Even thousands of miles of journey
starts with a single step …..
lao tzu a Chinese mystic
What is PHARMACOLOGY ?
Pharmacology
Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics
What the body does to drug What the drug does to bod...
TO CHOOSE DRUGS WISELY…
TO USE DRUGS SAFELY..
PHARMACOLOGY TEXT BOOKS
KNOW-HOWs
∗Study the prototype in detail
∗Compare other drugs with the
prototype
∗Compare the new drugs with
the prototype
HOW TO ST...
The very first step towards success in any
occupation is to become interested in it…
Sir William Osler
SIR WILLIAM OSLER
(1849-1919)
father of modern medicine
Dr.V.SATHYA NARAYANAN M.D
PROFESSOR OF PHARMACOLOGY
DRUG
ADMINISTRATION
 Drugs can be
administered by
a variety of
routes.
TYPES OF ROUTES
 LOCAL
 SYSTEMIC – Enteral , Parenteral
LOCAL (TOPICAL )
 Drugs applied on the skin or mucous
membrane
 for local action
TOPICAL ( LOCAL )
 For localized lesions
 Applied on the skin or mucous membrane
 External application of the drug to t...
TOPICAL
 Skin – cream, gel, ointment, powder, paste
 Eye drops, ointment
 Ear drops
 Nasal drops, spray
 Rectum – sup...
DEEPER TISSUES
 By syringe and needle
 Intra-articular injection
 Infiltration around a nerve
 Intrathecal injection
...
INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTIONS
 Injected directly into a joint
 For treating arthritis
 Strict aseptic precautions has to b...
Intrathecal injection
 Injected into the subarchnoid space
 For action on CNS ( eg spinal anaesthetics )
 To produce hi...
SYSTEMIC ROUTES
 Given drug absorbed
 into the bloodstream
and distributed all over the body
 Including site of action
SYSTEMIC ROUTES
ENTERAL PARENTERAL
1. Oral route  Injections – I.V, I.M,
S.C,Intradermal, intra-
arterial, intrathecal,
i...
ORAL ROUTE
 Oldest, commonest
 ADVANTAGES
 Safe
 More convenient
 Does not need assistance
 Noninvasive
 Painless
...
ORAL ROUTE - LIMITATIONS
 Not suitable for emergencies ( slow
absorption )
 May cause nausea, vomiting
 Cannot be used ...
PARENTERAL ROUTE
 Par – beyond, enteral – intestinal
 Bypass the limitations of oral route
INJECTIONS
 Drugs administered by injection
 Takes the drug directly into the blood
 Bypass the limitations of oral rou...
ADVANTAGES
 Faster and surer action
 Useful in emergencies
 Gastric irritation is not produced
 Employed Even in uncon...
DISADVANTAGES
 Asepsis must be maintained  Preparation
has to be sterilized Costly
 Invasive and painful
 Assistance ...
INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS
 Drug is injected in one of the superficial veins
 As a bolus or infused slowly
 Reaches directl...
ADVANTAGES
 Immediate onset of action
 Great value in emergencies
 Bioavailability 100%
 Even large volumes can be inf...
DISADVANTAGES
 Once injected , the drug cannot be withdrawn
 Thrombophlebitis, necrosis of adjoining
tissues can occur
...
INTRAMUSCULAR ROUTE
 Drug is injected in deltoid or gluteus
maximus
 Absorption is faster
 reliable
 Less painful
 Se...
SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTE
 Drug is deposited in the loose subcutaneous
tissue
 Self-injection is possible
 Only small volumes ...
INTRADERMAL ROUTE
 Drug is injected into the skin raising a bleb
 Example – BCG vaccine
INHALATION
 Drugs given by inhalation for systemic action
 Also for local action via Metered dose inhalers
 Action is v...
' Do you think he's a bit light,
doctor?'
TRNSDERMAL ROUTE
 Highly lipid soluble drugs applied over the
skin
 for slow and prolonged absorption
 Liver is bypasse...
TRANSMUCOSAL
 Drugs are absorbed across
mucous membrane
 Sub lingual or buccal,
 Rectal ,
 Nasal
SUBLINGUAL ROUTE
 The drug is placed under the tongue
 Absorption is rapid
 Action can be produced in minutes
 Patient...
