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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION Internet TV, in simple terms, is video and audio delivered over an InternetFor most of the twentieth century, the connection. Its also known as Internetonly ways to watch television were protocol television, or IPTV. You canthrough over-the-air broadcasts and watch Internet TV on a computer screen,cable signals. With broadcast TV, an a television screen (through a set-topantenna picks up radio waves to transmit box) or a mobile device like a cell phonepictures and sound to your television set. or an iPod.With cable TV, wires connect to a set-top box or to your TV itself. These wires Its almost the same as getting televisionrun from your house to the nearest cable through an antenna or a series of cableTV station, which acts as one big wires -- the difference is that informationantenna. Aside from a few options like is sent over the Internet as data. At thesatellite TV, broadcast and cable were -- same time, you can find even moreand still are -- the main ways to watch variety on Internet TV than cable TV.television. New technology can change Along with many of the same shows youthe way we receive news and find on the big networks, many Webentertainment, though. Radio challenged sites offer independently producednewspapers in the early 1900s, and programs targeted toward peopletelevision challenged radio. Now, it with specific interestslooks as though traditional television has Internet Protocol Television (knownits own competitor, but its not one thats widely as IP TV), being theeasily separated from television. It even newestarrival on the block, threatens thehas television in its name -- its what other two mediums by promising to givewere now calling Internet TV. a toughcompetition. IP TV is a mechanism of viewing the regularAn IPTV signal is a stream of data television channels over IP.Similar topackets traveling across the Web. Satellite TV and Cable TV, the signal isInternet TV is relatively new -- there are encrypted using vendor specificsecuritylots of different ways to get it, and mechanisms and can only be decryptedquality, content and costs can vary by a receiver (STB). The video is sentingreatly. Shows can be high-quality, the form of IP packets over the existingprofessionally produced material, while broadband infrastructure and isothers might remind you of Wayne and assembledat the viewers’ end with theGarth broadcasting "Waynes World" help of a Set Top Box. This becomesfrom their basement. Traditional TV advantageous asexisting broadbandnetworks are also easing into the distribution infrastructure can be used totechnology and experimenting with deliver television signalsenabling thedifferent formats. user to enjoy television over the same broadband connection used forsurfing 1
  2. 2. the internet. This is beneficial for streams (MPTS) which are sourced bybroadcasters as they can offer “Triple the same network operatorthat owns orPlay”service of voice, data and directly controls the "Final Mile" to thetelevision over the same network using consumers premises. Thiscontrol overthe sameinfrastructure. “Triple Play” delivery enables a guaranteed quality ofservice refers to three different services service, and also allows theserviceof VoIP, Internetand IP-TV bundled provider to offer an enhanced usertogether and offered over the same experience such as better programnetwork. With IP TV, one canbe assured guide,interactive services etc. Theof better video quality and stereophonic official definition approved by thesound much like in case of DTH& InternationalTelecommunication UnionDigital Cable TV. Even the customer focus group on IPTV (ITU-T FG IPTV)specific services of Video on Demand is as follows:(VOD)become a reality. Also, this "IPTV is defined as multimedia servicesenables broadcasters to have two way such ascommunicationswith the viewers as television/video/audio/text/graphics/dataopposed to in case of DTH and Cable delivered over IP based networksTV. managed to provide the required level Internet Protocol Television ofquality of service and experience,(IPTV) is a system through which security, interactivity anddigitaltelevision service is delivered reliability.""Internet TV" generallyusing the architecture and networking refers to transport streams sent over IPmethods of theInternet Protocol Suite networks(normally the Internet) fromover a packet-switched network outside the network that connects to theinfrastructure, e.g., theInternet and users premises.An Internet TV providerbroadband Internet access, instead of has no control over the final delivery andbeing delivered through traditionalradio so broadcasts on a"best effort" basis.frequency broadcast and cable television Elementary streams over IP networks(CATV) formats. and proprietary variants asused by It is important to note that websites such as “You Tube” are rarelyhistorically there have been many considered to be IPTV services.differentdefinitions of "IPTV" including Forresidential users, IPTV is oftenelementary streams over IP networks, provided in conjunction with Videotransportstreams over IP networks and a On Demand and may be bundled withnumber of proprietary systems. Internet services such as Web access andAlthough it ispremature to say that there Voice over IP (VoIP). The commercialis a full consensus of exactly what IPTV bundling of IPTV, VoIP and Internetshould mean,there is no doubt that the access is referred to as a Triple Play.most widely used definition today is for Adding the mobile voice service leads tosingle or multipleprogram transport the Quadruple Play moniker. IPTV is 2
