Politics and Governance:History, Government andConstitutionTransition of Philippine Government: From Katipunanto the Second Republic
Transition of Philippine Government Structure of the Revolutionary MovementKKK Established after the failure of revolutionary groups to bring reform. Founded by Deodato Arellano, Roman Basa and Andres Bonifacio Three objectives namely: reform the political, civic and moral
Transition of the Philippine GovernmentAs the group began to elect councilors and renamedand changed the positions, it began to the structure ofthe movement started to resemble an organizedgovernment
Transition of the Philippine Government The Magdalo-Magdiwang rivalry and the rise of the Magdalo Government Magdiwang – faction of Bonifacio while the Magdalo represented the faction of Aguinaldo The Magdalo’s felt that a new government should replace the KKK. The failure of Bonifacio to secure the leadership position led to the dissolution of the KKK. While it led to the election of Aguinaldo and the rise of the Magdalo government
Transition of the Philippine Government Biak na Bato Republic Named after a town in Bulacan where the constitution was drafted by Isabelo Artacho It was deliberated by the revolutionary generals of Aguinaldo, acting as constitutional assembly. Was copied from the Cuban 1895 Himaguayu Constitution. Was adopted and later became the Biak – na- Bato Constitution
Transition of the Philippine GovernmentUnder this constitution, the Supreme council wieldedpowerThis Supreme Council was composed of the President,Vice President and 4 secretaries (interior, foreignaffairs, treasury and warThe Supreme Council of Grace and Justice exercisedjudiciary functions.Momentarily ended when Aguinaldo went into exile.
Transition of Philippine Government Dictatorial Government Established after Aguinaldo’s return from exile It was established, upon recommendation of Ambrocio Rianzares Bautista since it suited the political condition In a dictatorial government, the government can prosecute war criminals and address the war. This phase was known for?
Transition of Philippine GovernmentDeclaration of Philippine Independence
Transition of Philippine Government Revolutionary Government It started right after the end of the dictatorial government Recommended by Apolinario Mabini, the new adviser of Aguinlado Revolutionary Government enabled the government to rally for the people’s support Remain vigilant against Spanish tyranny
Transition of Philippine Government Achievements Organization of the first cabinet Observance/compliance with the mandate of the decrees on the election and appointment of members of the Malolos Congress Setting up of the Malolos Congress and its transformation as a component/constituent body to formulate a new constitution (agreement, charter) for the country. Adoption of the 1899 Malolos Constitution
Transition of Philippine Government Malolos Congress Approved the Malolos Congress Adopted the Malolos Constitution Malolos Constitution Drafted by Felipe Calderon Influenced by the constitutions of 7 countries namely: As stated, the constitution provides for a parliamentary system, with the president elected by the Assembly and special representatives, lasting for 4 years.
Transition of the Philippine GovernmentFranceBelgiumMexicoCosta RicaGuatemalaNicaraguaBrazil
Transition of the Philippine Government Constitutional Government First act after the circulation of the constitution was to reorganize the cabinet (Mabini became the head of the cabinet and secretary of foreign affairs) Creation of the first Republic (as dictated in the constitution) Establishment of the three branches of government (legislative, executive and judicial)
Transition of the philippine Government Purpose of the three branches: So as not to concentrate power in just one entity To be more representative and democratic Legislative Adopted a unicameral congress, known as the Assembly of Representatives In principle, it wielded more power than the two branches with its authority to create a Permanent Commission Permanent Commission – 7 members which can designate the president and secretary of the country.
Transition of the Philippine Government Executive Power Exercised by the President His power was also manifested through his department secretaries. His secretaries were also responsible to the Assembly, and were given seats in the assembly and allowed to participate in deliberations
Transition of Philippine Government Judicial Power was vested in the Supreme Court and in other courts Headed by the Chief Justice Despite the fact that the CJ and Solicitor Generals were chosen by the Assembly (with the agreement of the President and secretaries) the judicial was still free from influence and, independent.
Transition of the Philippine Government Government during the American OccupationOccupation began after Spain and the US sealed the Treaty of Paris on December 20, 1898.Treaty of Paris – the “ownership” of the Philippines was transferred from Spain to US, for 20 million dollars.- Also part of an agreement of Spain to cede its colonies to the US
Transition of PhilippineBeginning of the US Military GovernmentUS Military Government (August 14, 1898 – July 4, 1901)First governor was General Wesley MerrittAchievements:Laid down the foundation (basis) of the US Civil GovernmentIntroduced the American system of educationOrganized the civil courtsEstablished the local government in towns and provincesConducted the first local election
Transition of the Philippine GovernmentWhile the Military Government was still in full swing,two commissions were created by the US President:1st Philippine Commission/Schurman – laid down thefoundation, based on the outcome of the surveyconducted.Second Philippine Commission – terms were on theestablishment of a civil government
Transition of Philippine Government 1. First Philippine Commission/Schurman Establishment of a territorial government with legislature of 2 houses (elective and appointive) Withdrawal of military rule in the pacified areas Conservation of natural resources Organization of autonomous local government Free elementary schools Appointment of trustworthy men to higher/government offices
Transition of Philippine Government 2. Second Philippine Commission – shift from military to civil government First to exercise legislative functions First order was the appropriation (allocation/use) 2 million pesos for the repair of roads and bridges.