SUBLINGUAL ROUTE-
DISADVANTAGES
 irritant drugs cannot be administered
 Only lipid soluble drugs can be given
 Buccal u...
NASAL
 Drugs absorbed by nasal mucous membrane
 Liver is bypassed
 Either for systemic action or for local effects
 Ex...
RECTAL ROUTE
 Irritant, unpleasant drugs can be given
 Can be used when the patient is vomiting
 Can be used in unconsc...
DISADVANTAGES
 Inconvenient, embarassing
 Slower, irregular absorption
 Unpredictable absorption
 Irritant drugs cause...
'It's our new trolley - to keep you occupied
while you wait to see the
doctor.'
FACTORS FOR THE CHOICE OF
ROUTE
 Site of desired action
 Rate and extent of absorption
 Rapidity of response
 Accuracy...
SUMMARY
 There are many routes of drug administration
 Choose appropriate route for a particular
patient
 Choose based ...
THANK YOU....
DRUG
ADMINISTRATION
 Drugs can be
administered by
a variety of
routes.
TYPES OF ROUTES
 LOCAL
 SYSTEMIC – Enteral , Parenteral
SYSTEMIC ROUTES
ENTERAL PARENTERAL
1. Oral route  Injections – I.V, I.M,
S.C,Intradermal, intra-
arterial, intrathecal,
i...
Dr. V. SATHYANARAYANAN M.D
PROFESSOR OF PHARMACOLOGY
OVERVIEW
 Types of new drug delivery systems
 Advantages
 Disadvantages
 Uses
 Future implications
SPECIAL/NEWER DRUG DELIVERY
SYSTEMS Ocusert
 Progestasert
 Transdermal adhesive units
 Prodrugs
 Osmotic pumps
 Drug...
DERMOJET
 Needle is not used
 High velocity drug solution from a microfine
orifice is projected gun like implement
 Get...
USES
 Dermojet Polymedical with interchangeable
sterilised injection tips for
 local anaesthetics,
 therapeutic applica...
JET INJECTION
 Dermojet – injection without needle
 ( vaccines can be administered )
PELLET IMPLANTATION
 Drug in the form of solid pellet is introduced
subcutaneously
 With the help of trocar and cannula
...
IMPLANTS
 Crystalline drug packed in capsules implanted
under the skin
 Drug is released uniformly over months
 Provide...
COMPUTERISED MINIATURE
PUMPS
 Programmed to release drugs at a definite
rate
 Either continuously ( insulin )
 Or inter...
INSULIN PUMPS
 Implanted in the subcutaneous tissue
 CSII
 Used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus
 Daily insulin ...
OCUSERT
 Thin elliptical units
 Contain drug as a reservoir
 Slowly release the drug through a membrane
for 7 days
 Eg...
PROGESTASERT
 Inserted into the uterus
 Delivers progesterone constantly for over 1
year
INUNCTION
 Drug rubbed into the skin  gets absorbed
 produce systemic effects
IONTOPHORESIS
 Galvanic current is used for administering
drugs into the deeper tissues
 Eg salicylates
PRODRUG
 Inactive form of the drug gets metabolised to
the active derivative in the body
TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC
SYSTEM ( adhesive Units )
 Devices in the form of adhesive patches
 More convenient and better p...
OSMOTIC PUMPS
 Small tablet shaped units containing 2
different chambers
 When swallowed  enters gut  water
enters the...
Targeted drug delivery
systems
 Deliver drugs to the site of action
 Largely reduces the adverse effects
 Liposome carr...
Liposomal drug delivery
system
 Used for the targeted oriented drug delivery
 Eg Amphotericin B
 Daunorubicin, doxorubi...
ANTIBODY DRUG CONJUGATE
 Drug is attached to an antibody
 Directed against a tumour specific antigen
 Will allow the de...
Drug eluting stents
 Metallic stents are covered with polymer
containing drug
 Used in coronary angioplasty
 Sirolimus ...
The roots of education are bitter,
but the fruit is sweet….
