Fluoride and Arsenic In Groundwater


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Fluoride and Arsenic in Ground water.
Causes for groundwater pollution.
Fluoride in groundwater , sources for fluoride , Health implications.
Arsenic in groundwater , sources for arsenic , Health implications.

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Fluoride and Arsenic In Groundwater

  2. 2. GROUND WATER “Water that exists beneath the earth’s surface in underground stream and aquifers is known as groundwater”. Groundwater is considered as the major source of drinking water in most places on earth. Usually people use groundwater for drinking and other domestic household purposes
  3. 3. CAUSE OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION  AGRICULTURE FIELD: Pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers .  CITY DUMP: Rain can also leach pollutants from city dumps into groundwater supplies.  INDUSTRY : Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, chromium, copper, and cadmium, together with household chemicals and poisons, can all be concentrated in ground-water supplies beneath dumps • Liquid and solid wastes from septic tanks, sewage plants, and animal feedlots and slaughterhouses may contain bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can contaminate ground water. • MINING AREA: Acid mine drainage from coal and metal mines can contaminate both surface and ground water. • RADIOACTIVE WASTE : It can cause the pollution of ground water due to the shallow burial of low-level solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the nuclear power industry.
  4. 4. Fluoride and Arsenic are the two main contaminants in groundwater present naturally in INDIA CHINA BANGLADESH IN SOUTH ASIA, causing a set of health symptoms known commonly as FLUOROSIS and ARSENICOSIS. For many rural areas where hand-pumps and tube-wells are the only source of safe drinking water, these two contaminants have emerged to cause a serious crisis threatening public health
  5. 5.  Groundwater with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit set by WHO i.e 1.5 mg/l have been recorded in several parts of the world.  In 1984, WHO estimated that more than 260 million people living all over the world consume water with fluoride concentration above 1 mg/l .  The problem of high fluoride in groundwater has been reported by several researchers in India, China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, Southern Algeria, Mexico, Korea, Italy & Brazil.  Most of the people affected by high fluoride concentration in groundwater live in the tropical countries where the per capita consumption of water is more because of the prevailing climate. In places like Ghana, people consume 3 to 4 liters of water which is higher than the WHO estimate of 2 l/adult/day .  The intensity of fluorosis problem is very serious in the two heavily populated countries of the world namely India and China . FLUORIDE IN GROUNDWATRER
  6. 6. The possible causes and sources through which fluoride exists in the environment are schematically
  7. 7.  Aquifer material Most of the fluoride in groundwater is naturally present due to weathering of rocks rich in fluoride. Water with high concentration of fluoride is mostly found in sediments of marine origin and at the foot of mountainous areas .  Volcanic ash Volcanic rocks are often enriched in fluoride. Hydrogen fluorine is one of the most soluble gases in magmas and comes out partially during eruptive activity .  Fly ash Like volcanic ash, fly ash from the combustion of fossil fuels also account for high fluoride. More than 100 to 150 million tons of fly ash is produced worldwide annually due to the combustion of coal especially from power plants .  Fertilisers Phosphate containing fertilisers add up to the fluoride content in soil and groundwater SOURCES FOR FLUORIDE IN GROUNDWATER
  8. 8. HEALTH IMPLICATIONS Intake of fluoride higher than the optimum level is the main reason for dental and skeletal fluorosis. when fluoride concentration in drinking water is below 0.5 mg/l it causes dental carries; fluoride between 0.5 to 1.5 mg/l results in optimum dental health; 1.5 to 4 mg/l causes DENTAL FLUOROSIS; 4 to 10 mg/l induces dental and SKELETAL FLUOROSIS while fluoride above 10 mg/l results in CRIPPLING FLUOROSIS. OTHER EFFECTS Other health disorders that occur due to consumption of high fluoride in drinking water to be muscle fibre degeneration, low haemoglobin levels, deformities in RBCs, excessive thirst, headache, skin rashes, nervousness, neurological manifestations, depression, gastrointestinal problems, urinary tract malfunctioning, nausea, abdominal pain, tingling sensation in fingers and toes, reduced immunity, repeated abortions or still births, male sterility,
