Directions for ICT Research in Disease Prevention




 FP7-ICT-2009.5.1 – Support Action




                             ...
Introduction
                         I t d ti

• Primary prevention of diseases is a challenging task
   – Often, adoptin...
Current status of work
                 C     t t t     f    k

• Identified different factors influencing health behavior...
Part I: Influences on health behavior




             www.preve‐eu.org
Determinants of health behavior
            D     i       fh l hb h i



                Social                        Abi...
Life stages
                                                     Lif t

                                            histor...
Trigger events
                          Ti          t


Motivators




Resources



  Trigger
  events

             Chil...
Environmental contexts
                   E i       t l    t t

•   Physical and social environments: 
                   ...
Effective health communication
Eff ti h lth           i ti

            Communication
             Social influence

 Sour...
Main implications for interventions
      M i i li ti       f i t       ti

• Primary aims:
   – Create or strengthen inte...
Technology‐aided persuasion
             T h l       id d        i

•   Persuasive technology can 
    change attitudes an...
Part II: Profiling and segmentation




            www.preve‐eu.org
A tentative plan for a personal profile
      A t t ti     l f              l    fil

Variables to be included
• current h...
Segmentation in primary prevention (1/2)
  g             p     yp           ( / )
        A tentative approach
           ...
Segmentation in primary prevention (2/2)
  g             p     yp           ( / )
       The resulting 3‐D matrix




    ...
Targeting or tailoring?
               T    ti      t il i ?

• Targeting: defining a subgroup of a population based on 
 ...
Questions
                                   Q ti
•   Are there important theories missing?
         h    i            h i...
Investigated theories by their focus areas
   I    ti t d th i b th i f
Individual behavior and behavior change
I di id l ...
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Personal Profile, Motivation, User Segmentation

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Identified different factors influencing health behavior and behavior change:
– Determinants of reasoned behavior
– Habits and systematic biases
– Life stages and trigger events
– Environmental contexts
– Effective health communication
Review high‐level intervention strategies
Tentative plan for profiling and user segmentation

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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Personal Profile, Motivation, User Segmentation