ARISTOTLE
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Routes  mbbs  satya xp ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Routes mbbs satya xp ppt

928 views

Published on

this presentation is about the advantages and disadvantages of various routes of drug administration for medical graduates for basic learning.....

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
928
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Routes mbbs satya xp ppt

  1. 1. Even thousands of miles of journey starts with a single step ….. lao tzu a Chinese mystic
  2. 2. What is PHARMACOLOGY ? Pharmacology Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics What the body does to drug What the drug does to body Pharmacotherapeutics Pharmacy The study of the use of drugs Preparing suitable dosage forms Toxicology
  3. 3. TO CHOOSE DRUGS WISELY…
  4. 4. TO USE DRUGS SAFELY..
  5. 5. PHARMACOLOGY TEXT BOOKS
  6. 6. KNOW-HOWs
  7. 7. ∗Study the prototype in detail ∗Compare other drugs with the prototype ∗Compare the new drugs with the prototype HOW TO STUDY ?
  8. 8. The very first step towards success in any occupation is to become interested in it… Sir William Osler
  9. 9. SIR WILLIAM OSLER (1849-1919) father of modern medicine
  10. 10. Dr.V.SATHYA NARAYANAN M.D PROFESSOR OF PHARMACOLOGY
  11. 11. DRUG ADMINISTRATION  Drugs can be administered by a variety of routes.
  12. 12. TYPES OF ROUTES  LOCAL  SYSTEMIC – Enteral , Parenteral
  13. 13. LOCAL (TOPICAL )  Drugs applied on the skin or mucous membrane  for local action
  14. 14. TOPICAL ( LOCAL )  For localized lesions  Applied on the skin or mucous membrane  External application of the drug to the surface  High concentration at the site of action  Minimal systemic side effects
  15. 15. TOPICAL  Skin – cream, gel, ointment, powder, paste  Eye drops, ointment  Ear drops  Nasal drops, spray  Rectum – suppository  Urethra – bougie  Vagina – pessary, douche
  16. 16. DEEPER TISSUES  By syringe and needle  Intra-articular injection  Infiltration around a nerve  Intrathecal injection  Retrobulbar injection  Intra- arterial injection of contrast media in angiography  intraperitoneal
  17. 17. INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTIONS  Injected directly into a joint  For treating arthritis  Strict aseptic precautions has to be made
  18. 18. Intrathecal injection  Injected into the subarchnoid space  For action on CNS ( eg spinal anaesthetics )  To produce high local concentrations ( antibiotics )  Also given extradurally  Eg Morphine for epidural analgesia  Strict aseptic precautions
  19. 19. SYSTEMIC ROUTES  Given drug absorbed  into the bloodstream and distributed all over the body  Including site of action
  20. 20. SYSTEMIC ROUTES ENTERAL PARENTERAL 1. Oral route  Injections – I.V, I.M, S.C,Intradermal, intra- arterial, intrathecal, intraperitoneal, intra- articular, intramedullary  Inhalation  Transdermal  Transmucosal - Sub lingual or buccal, Rectal , Nasal
  21. 21. ORAL ROUTE  Oldest, commonest  ADVANTAGES  Safe  More convenient  Does not need assistance  Noninvasive  Painless  cheap
  22. 22. ORAL ROUTE - LIMITATIONS  Not suitable for emergencies ( slow absorption )  May cause nausea, vomiting  Cannot be used for uncooperative/ unconscious/ vomiting patient  Absorption may be variable  Some drugs are destroyed by digestive juices/ liver
  23. 23. PARENTERAL ROUTE  Par – beyond, enteral – intestinal  Bypass the limitations of oral route
  24. 24. INJECTIONS  Drugs administered by injection  Takes the drug directly into the blood  Bypass the limitations of oral route
  25. 25. ADVANTAGES  Faster and surer action  Useful in emergencies  Gastric irritation is not produced  Employed Even in unconscious, uncooperative or vomiting patients.  Food does not interfere  Liver is bypassed