  9. 9. DENTAL FLUOROSIS : Very high incidences of dental and in some cases skeletal fluorosis mainly caused by excessive fluoride in drinking water. SKELETAL FLUOROSIS: It affects young as well as old. The symptoms include severe pain and stiffness in the backbone, joints and/or rigidity in hip bones. RADIOGRAPH OF A PATIENT OF SKELETAL FLUOROSIS
  10. 10. Occurrence of fluoride in groundwater in various parts of the world based on literature
  11. 11. The Indian Ministry of Water Resources informs that several districts of 9 states are affected by high Fluoride concentrations (greater than 1 mg/l) in groundwater. Fluorosis is an endemic disease prevalent in 20 states out of the 35 states and Union Territories of the Indian Republic. Rajasthan and Gujarat in North India and Andhra in South India are worst affected. Bihar, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, M.P. and Maharashtra are moderately affected. T.N., W.B., U.P., Bihar and Assam are mildly affected. Throughout India fluorosis is essentially Hydrofluorosis except in parts of Gujarat and U.P. where industrial fluorosis is also seen. FLUOROSIS IN INDIA
  12. 12. Places that Affected with high Fluoride concentrations
  13. 13. • Naturally occurring metalloid element in the earth’s crust • Released to the environment by natural pathways  volcanic emissions  biological activities  weathering reactions ARSENIC IN GROUNDWATER
  14. 14. • Released to the environment by human activities  burning high-arsenic coal  arsenic mining  CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenic)  arsenic-containing pesticides and herbicides • Arsenic is an element that CANNOT be destroyed. It can only change from one form to another
  15. 15. HEALTH IMPLICATIONS  Various types of skin manifestations and other arsenic toxicity were observed from melanosis , keratosis , hyperkeratosis, dorsal keratosis, and non pitting edema to gangrene and cancer. Keratosis is the hardening skin bulges on palms and feet
  16. 16.  It can also result in decreased production of red and white blood cells which may cause fatigue, abnormal heart rhythm, blood-vessel damage resulting in bruising, and impaired nerve function.  Other signs and symptoms include skin thickening, fluid accumulation (resulting in puffiness) especially around the lower eyelids, face and ankles, diarrhea, garlic breath, perspiration, excessive salivation, generalized itching, oral inflammation, sore throat, runny nose, excessive tearing, numbness, skin inflammation, hair loss, weakness, and loss of appetite.  Arsenic can also cause a range of neurological effects, including headaches and vision problems.
  17. 17. Over 30 countries in the world is affected by arsenic in drinking water
  18. 18. ARSENIC IN INDIA, the groundwater arsenic contamination was first surfaced from West-Bengal in 1983, a number of other States, namely; Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh in flood plain of the Ganga River; Assam and Manipur in flood plain of the Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers, and Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state have chronically been exposed to drinking arsenic contaminated hand tube-wells water above permissible limit of 50 μg/L. Even with every additional survey, new arsenic affected villages and people suffering from arsenic related diseases are being reported. All the arsenic affected river plains have the river routes originated from the Himalayan region.
  19. 19. Arsenic affected stretches in Ganga Plains in India
  20. 20.  Adsorption/Ion Exchange: Through adsorption, fluoride ions are collected on the surface of the adsorbant; in ion exchange, fluoride ions would be removed from solution onto the ion exchange resin in exchange for a less problematic ion.  Chemical: By chemical reaction with fluoride, the fluoride is bound in the solution, it would then require removal from solution.  Precipitation/Sedimentation: Employed along with chemical reaction to remove particles, such as flocculants, from solution.  Filtration: This method can be used in to remove particles, such as flocculants or bacteria from solution . THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE
  21. 21. Surface Water Treatment Biosand Filter Slow sand filter adapted for intermittent use for a household THE REMOVAL OF ARSENIC Potter for Peace Filter Pass water through a porous, colloidal silver soaked ceramic container. Small pores and silver traps and inactivates pathogens.