  3. 3. typically supplied by a broadband of the Internet as a series of highwaysoperator using a closed network and information as cars. If theres onlyinfrastructure. This closed network one car on the highway, that car willapproach is in competition with the travel quickly and easily. If there aredelivery of TV content over the public many cars, however, traffic can build upInternet, however, the latter is often and slow things down. The Internetlacking a guaranteed quality of works the same way -- if only oneService.Internet TV and DVR person is downloading one file, thecapabilities have become very popular in transfer should happen fairly quickly. Ifthe past few years. Mobile phones are several people are trying to downloadbeing proposed to control the smart the same file, though, the transfer can behome and to offer a personalized service. much slower.In this paper, we are interested in In this analogy, bandwidth is the numberproviding to the mobile user the of lanes on the highway. If a Web sitescapability of controlling an IPTV session bandwidth is too low, traffic willfrom his mobile device, a concept that become congested. If the Web sitewe define as “out-of-band” remote increases its bandwidth, information willControl – “clicker”. The solution relies be able to travel back and forth withouton a mobile device acting as a remote much of a hassle. Bandwidth iscontrol, a secure token to authenticate important for Internet TV, becauseuser and move IPTV sessions, and a sending large amounts of video andmiddleware server acting as an audio data over the Internet requiresintermediary or proxy between the user large bandwidths.and the IPTV server. Mobile contentdelivery is an important issue that needs The second important part of Internetto be discussed in association with this TV is streaming audio and video.application. Information (multimedia Streaming technology makes it possibleclips etc.) sent to the device needs to be for us to watch live or on-demand videoadapted and matched to a particular without downloading a copy directly to adevice profile. We propose a mechanism computer.on how content is adapted using a There are a few basic steps to watchingmiddleware system that best matches the streaming audio and video:user’s device 1. A server holds video data. 2. When you want to watch a video, you click the right command, like "Play" or "Watch." This sends a message to theHOW IPTV server, telling it that you want to watch a certain video.There are two things that make Internet 3. The server responds by sending you theTV possible. The first is bandwidth. To necessary data. It uses streaming mediaunderstand bandwidth, its best to think 3
  4. 4. protocols to make sure the data arrives HOW MOBILE IPTV WORKS in good condition and with all the pieces in the right order. Before we get into the internal details of4. A plug-in or player on your computer -- the way the IPTV network is Windows Media Player and RealPlayer configured to provide transmission of are two popular examples -- decodes and television signals, we see what are the plays the video signal. various steps followed to convert the audio and video feed signals into a MOBILE IPTV suitable form to be transmitted in the form of IP (Internet Protocol) packets, Mobile IPTV is a technology that which forms the basis of the whole enables users to transmit and receive concept of IPTV and how they are multimedia traffic including television received on the other side as television signal, video, audio, text and graphic signals. services through IP-based the wired and Digitization - Converting Video Signals wirelessnetworks with support for and Audio Signals to Digital QoS/QoS, security, mobility, and Signals interactive functions. Through Mobile A key first step in providing Internet IPTV, users can enjoy IPTV services Protocol Television service is anywhere andeven while on the move. converting the analog audio voice In fact, IPTV is composed of Internet signals into a digital form (digitization) Protocol (IP) and TV. In other words, and then compressing the digitized it implies a traditionalTV services are information into a more efficient form. . being migrated and converged Digitization is the conversion of analog IntoInternet space. As long as we use signals (continually varying signals) Internet, IP is avital component and all into digital form (signals that have only of advantages of IP can be used for two levels). To convert analog IPTV services. Everyone agrees that IP signals to digital form, the analog signal hasplayed and will play a major role in is sampled and digitized by using the evolution ofnetworks and services. an analog-to-digital (pronounced A to D) IP allows you to make use ofall IP based co the A/D converter periodically services including IPTV senses (samples) the level of the analog servicesanywhere on earth through signal and creates a binary number Internet. The major goal of this paper is or series of digital pulses that represent to raise theinterests and concerns of the level of the signal. Mobile IPTV including thestatus of Analog signals are converted into digital standard activities when deploying signals because they are more IPTVservices over wireless and mobile resistant to noise (distortion) and they networks, andexpand the value of IPTV are easier to manipulate than analog in the structure ofeveryday life. 4