  1. 1. Directions for ICT Research in Disease Prevention FP7-ICT-2009.5.1 – Support Action PREVE: Task 2.3 Personal profile, motivation, user  segmentation
  2. 2. Introduction I t d ti • Primary prevention of diseases is a challenging task – Often, adopting healthy lifestyles require people to change their  familiar habits and give up their preferred ways of living familiar habits and give up their preferred ways of living – These changes are not easy, since they often require extra time,  strong willpower and considerable mental effort – The changes often affect parts of our lives not completely within The changes often affect parts of our lives not completely within  our control (e.g. work, family, economic situation) Why should I make these ”sacrifices” to prevent diseases  that are uncertain to occur even in the distant future  that are uncertain to occur even in the distant future ‐ especially, when I feel completely healthy? www.preve‐eu.org
  3. 3. Current status of work C t t t f k • Identified different factors influencing health behavior  and behavior change  – Determinants of reasoned behavior  Determinants of reasoned behavior – Habits and systematic biases – Life stages and trigger events – Environmental contexts E i t l t t – Effective health communication High‐level intervention strategies Tentative plan for profiling and user segmentation • Obj ti Objective of today: Validation of and feedback for the  f t d V lid ti f d f db k f th work done so far www.preve‐eu.org
  4. 4. Part I: Influences on health behavior www.preve‐eu.org
  5. 5. Determinants of health behavior D i fh l hb h i Social Ability influences Reasoned Awareness Self-efficacy Self efficacy Intention behavior Outcome O t expectations Barriers Automatic behaviors Environmental contexts E i t l t t www.preve‐eu.org
  6. 6. Life stages Lif t history-related events Strength of relativ influence ve age-related events S Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old age www.preve‐eu.org
  7. 7. Trigger events Ti t Motivators Resources Trigger events Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old age www.preve‐eu.org
  8. 8. Environmental contexts E i t l t t • Physical and social environments:  Public policy the context for behavior – Available options – Ways to present the choices Community • The choice architecture of the  Organizational decision context  – supports or discourages a  pp g behavior Interpersonal – guides the formation of habits – Is built by actors from multiple  levels Individual www.preve‐eu.org
  9. 9. Effective health communication Eff ti h lth i ti Communication Social influence Source Content Credible Personal relevance Channel Powerful Appeal Likable Framing Awareness www.preve‐eu.org
  10. 10. Main implications for interventions M i i li ti f i t ti • Primary aims: – Create or strengthen intention – Increase abilities and remove barriers Increase abilities and remove barriers – Modify environmental contexts • E i Environmental contexts have a significant influence on  t l t t h i ifi t i fl behavior Make changes on multiple levels through involving different actors Make changes on multiple levels through involving different actors Guide people with appropriate choice architectures Offer immediate, tangible benefits for healthy behaviors • Take advantage of trigger events in people’s lives www.preve‐eu.org
  11. 11. Technology‐aided persuasion T h l id d i • Persuasive technology can  change attitudes and behavior • Three roles: – Tool – Medium – Social actor • Persuasive design: provide  e Lif motivation, ability, and  ycl e ec sty triggers for target behaviors Lif le Figure adapted from Chatterjee & Price, 2009. www.preve‐eu.org
  12. 12. Part II: Profiling and segmentation www.preve‐eu.org
  13. 13. A tentative plan for a personal profile A t t ti l f l fil Variables to be included • current health behavior together with risk  Ability factors • degree of intention towards healthy  Reasoned Intention behavior behaviors • motivators or incentives motivators or incentives • resources Barriers • variables that quantify the health  behavior, intention, motivators and  behavior intention motivators and resources • channels through which the individual can  h l th h hi h th i di id l be best reached • dynamicity: significant life course events  that modify the profile variables www.preve‐eu.org
  14. 14. Segmentation in primary prevention (1/2) g p yp ( / ) A tentative approach Population Initial division based on culture (and age?) Segmentation along three dimensions S t ti l th di i Health behavior(s) Low to high risk No risk Degree of Motivators Resources intention www.preve‐eu.org
  15. 15. Segmentation in primary prevention (2/2) g p yp ( / ) The resulting 3‐D matrix www.preve‐eu.org
  16. 16. Targeting or tailoring? T ti t il i ? • Targeting: defining a subgroup of a population based on  common characteristics for which an appropriate  intervention is created intervention is created • Tailoring: fitting an intervention to meet the personal  needs and characteristics of a person rather than a group needs and characteristics of a person rather than a group • Do‐It‐Yourself: provide a platform and let the person  personalize the interventions/services by himself Can effective interventions be designed based on  ff g segmentation (targeting), or are the individual needs  associated with health behavior change too complex for  this approach? this approach? www.preve‐eu.org
  17. 17. Questions Q ti • Are there important theories missing? h i h i i i ? • Are some important behavioral determinants missing? • Comments to the segmentation approach? • Can effective interventions be designed based on segmentation (targeting),  Can effective interventions be designed based on segmentation (targeting) or are the individual needs associated with health behavior change too  complex for this approach? – Segmentation vs. individualization (targeting vs. tailoring) – which is the way to  go? ? – What level of detail is required in segmentation to achieve practical usefulness – the “accuracy level” of each dimension, what are the values for the dimensions? – How to apply tailoring? (limited resources) – What if we provide intervention platform that the person could personalize  h f d l f h h ld l himself? • Can the dynamicity of the profile be captured by the profiling variables? – How to include personal life events?  • How can we quantify intentions, motivators, resources and channels of  individuals? • If you were to develop a program related to primary prevention of diseases,  what information you would need of your target audience? what information you would need of your target audience? www.preve‐eu.org
  18. 18. Investigated theories by their focus areas I ti t d th i b th i f Individual behavior and behavior change I di id l b h i db h i h Specific behavioral determinants S ifi b h i l d t i t Theories of individual behavior • Theories of social networks and social  • Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) support • Health Belief Model (HBM) Health Belief Model (HBM) • Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) • Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) • Self‐determination Theory (SDT) • Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) • Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) • Integrated Change Model (ICM) • Goal‐setting theories • Attribution theory Theories of stages of behavior change • Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Communication • Precaution Adoption Process Model  (PAPM) • Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) • Health Action Process Approach Health Action Process Approach  • Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) (HAPA) • Persuasion‐Communication Matrix (PCM) Frameworks of behavioral theories Applications of theories • Social marketing framework g • Behavioral economics • Psychological therapies • Persuasive technologies Theories of automatic behavior and habits Life stages and profiling Learning theories • Developmental theories www.preve‐eu.org

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