Transition of Philippine GovernmentUS Civil Government (July 4, 1901 – Nov. 15, 1935) –replaced the Military Government after the authorityto govern the Philippines was transferred from the USPresident to US Congress (1st Organic Act).The transfer was a result of the amendment to theAppropriation Act by Sen. John C. Spooner.Inaugurated on July 4, 1901 (synchronized with thedate of US independence)
Transition of the Philippine Government Cooper Act of Philippine Bill of 1902 (2nd Organic Act)Highlights of the law: Extension of Bill of Rights Appointment of 2 resident Commissioners to Washington Continuation of the Philippine Commission as the upper house and the Philippine Assembly as lower house.
Transition of the Philippine Government And the most significant….4. The establishment of and Elective Philippine Assembly (election of its members was on July 30, 1907, inaugurated on October 16, 1907; first speaker was Sergio Osmena).
Transition of the Philippine Government Jones Law of 1916 (3rd Organic Act) – granted the Filipinos self-government (autonomy)Highlights: Legislative function was transferred to the bicameral legislature (replaced the Philippine Commission); composed of the Senate (upper house) and lower house (House of representatives. Election of Manuel Quezon as first senate president and again, Sergio Osmena as Speaker of the House of Rep.
Transition of the Philippine Government Prelude to Independence2 OSROX Mission (introduced the Hare-Hawes Cutting Act)3 Tydings-McDuffie Law of 1934 (successfully adopted by the Phil. Legislature and ratified/approved on June 5, 1934 )4 Election of delegates to the 1934 Constitutional Convention
Transition of the Philippine Government 1935 Constitution Established the Commonwealth of the Philippines/Government (10-year transition government) Upon withdrawal of American sovereignty and declaration of independence, the commonwealth shall be known as a republican state The constitution also enumerated the constitution of the state, the powers and duties of the 3 branches of government namely:
Transition of the Philippine GovernmentExecutiveLegislative - unicameralJudicialSubmitted to US President Franklin Roosevelt forapproval and was eventually ratified on May 4, 1935.Amendments were made in 1940, which changed thelegislative from unicameral to bicameral congress and,reducing the term of the President from 6 to 4 years.
Transition of the Philippine Gov’t Commonwealth Government Election for the first set of officers was on September 17, 1935 Manuel Quezon was elected as President Sergio Osmena as Vice President.*Sergio Osmena became the 2nd president of the Commonwealth (in exile) after Quezon’s death in the US on August 1, 1944
Transition of Philippine Government Philippine Executive Commission Reorganized the government Renamed the national government as Central Administrative Organization Created the KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas, propaganda unit), which later became the only political party during the Japanese Occupation
Transition of Philippine Government Second Republic (October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945) Replaced the Philippine Executive Commission Adopted the 1943 Constitution, through the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence headed by Dr. Jose P. Laurel Ratified on September 7, 1943. Composed of 12 articles, a preamble and a provision stating the creation of the 3 branches of government.
Transition of Philippine Government Executive Elected for a single term of 6 years Headed by the President who was more powerful than the three branches of gov’t (absolute power in appointing even local gov’t officials and half of the members of the National Assembly.
Transition of Philippine Government Legislative – unicameral known as the National Assembly Judiciary – still in existence but its power was usurped (taken over) by the president or Executive branch of government.*Second Republic ended on August 17, 1945 after the surrender of Japan to America
Transition of Philippine Government Third Republic of the Philippines Commonwealth became a republic after the declaration of independence on July 4, 1946 Last election under the Commonwealth was on April 23, 1946. The third republic lasted for 26 years, led by 6 presidents.
Transition of the Philippine GovernmentManuel Roxas (May 28, 1946 – July 4, 1946) – lastpresident of the Commonwealth, first president of the3rd Republic. Known for the passage of the ParityRights under the Bell Trade Act and economicrehabiltationElpidio Quirino – served from April 17, 1948 toDecember 30, 1953. Under his term, the CentralBank of the Philippines was created.
Transition of the Philippine GovernmentRamon Magsaysay (December 30, 1953 – March 17,1957. Two of his achievements were the passage of theAgricultural Tenancy Act of 1954 and, theestablishment of the NARRA (National Resettlementand Rehabilitation Administration of 1955.Carlos Garcia (March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961).Known for his Filipino First PolicyDiosdado Macapagal (December 30, 1961 – December30, 1965 – known for enacting the Agricultural LandReform Code, formation of MAPHILINDO,
Transition of Philippine GovernmentChanging the date of Philippine independence. Ferdinand Marcos – (December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986) Known for the creation of blueprint and construction of the LRT; campaign again the Communist Party of the Philippines and its revolutionary army NPA; adoption of the 1973 Constitution, etc.