  26. 26. DISADVANTAGES  Asepsis must be maintained  Preparation has to be sterilized Costly  Invasive and painful  Assistance of another person is needed  Injury to nerves and other tissues may occur  More risky than oral
  27. 27. INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS  Drug is injected in one of the superficial veins  As a bolus or infused slowly  Reaches directly into the blood stream
  28. 28. ADVANTAGES  Immediate onset of action  Great value in emergencies  Bioavailability 100%  Even large volumes can be infused  Response is accurately measurable  Titration of the dose is possible  Smallest dose is enough  Highly irritant drugs can be given
  29. 29. DISADVANTAGES  Once injected , the drug cannot be withdrawn  Thrombophlebitis, necrosis of adjoining tissues can occur  Only aqueous solutions can be given  vital organs are exposed to high concentration of the drug  Self-medication is difficult
  30. 30. INTRAMUSCULAR ROUTE  Drug is injected in deltoid or gluteus maximus  Absorption is faster  reliable  Less painful  Self injection is impracticable  Depot preparations, mild irritants can be injected  Avoided in patients on anticoagulants
  31. 31. SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTE  Drug is deposited in the loose subcutaneous tissue  Self-injection is possible  Only small volumes can be injected  Absorption is slower than intra-muscular  Irritant drugs cannot be injected ( pain )  Absorption delayed in shock patients  Lipoatrophy result in erratic absorption  Eg insulin, heparin
  32. 32. INTRADERMAL ROUTE  Drug is injected into the skin raising a bleb  Example – BCG vaccine
  33. 33. INHALATION  Drugs given by inhalation for systemic action  Also for local action via Metered dose inhalers  Action is very rapid  Controlled administration is possible  Small dose is needed, so toxicity is less  Bypasses liver  Irritant vapors like ether cause inflammation  Cough may be induced  Examples – general anesthetics
  34. 34. ' Do you think he's a bit light, doctor?'
  35. 35. TRNSDERMAL ROUTE  Highly lipid soluble drugs applied over the skin  for slow and prolonged absorption  Liver is bypassed  Absorption can be enhanced by rubbing
  36. 36. TRANSMUCOSAL  Drugs are absorbed across mucous membrane  Sub lingual or buccal,  Rectal ,  Nasal
  37. 37. SUBLINGUAL ROUTE  The drug is placed under the tongue  Absorption is rapid  Action can be produced in minutes  Patient can spit the drug after the desired effect  Liver is bypassed  Examples – GTN, buprenorphine
  38. 38. SUBLINGUAL ROUTE- DISADVANTAGES  irritant drugs cannot be administered  Only lipid soluble drugs can be given  Buccal ulceration can occur
  39. 39. NASAL  Drugs absorbed by nasal mucous membrane  Liver is bypassed  Either for systemic action or for local effects  Example – desmopressin applied as a spray, decongestant nasal drops  Being tried for insulin
  40. 40. RECTAL ROUTE  Irritant, unpleasant drugs can be given  Can be used when the patient is vomiting  Can be used in unconscious patients  Gastric irritation can be avoided  Drugs given at lower rectum bypass liver  Examples – diazepam, indomethacin
  41. 41. DISADVANTAGES  Inconvenient, embarassing  Slower, irregular absorption  Unpredictable absorption  Irritant drugs cause inflammation
  42. 42. 'It's our new trolley - to keep you occupied while you wait to see the doctor.'
  43. 43. FACTORS FOR THE CHOICE OF ROUTE  Site of desired action  Rate and extent of absorption  Rapidity of response  Accuracy of dosage required  Condition of the patient  Effect of digestive juices and liver  Physical and chemical properties of the drug
  44. 44. SUMMARY  There are many routes of drug administration  Choose appropriate route for a particular patient  Choose based on advantages and disadvantages  Use local routes as for as possible
  45. 45. THANK YOU....
  46. 46. DRUG ADMINISTRATION  Drugs can be administered by a variety of routes.
  47. 47. TYPES OF ROUTES  LOCAL  SYSTEMIC – Enteral , Parenteral
  48. 48. SYSTEMIC ROUTES ENTERAL PARENTERAL 1. Oral route  Injections – I.V, I.M, S.C,Intradermal, intra- arterial, intrathecal, intraperitoneal, intra- articular, intramedullary  Inhalation  Transdermal  Transmucosal - Sub lingual or buccal, Rectal , Nasal
  49. 49. Dr. V. SATHYANARAYANAN M.D PROFESSOR OF PHARMACOLOGY
  50. 50. OVERVIEW  Types of new drug delivery systems  Advantages  Disadvantages  Uses  Future implications
  51. 51. SPECIAL/NEWER DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS Ocusert  Progestasert  Transdermal adhesive units  Prodrugs  Osmotic pumps  Drug eluting stents  Computerised pumps  Methods using monoclonal antibodies, liposomes as carriers
  52. 52. DERMOJET  Needle is not used  High velocity drug solution from a microfine orifice is projected gun like implement  Gets deposited in the subcutaneous tissue  Painless  Suited for mass vaccination
  53. 53. USES  Dermojet Polymedical with interchangeable sterilised injection tips for  local anaesthetics,  therapeutic applications in dermatology, rheumatology,  scar reduction and  vasectomy.  No Needle Vasectomy is now the technique of choice in the USA ( no needle, no scalpel vasectomy)
  54. 54. JET INJECTION  Dermojet – injection without needle  ( vaccines can be administered )
  55. 55. PELLET IMPLANTATION  Drug in the form of solid pellet is introduced subcutaneously  With the help of trocar and cannula  Provides uniform, sustained release of the drug  prolonged release  Active Over weeks and months  Example - testosterone
  56. 56. IMPLANTS  Crystalline drug packed in capsules implanted under the skin  Drug is released uniformly over months  Provide constant blood levels  non-biodegradable type has to be removed  Biodegradable need not be removed  Example – norplant ( norgestrel) for contraceptive purpose for 5 years
  57. 57. COMPUTERISED MINIATURE PUMPS  Programmed to release drugs at a definite rate  Either continuously ( insulin )  Or intermittently in pulses ( GnRH )
  58. 58. INSULIN PUMPS  Implanted in the subcutaneous tissue  CSII  Used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus  Daily insulin administration is not required
  59. 59. OCUSERT  Thin elliptical units  Contain drug as a reservoir  Slowly release the drug through a membrane for 7 days  Eg pilocarpine ocusert in glaucoma
  60. 60. PROGESTASERT  Inserted into the uterus  Delivers progesterone constantly for over 1 year
  61. 61. INUNCTION  Drug rubbed into the skin  gets absorbed  produce systemic effects
  62. 62. IONTOPHORESIS  Galvanic current is used for administering drugs into the deeper tissues  Eg salicylates
  63. 63. PRODRUG  Inactive form of the drug gets metabolised to the active derivative in the body
  64. 64. TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM ( adhesive Units )  Devices in the form of adhesive patches  More convenient and better patient compliance  Deliver drugs at constant rate into systemic circulation  Usually applied over chest, abdomen, upper arm  Lasts 1-7 days  Provide smooth plasma concentration without fluctuations  Local irritation and erythema occurs in some  Examples – GTN, fentanyl, estradiol, hyoscine
  65. 65. OSMOTIC PUMPS  Small tablet shaped units containing 2 different chambers  When swallowed  enters gut  water enters the tablet  The osmotic layer swells  pushes the drug slowly  Allows slow & constant delivery of the drug over a long period of time  Eg iron, prazosin GITS
  66. 66. Targeted drug delivery systems  Deliver drugs to the site of action  Largely reduces the adverse effects  Liposome carriers – eg amphotericin B  Monoclonal antibodies – deliver anticancer drugs  Nanoparticles – deliver anticancer drugs  Polymer based drug delivery in ulcerative colitis  Drug eluting stents – eg paclitaxel
  67. 67. Liposomal drug delivery system  Used for the targeted oriented drug delivery  Eg Amphotericin B  Daunorubicin, doxorubicin
  68. 68. ANTIBODY DRUG CONJUGATE  Drug is attached to an antibody  Directed against a tumour specific antigen  Will allow the delivery of drug to large tumours  Eg calichieamicin
  69. 69. Drug eluting stents  Metallic stents are covered with polymer containing drug  Used in coronary angioplasty  Sirolimus or paclitaxel
  70. 70. The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet…. ARISTOTLE

×