  5. 5. signals. For the older analog systems the high-speed digital signals that(continuously varying signals), it is not represent the actual signal shape intoeasy (and sometimes not possible) to lower-speed digital signals that representseparate the noise from the analog the actual content (such as asignals. Because digital signals can only moving image or human voice). Thishave two levels, the signal can be process allows IP television service toregenerated and during this regeneration. have lower data transmission rates thanProcess, the noise is removed. standard digital video signals whileTelevision signal digitization involves providing for good quality video anddigitization of both the audio and audio. Digital media compression forvideo signals.. When it comes to IP television includes digital audioreceiving TV signals, youre dealing compression and digital videowith a TV tuner, which is a type of compression.radio receiver. There are both analog anddigital tuners, and its the same Sending Packetstechnology thats in a stationary TV set. Sending packets through the InternetThe basic premise underlying a TV tuner involves routing them through theis that content providers transmit TV network and managing the loss ofsignals in certain radio-frequency bands packets when they cant reach theirfor certain channels. Just like an AM/FM destination. Packet routing involves theradio tuner, the TV tuner listens to a transmission of packets throughspecific frequency to pick up the radio intelligent switches (called routers) thatwaves transmitted to the antenna for a analyze the destination address of thespecific channel. It then extracts the packet and determine a path that willvideo and audio signals from those radio help the packet travel toward itswaves. destination.To turn those signals into a TV show,the tuner sends them to an audio/video SERVICES OFFERED(A/V) processor, which decodes and You can watch two basic types ofreformats the information so the broadcasts through Internet TV: liveelectronics in the display can create a broadcasts or on-demand videos.picture out of it. Digital Media Compression - Gaining LIVE BROADCASTSEfficiency channels are usually grouped by country -- and browse through the list ofDigital media compression is a process available broadcasts. Some TV networksof analyzing a digital signal also play live, streaming feeds of their(digitized video and/or audio) and using programming on their official sites.the analysis information to convert Either way, its like watching live TV on 5
  6. 6. your computer screen. You cant pause, VIDEO ON DEMANDback up or skip through parts of thebroadcast that dont interest you.An IP-based platform also allows significant On-demand videos, on the other hand,opportunities to make the TV viewing are usually arranged like a playlist.experience more interactive and Episodes or clips are arranged by title orpersonalized. The supplier may, for channel or in categories like news, sportsexample, include an interactive program or music videos. You choose exactlyguide that allows viewers to search for what you want to watch, Although itscontent by title or actor’s name, or a not live television, you dont have topicture-in-picture functionality that worry about networks taking down clipsallows them to “channel surf” without because of copyright issues. In additionleaving the program they’re watching. to the two basic broadcast categories,Viewers may be able to look up a there are three basic fee structures forplayer’s stats while watching a sports Internet TV:game, or control the camera angle. They Free: Aside from the fee you pay foralso may be able to access photos or Internet connectivity, many Internet TVmusic from their PC on their television, sites or channels dont cost anything.use a wireless phone to schedule a Many of these free sites are supportedrecording of their favorite show, or even by advertising, so banner ads may showadjust parental controls so their child can up around the site, or short commercialswatch a documentary for a school report, may play before you watch videos. Itwhile they’re away from home. may seem a little bothersome to wait forNote that this is all possible, to some video, but its the only way for the Webdegree, with existing digital terrestrial, site designers to make money and offersatellite and cable networks in tandem quality content for you to watch. Plus,with modern set top boxes.[citation needed] In the wait is never too long -- ad lengthsorder that there can take place an can range from a few seconds to 30interaction between the receiver and the seconds, which is still shorter than mosttransmitter a feedback channel is needed. commercials.Due to this terrestrial, satellite and cable Subscription: This works just like yournetworks for television does not allow cable bill. You typically pay a monthlyinteractivity. However, interactivity with fee for a certain number of channels orthose networks can be possible in the on-demand video. Prices are constantlycombination with different networks like changing since Internet TV is in its earlyinternet or a mobile communication stages, but subscriptions can cost as littlenetwork. as $20 and as much as $120, depending on the number of channels you want. Pay-per-view: Pay-per-view videos or podcasts can cost nothing if the site is free, and major networks generally 6
