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Manual SC Topico_A


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Manual SC Topico_A

  1. 1. MODELO DE LAS NACIONES UNIDAS DE LAS PREPARATORIAS FEDERALES POR COOPERACION PREFEMUN 2012 SC SECURITY COUNCILTopic A): The situation of terrorist groups as athreat to the international security: the al-Qaidaand Taliban Case
  2. 2. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the principalorgans of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance ofinternational peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the UnitedNations Charter, include the establishment of peacekeepingoperations, the establishment of international sanctions, and theauthorization of military action. Its powers are exercised through UnitedNations Security Council resolutions.The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946 atChurch House, Westminster, and London. Since its first meeting, theCouncil, which exists in continuous session, has travelled widely,holding meetings in many cities, such as Paris and Addis Ababa, aswell as at its current permanent home at the United NationsHeadquarters in New York City.There are 15 members of the Security Council, consisting of five veto-wielding permanent members (China, France, Russia, the UnitedKingdom, and the United States) and 10 elected non-permanentmembers with two-year terms. This basic structure is set out in ChapterV of the UN Charter. Security Council members must always bepresent at UN headquarters in New York so that the Security Councilcan meet at any time. This requirement of the United Nations Charterwas adopted to address a weakness of the League of Nations sincethat organization was often unable to respond quickly to a crisis.Permanent membersSee also:China and the United Nations, France and the United Nations, Russiaand the United Nations, Soviet Union and the United Nations, UnitedKingdom and the United Nations, and United States and the UnitedNations(Sc) Under Chapter VII of the Charter, the Security Council can takeenforcement measures to maintain or restore international peace andsecurity. Such measures range from economic and/or other sanctionsnot involving the use of armed force to international military action.
  3. 3. The use of mandatory sanctions is intended to apply pressure on aState or entity to comply with the objectives set by the Security Councilwithout resorting to the use of force. Sanctions thus offer the SecurityCouncil an important instrument to enforce its decisions. The universalcharacter of the United Nations makes it an especially appropriatebody to establish and monitor such measures.The Council has resorted to mandatory sanctions as an enforcementtool when peace has been threatened and diplomatic efforts havefailed. The range of sanctions has included comprehensive economicand trade sanctions and/or more targeted measures such as armsembargoes, travel bans, financial or diplomatic restrictions.At the same time, a great number of States and humanitarianorganizations have expressed concerns at the possible adverse impactof sanctions on the most vulnerable segments of the population.Concerns have also been expressed at the negative impact sanctionscan have on the economy of third countries.In response to these concerns, relevant Security Council decisionshave reflected a more refined approach to the design, application andimplementation of mandatory sanctions. These refinements haveincluded measures targeted at specific actors, as well as humanitarianexceptions embodied in Security Council resolutions¨Is time to do a drastic change. Already lost too many lives. It is time toend the killings. To exert all its influence to end this tragic conflict¨ Ban Ki Moon SecretaryGeneralof the United Nations
  4. 4. The CTC is assisted by the Counter-Terrorism Committee ExecutiveDirectorate (CTED), which carries out the policy decisions of theCommittee, conducts expert assessments of each Member State andfacilitates counter-terrorism technical assistance to countries.Resolution 1373 (2001), adopted unanimously on 28 September 2001,calls upon Member States to implement a number of measuresintended to enhance their legal and institutional ability to counterterrorist activities, including taking steps to: Criminalize the financing of terrorism Freeze without delay any funds related to persons involved in acts of terrorism Deny all forms of financial support for terrorist groups Suppress the provision of safe haven, sustenance or support for terrorists Share information with other governments on any groups practicing or planning terrorist acts Cooperate with other governments in the investigation, detection, arrest, extradition and prosecution of those involved in such acts; and Criminalize active and passive assistance for terrorism in domestic law and bring violators to justice.The resolution also calls on States to become parties, as soon aspossible, to the relevant international counter-terrorism legalinstruments.Resolution 1624 (2005) pertains to incitement to commit acts ofterrorism, calling on UN Member States to prohibit it by law, preventsuch conduct and deny safe haven to anyone "with respect to whomthere is credible and relevant information giving serious reasons forconsidering that they have been guilty of such conduct."
