 Teniente Segunda
Governments during the Spanish Era Barrio – Barangays were transformed into barrios (villages)- Placed directly under the cabezas (head) de Barangay- Position was purely appointive- Excused from taxes and forced labor
Governments during the Spanish Era Functions of Cabezas:2. Collection of tax and contributions3. Promotion of peace and order4. In charge of recruiting polistas for communal public works
Governments during the Spanish Era Judicial Branch2. Real Audiencia (Supreme Court)3. Appellate Courts (Court of appeals) for criminal cases4. Courts of 1st Instance (district court) in each province5. Justices of the peace courts in pueblos (deals primarily with less serious offenses)
Governments during the Spanish Era Legislative Branch The Cortes (Parliament) Formulated all the laws in the Philippines The most famous of which was the colonial code called Recopilacion de Leyes de los Reynos de las Indias (Compilation of Laws on Royal lands in the Indies) Issued or promulated in 1680, used by Spain to rule its possessions or colonies. Removed the Philippine representation on June 18 1837
II. Structure of revolutionarymovements KKK (Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mag Anak ng Bayan. Organized on July 7, 1892 by Andres Bonifacio, Deodato Arellano, Roman Basa The KKK‘s objectives were political, civic and moral
Structure of Revolutionary Movements KKK KKKSupreme Council Popular Council Provincial Council
Structure of Revolutionary Movements Supreme Council Supremo Interventor Fiscal Secretary Treasurer*The structure later became more organized as the number of positions increased and the renaming of positions, which resembled government designations.