  7. 7. charge between $3 and $7 for downloads provide consumers anytime-anywhereand rentals access to content over their televisions, PCs and cell phones, and to integrateIt permits a customer to browse an services and content to tie them together.online program or film catalog, to watch Within businesses and institutions, IPTVtrailers and to then select a selected eliminates the need to run a parallelrecording. The play out of the selected infrastructure to deliver live and storeditem starts nearly instantaneously on the video services.customers TV or PC.Technically, when the customer selectsthe movie, a point-to-point unicast In addition to issues of reliability, thisconnection is set up between the dynamic nature and the diversity of thecustomers decoder (Set Top Box or PC) Internet and its components provide noand the delivering streaming server. The guarantee that any particular path issignaling for the trick play functionality actually capable of, or suitable for(pause, slow-motion, wind/rewind etc.) performing the data transmissionis assured by RTSP (Real Time requested, even if the path is availableStreaming Protocol). and reliable. One of the technical constraints is the size of data packetsIn an attempt to avoid content piracy, the allowed on a given link. An applicationVoD content is usually encrypted. must assure that it uses properWhilst encryption of satellite and cable transmission characteristics.TV broadcasts is an old practice, withIPTV technology it can effectively be One analog-TV phone on the market isthought of as a form of Digital Rights the Toshiba V401T. It picks up the sameManagement. A film that is chosen, for signals a rabbit-ear TV picks up,example, may be playable for 24 hours meaning watching TV on this phonefollowing payment, after which time it doesnt cost anything. The V401T has abecomes unavailable. built-in analog TV tuner and antenna, anAnother advantage of an IP-based A/V processor and a 2.2-inch, 320x240-network is the opportunity for pixel QVGA display. It can generate 30integration and convergence. This frames per second, which is standard TVopportunity is amplified when using motion, and you can watch up to oneIMS-based solutionsConverged services hour of TV on a single battery charge.implies interaction of existing services in Phones that receive analog TV typicallya seamless manner to create new value dont offer as much viewing time asadded services. One good example is digital receivers partly because it takes On-Screen Caller ID, getting Caller ID more power to digitize the analog signals on your TV and the ability to handle it for the phones digital display.(send it to voice mail, etc.). IP-basedservices will help to enable efforts to 7
  8. 8. With the Nokia N92, you can watch up The Future of Mobile Entertainmentto four hours per charge. The N92 is aDVB-H receiver due for release by mid-2006. Under the hood is a TV antenna In early 2006, LG unveiled the V9000and DVB-H radio receiver -- essentially phone, a T-DMB receiver with the addeda digital TV tuner that listens to the radio bonus of virtual surround sound. LGsbands between 470 and 702 MHzThe prototype SB130 is an S-DMB phonephones audio/video processor displays that can pause live TV like a DVR,30 frames per second on a 2.8-inch recording up to an hour of programmingQVGA screen with 16 million colors. using its onboard memory. Features likeOne of the coolest features of Nokias DVR functionality and surround soundDVB-H phone is the swivel screen, point to the possibility that TV-enabledwhich you can adjust for portrait or cell phones will become increasinglylandscape TV-viewing modes. Theres focused on providing a satisfyingalso an "Electronic Service Guide" that viewing experience, instead of justdisplays TV programming, among other something to look at on the commuter train.things, and you can record up to 30minutes of TV on the phone for later Along this line, as mobile-TV contentplayback. becomes more readily available, wellThe latest satellite-TV phone on the almost definitely see larger screens onmarket is the Samsung SCH-B250 (only TV phones. Some analysts are evenin Korea as of March 2006). It has a predicting multiple phone displays -- onebuilt-in S-DMB receiver with antenna for cell-phone and Web functions andand a hi-res QVGA screen. The screen is one dedicated to streaming video. If theoriented horizontally and swivels for technology is to gain a real foothold, andswitching between portrait and if high-end features like HDTVlandscape modes while the phone is still reception are to be viable options,upright. It has a video-out jack for battery life will have to increase. High-sending S-DMB content to an external end TV phones will also offerdisplay, and you can watch up to three advertisers a whole new contenthours of TV on a full charge. platform. Companies are already talking about embedding Web links in mobile-The current availability of mobile-TV TV programming so users can click theirhandsets is fairly limited because the way to a product in the middle of acontent-delivery systems arent deployed show. This would probably necessitateon a mass scale. But thats likely to the dual-display feature in order to bechange within the next six to 18 months, effective.and with increased content delivery willcome increased functionality on the Even showing so much promise andreceiving end. industry enthusiasm, mobile TV has some obstacles to overcome both on the 8