  5. 5. Working MethodsIn short, the work of the CTC and CTED comprises: Country visits - at their request, to monitor progress, as well as to evaluate the nature and level of technical assistance a given country may need in order to implement resolution 1373 (2001); Technical assistance - to help connect countries to available technical, financial, regulatory and legislative assistance programmers, as well as to potential donors; Country reports – to provide a comprehensive snapshot of the counter-terrorism situation in each country and serve as a tool for dialogue between the Committee and Member States; Best practices – to encourage countries to apply known best practices, codes and standards, taking into account their own circumstances and needs; and Special meetings – to develop closer ties with relevant international, regional and sub regional organizations, and to help avoid duplication of effort and waste of resources through better coordinationTerrorism is defined as political violence in an asymmetrical conflictthat is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimesindiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction ofnoncombatant targets (sometimes iconic symbols). Such acts aremeant to send a message from an illicit clandestine organization. Thepurpose of terrorism is to exploit the media in order to achievemaximum attainable publicity as an amplifying force multiplier in orderto influence the targeted audience(s) in order to reach short- andmidterm political goals and/or desired long-term end states.Terrorist acts frequently have a political purpose. Terrorism is apolitical tactic, like letter-writing or protesting, which is used by activistswhen they believe that no other means will affect the kind of change
  6. 6. they desire. The change is desired so badly that failure to achievechange is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of civilians. This isoften where the inter-relationship between terrorism and religionoccurs. When a political struggle is integrated into the framework of areligious or "cosmic´´.struggle, such as over the control of an ancestralhomeland or holy site such as Israel and Jerusalem, failing in thepolitical goal (nationalism) becomes equated with spiritual failure,which, for the highly committed, is worse than their own death or thedeaths of innocent civiliansTerrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common whendirect conventional warfare will not be effective because forces varygreatly in power.The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale,unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historicalexamples include: Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign state or become part of a different state Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic groups Imposition of a particular form of government Economic deprivation of a population Opposition to a domestic government or occupying army Religious fanaticismTerrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity,usually using explosives or poison. There is concern about terroristattacks employing weapons of mass destruction. Terroristorganizations usually methodically plan attacks in advance, and maytrain participants, plant undercover agents, and raise money fromsupporters or through organized crime. Communications occur throughmodern telecommunications, or through old-fashioned methods suchas couriers.
  7. 7. Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) was a popular name for the Iraqi division of theinternational Salafi jihadi militant organization al-Qaeda. It wasrecognized as a part of the greater Iraqi insurgency.Following the 2003 U.S-led invasion of Iraq, JTJ developed into anexpanding militant network including some of the remnants of Ansar al-Islam and a growing number of foreign fighters, with the purpose ofresisting the coalition occupation forces and their Iraqi allies. Manyforeign fighters arriving in Iraq were inititally not associated with thegroup, but once in the country they became dependent on Zarqawislocal contacts. In May 2004, JTJ joined forces with an obscure Islamistmilitant group Salafiah al-MujahidiahThe groups strength is unknown, with estimates that ranged from just850 to several thousand full-time fighters in 2007. In 2006, the StateDepartments Bureau of Intelligence and Research estimated thatAQI’s core membership was "more than 1,000(¡mil que?" (Thesefigures do not include the other six AQI-led Salafi groups organized inthe Islamic State of Iraq.) The group is said to be suffering highmanpower losses (including from its many "martyrdom" operations),but for a long time this appeared to have little effect on its strength andcapabilities, implying a constant flow of volunteers from Iraq andabroad.In 2007 some observers and scholars suggested that the threat posedby AQI was being exaggerated and a "heavy focus on Al-Qaedaobscures a much more complicated situation on the ground."According to both the July 2007 National Intelligence Estimate and theDefense Intelligence Agency reports, AQI accounted for 15 percent ofattacks in Iraq.However, the Congressional Research Service noted in its September2007 report that attacks from al-Qaeda are less than two percent of theviolence in Iraq and criticized the Bush administration’s statistics,noting that its false reporting of insurgency attacks as AQI attacks hasincreased since the surge operations began in 2007. In March 2007, the U.S.-sponsored Radio Free Europe/Radio Libertyanalyzed AQI attacks for that month and concluded the group had
  8. 8. Taken credit for 43 out of 439 attacks on Iraqi security forces andShiite militias, and 17 out of 357 attacks on U.S. troops.U.S. officials say several top al-Qaeda leaders are in their custody.These include a senior lieutenant, Abu Zubaydah, who was captured inPakistan in March 2002, and Abd al-Hadi al-Iraqi, a senior commanderin Afghanistan. In March 2003, the alleged mastermind of theSeptember 11 attacks, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and al-Qaedastreasurer, Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi, were also captured in Pakistan.They, along with four others detained at Guantanamo Bay, werecharged with murder, terrorism, and violating rules of war in February2008Bin Ladens death will serve as a deterrent for many wannabe radicalswho were inspired by his notional invincibility, argues."Such vertical, quasi-religious death cults always rely upon the leader,because the leaders survival is the key to perpetuating the belief thatutopia is possible," he says. Lawrence Wright, an expert on al-Qaeda,says the organization will have a difficult time finding a successor.
  9. 9.  Questions:1. - what position has taken your delegation with these facts ofterrorism?2. -what measures could be undertaken to identify thepossibility of any attack how could the information betransmitted?3.-what are the best strategies to cut back the terrorismaccesses to financial resources?4. - What measures in the national level could be proposed toencourage the international security and how they would becoordinated?Bibliography: