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Basics of control system

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Basics of control system

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems Objectives A control system consisting of interconnected components is designed to achieve a desired purpose. To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to examine examples of control systems through the course of history. These early systems incorporated many of the same ideas of feedback that are in use today. Modern control engineering practice includes the use of control design strategies for improving manufacturing processes, the efficiency of energy use, advanced automobile control, including rapid transit, among others.Illustrations
  2. 2. Introduction System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose. Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired response. Process – The device, plant, or system under control. The input and output relationship represents the cause-and- effect relationship of the process.Illustrations
  3. 3. Introduction Open-Loop Control Systems utilize a controller or control actuator to obtain the desired response. Closed-Loop Control Systems utilizes feedback to compare the actual output to the desired output response. Multivariable Control SystemIllustrations
  4. 4. History Greece (BC) – Float regulator mechanism Holland (16th Century)– Temperature regulator Watt’s Flyball Governor (18th century)Illustrations
  5. 5. History Water-level float regulatorIllustrations
  6. 6. HistoryIllustrations
  7. 7. History 18th Century James Watt’s centrifugal governor for the speed control of a steam engine. 1920s Minorsky worked on automatic controllers for steering ships. 1930s Nyquist developed a method for analyzing the stability of controlled systems 1940s Frequency response methods made it possible to design linear closed-loop control systems 1950s Root-locus method due to Evans was fully developed 1960s State space methods, optimal control, adaptive control and 1980s Learning controls are begun to investigated and developed. Present and on-going research fields. Recent application of modern control theory includes such non-engineering systems such as biological, biomedical, economic and socio-economic systems ???????????????????????????????????Illustrations
  8. 8. Examples of Modern Control Systems (a) Automobile steering control system. (b) The driver uses the difference between the actual and the desired direction of travel to generate a controlled adjustment of the steering wheel. (c) Typical direction- of-travel response.Illustrations
  9. 9. Examples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrations
  10. 10. Examples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrations
  11. 11. Examples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrations
  12. 12. Examples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrations
  13. 13. Examples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrations
  14. 14. Examples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrations
  15. 15. Examples of Modern Control SystemsIllustrations
  16. 16. Control System DesignIllustrations
  17. 17. Illustrations
  18. 18. Design Example ELECTRIC SHIP CONCEPT Vision Electrically Reconfigurable All Integrated Ship Electric Power Ship System  Technology  Reduced manning Increasing Affordability and Military Capability  Electric Drive Insertion  Automation  Warfighting  Reduce # of Prime  Eliminate auxiliary Capabilities Movers  Fuel savings systems (steam,  Reduced maintenance air) hydraulics, compressed Main Power Distribution Propulsion Motor Prime Generator Motor Drive Mover Power Ship Conversion Service Module PowerIllustrations
  19. 19. Design ExampleIllustrations

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