  9. 9. device side and the content side. To wireless is used for communicationdeliver the types and range of content between thenetwork entity and thethat consumers really want, mobile-TV receiver. Since IPTV is access networkproviders will have to license agnostic as defined by ITU-T FGprogramming from the major TV IPTV,there can be various wirelessnetworks. The licensing fees will technologies such asprobably end up raising the cost of any WLAN , WiMAX , Cellular etc.TV subscription service. Content Eachwireless technology has its ownproviders will also face digital rights characteristics which should be carefullymanagement (DRM) issues in delivering considered while deploying Mobilelicensed content to users. Theyll have to IPTV services. Detaileddevelop DRM schemes that limit what technicalconsiderations, obstacles, andusers can do with the copyrighted TV requirements forMobile IPTV will beprogramming thats delivered to their described in this paper.cell phones. And if the uproar At the second stage, the wirelesssectionsurrounding DTV, DVD, CD and MP3 can be expanded to the sender so thatDRM schemes is any indicator, it could mobiledevice will be used for both theget hairy. Still, you never know -- maybe sender and thereceiver. Nowadays, Usereverybody will just get along when it Created Contents calledUCC iscomes to mobile TV. becoming popular in Internet, and any userwho is moving around can create his/her own IPTVARCHITECTURE AND APPROACHES contents and provide it to Mobile IPTVFOR MOBILEIPTV users as well. Also, as shown in several approaches for providing Mobile IPTV services are already beingThe IPTV architecture is classified into used in the market. From users’Next Generation Network (NGN) based perspective, there is no difference amongand non-NGN based architectures. This them, although technologies are toopaper is focusing on the non-NGN (e.g., much different.legacy Internet) based architecture forMobile IPTVservices because NGN is still ongoing Mobile TV plus IP approachwork and premature status yet. At thetime when the NGNstandardization is This approach uses the traditional digitalfinalized through ITU-T, the NGN broadcast networks to deliver IP-basedbased Mobile IPTV approach that audio, video, graphics and otherconsiders IP-based Internet Multimedia broadband data services to the user onSubsystem (IMS) should being corporate the move. This is a prime example of theaccording. At the first stage, a increasing convergence of broadcasting, 9
  10. 10. telecommunications and computing. The on the requirements for mobility supportreason were raised as an out-growth under thewhy it is pursued is to build a content auspices of the Fixed-Mobileenvironment that combines the stability Convergence (FMC) trend. Theand usability of broadcasting and the outstanding activities are ATIS [14] indiverse services of Internet. Tomake this the US, Open IPTV Forum [16], andapproach more attractive, wide ITU-T FG IPTV [9]areawireless networks such as cellular internationally. The development ofnetworks are integrated to support Mobile IPTV specification isinteractivity. The outstanding at an early stage. Currently, ITU-T FGactivities in this approach are Digital IPTV is collecting requirementsVideo Broadcast (DVB)-CBMS regarding mobility and wireless(Convergence of Broadcasting and characteristics. ATIS has not shown anyMobile Services) andWorld DAB (DAB: interest in mobility support yet. In OpenDigital Audio Broadcasting) Forum IPTV Forum, mobility service entirelyDVB-CBMS is developing bi-directional based on IMS (IP Multimediamobile IP based broadcasting protocol Subsystem) which is a set ofspecifications over specification from 3GPP for deliveringDVB-H [6]. DVB-CBMS already IP multimedia to mobile users will befinished Phase I and currently is working forthcoming.in Phase II. WorldDAB Forum isenhancing and extending Eureka 147 to Cellular approachsupport IP based services. Eureka 147was originally developed for digital Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) BCASTradio applications and extended to is working for IP based mobilesupport video services. Even though this broadcasting networks.Its goals are toapproach is classified as Mobile IPTV define an end-to-end framework fortechnically, the usage of broadcasting mobile broadcast and compile the set ofnetworks may incur the loss of necessary enablers. Its features areindividuality of IP. bearer agnostic, which means any Broadcast Distribution Network can beIPTV plus Mobile approach adopted as its transport means. OMA BCAST, however, is only applicable toAlthough many think that “networked mobile terminals up to now and showingTV” will be the future of television, interest in expanding its specification toIPTV is currently dominated by Telco cover fixed terminals in Phase II.giants in an attempt to find anew source of cash-in. IPTV services areoriginally targeted to fixed terminalssuch as set-top boxes, however, issues 10
  11. 11. Internet approach Video Conferencing application, Karaoke-On-Demand video content, andThere are already countless Internet automatic and interactive Jukeboxvideo services worldwide. They are service for either high quality contentusually termed as Internet TV or Web like Music videos or the User GeneratedTV. These are outgrowth for Content type of services.“Providingniche entertainment business. With this mobile TV free in return for receivingapproach, there can be quiet different advertising offers perhaps the best routemodels developing on the business type for boosting the numbers watchingand infrastructure used. This approach is mobile TV. However, theopen for anybody to play a role in the obstacles….mean that it is difficult tovalue chain: anybody can be a content see it fulfilling much more than a nicheprovider, a service provider, or simply a viewing role in the medium term.consumer. “The most desired type of programmingThis resulted in a universe of highly is likely to be very short clips, targeteddiversified and dynamically independent at a teenage/early 20s audience whoproduction. In addition, the openness spend a lot of time out of the home.gives global reach. “There are also still technical problemsHowever this Internet approach has a with mobile TV to overcome, users citeshort coming that the quality of services dissatisfaction with the size of theis not guaranteed since it is based on the picture, cost, and in particular the choicebest effort service model. of programmes available to watch andHowever, considering its rapid the geographical coverage in which youadaptation to customer needs, this can receive the service. This last point isapproach may be dominant in the near important as train and coach or busfuture. As long as mobile device uses journeys provide ideal opportunities toInternet, users can access to IPTV reach an audience with considerable freeservice through various wireless access time.networks. MESSAGINGAPPLICATIONS Messaging is an iTV application that canBesides games, many other different be used for sending short textualkind of applications, including e.g. EPGs messages while watching TV.(Electronic Program Guide), Weather Messaging application can be used e.g.services, TV Program related during a sports program for sendingapplications, Interactive Advertisements, comments to the commentators in theT-Government services and Chats. IPTV sports studio or just to chat with otherallows service providers to easily offer TV viewers.also Video related Interactive services. 11
  12. 12. The messages can be delivered to the CONCLUSIONemail, Internet pages, to database orback to the TV screen. The application DigiSoft.tv announces the release ofincludes features like choosing the DigiTracker to the global market.recipient from list, writing the message DigiTracker is a world first for digitalwith virtual text pad and sending interactive TV. The product ismessage.The messages can be delivered specifically designed for global IPTVto the email, Internet pages, to database operators to allow tracking of mobileor back to the TV screen. The phones by viewers. This new opt-inapplication includes features like application will allow TV viewers suchchoosing the recipient from list, writing as parents to see the current location ofthe message with virtual text pad and their childrens mobile phone on theirsending message. TV screen. It will also allow text or SMS messages to be sent to that phone. DigiTracker uses integrations toEPG - ELECTRONIC PROGRAM Location Based Services and mappingGUIDE systems to enable the plotting of aHelps to find the programs and services mobile location on a map and display itavailable. on the TV thus allowing for the first time ever, parents to know exactly whereEPG application is targeted for their children are at any time.broadcasters and operators looking for acommon interface for their viewers to “There is an immense appeal for thisaccess TV program information. It is type of technology as parents concernedalways customized to meet customers about the safety, well-being and locationdesign guidelines and can easily act as of their children can know exactly wherethe launcher for other interactive they are “This is the start of a whole newapplications in the program stream. age for TV as the entire interaction takesThe development, customization and UI place from the armchair at home, whilelocalization time can also be decreased watching a TV show, using nothingconsiderably utilizing existing more than the TV remote control.components. On the other hand plug Digisoft’s platform enables the rapidplay components do not restrict the development of revenue generatingnavigation or look and feel of the applications for IPTV Service Providers,application DigiTracker is an example of these advanced applications,” 12