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RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISM BY PRANZLY.ppt

DEFINITION RHIZOSPHERE EFFECT MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN RHIZOSPHERE FACTORS INFLUENCING THEIR GROWTH AND ACTIVITIES POSITIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOSPHERIC MICROORGANISMS ON PLANTS NEGATIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOSPHERIC MICROORGANISMS ON PLANTS

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RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISM
PRESENTED BY PRANZLY
CONTENT
• DEFINITION
• RHIZOSPHERE EFFECT
• MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN RHIZOSPHERE
• FACTORS INFLUENCING THEIR GROWTH AND
ACTIVITIES
• POSITIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOSPHERIC
MICROORGANISMS ON PLANTS
• NEGATIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOSPHERIC
MICROORGANISMS ON PLANTS
• The narrow region of soil around the plant root where root
exudate migrate and microbiological activity is exceptionally
high is called rhizosphere.
• The surface of root is called rhizoplane.
• The most active region of soil as plant root produce and
release various exudates containing sugar, aminoacids,
organic acids, fatty acids, vitamins, nucleotides and other
organic matters that promotes growth of microorganisms
• Defined by Lorenz Hiltner as a soil compartment influenced
by plant roots
• The roots of crop plants create an interface between the
plant and the soil environment
DEFINITION
RHIZOSPHERE EFFECT
• The rhizosphere effect is the influence of
plant roots on the development of soil
microorganisms as a result of the physical
and chemical alteration of soil and the
release of root secretions and exudates
within the rhizosphere.
• The rhizosphere effect is higher for bacteria >
fungi > actinomycetes > protozoa.
• The microorganism diversity is higher near to
the rhizoplane, which then decreases with an
increase in distance from the rhizoplane
number of microbes in
rhizospheric soil
number of microbes in
soil free of plant root.
(R:S) =
MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN
RHIZOSPHERE
• BACTERIA: Many nitrogen fixing bacteria and
phosphate solubilizing and other bacteria are found
in rhizosphere. For examples: Pseudomonas,
Arthrobacter, Azotobacter, Agrobacterium,
Flavobacterium, Cellulomonas, Rhizobium,
Clostridium etc.
• FUNGI: Some fungi are found associated with root
forming mycorrhiza and other occurs freely in soil.
For examples: Marticella, Cephalosporium,
Trichoderma, Penicillium, Gliodadium, Gliomastix,
Fusarium etc.
• ACTINOMYCETES: Frankia, Derxia etc
FACTORS INFLUENCING
THEIR GROWTH AND
ACTIVITIES
PROXIMITY OF SOIL
TO ROOT:
greater near the root and
their number continuously
decreaseswith increase in
distance from the root.
TEMPERATURE AND
LIGHT INTENSITY
Low temperature and low
light intensity decreases the
rate of exudate secretion
TYPE OF SOIL:
R: S ratio is very high in
sandy soil and low in clay
soil.
AGE OF PLANT:
With age of plant, rate of
exudates secretion is
altered so that number of
rhizospheric microbes
changes.
DEPTH OF ROOT
microorganisms decrease
with increase in depth of
root, which is mainly due to
anaerobic condition.
TYPES OF PLANT
AND LOCATION OF
ROOT
number of microbes is
comparatively high around
root cap and lateral roots
ROOT RESPIRATION
CO2 released by plants during
respiration makes the soil acidic
which decreases rhizospheric
microorganism
pH OF SOIL
Rhizosphere becomes acidic due
to root respiration and by
oxidation of sulphur caused by
Thiobacillsu spp.

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RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISM BY PRANZLY.ppt

  • 2. CONTENT • DEFINITION • RHIZOSPHERE EFFECT • MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN RHIZOSPHERE • FACTORS INFLUENCING THEIR GROWTH AND ACTIVITIES • POSITIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOSPHERIC MICROORGANISMS ON PLANTS • NEGATIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOSPHERIC MICROORGANISMS ON PLANTS
  • 3. • The narrow region of soil around the plant root where root exudate migrate and microbiological activity is exceptionally high is called rhizosphere. • The surface of root is called rhizoplane. • The most active region of soil as plant root produce and release various exudates containing sugar, aminoacids, organic acids, fatty acids, vitamins, nucleotides and other organic matters that promotes growth of microorganisms • Defined by Lorenz Hiltner as a soil compartment influenced by plant roots • The roots of crop plants create an interface between the plant and the soil environment DEFINITION
  • 4. RHIZOSPHERE EFFECT • The rhizosphere effect is the influence of plant roots on the development of soil microorganisms as a result of the physical and chemical alteration of soil and the release of root secretions and exudates within the rhizosphere. • The rhizosphere effect is higher for bacteria > fungi > actinomycetes > protozoa. • The microorganism diversity is higher near to the rhizoplane, which then decreases with an increase in distance from the rhizoplane number of microbes in rhizospheric soil number of microbes in soil free of plant root. (R:S) =
  • 5. MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN RHIZOSPHERE • BACTERIA: Many nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing and other bacteria are found in rhizosphere. For examples: Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Azotobacter, Agrobacterium, Flavobacterium, Cellulomonas, Rhizobium, Clostridium etc. • FUNGI: Some fungi are found associated with root forming mycorrhiza and other occurs freely in soil. For examples: Marticella, Cephalosporium, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Gliodadium, Gliomastix, Fusarium etc. • ACTINOMYCETES: Frankia, Derxia etc
  • 6. FACTORS INFLUENCING THEIR GROWTH AND ACTIVITIES PROXIMITY OF SOIL TO ROOT: greater near the root and their number continuously decreaseswith increase in distance from the root. TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT INTENSITY Low temperature and low light intensity decreases the rate of exudate secretion TYPE OF SOIL: R: S ratio is very high in sandy soil and low in clay soil. AGE OF PLANT: With age of plant, rate of exudates secretion is altered so that number of rhizospheric microbes changes. DEPTH OF ROOT microorganisms decrease with increase in depth of root, which is mainly due to anaerobic condition. TYPES OF PLANT AND LOCATION OF ROOT number of microbes is comparatively high around root cap and lateral roots ROOT RESPIRATION CO2 released by plants during respiration makes the soil acidic which decreases rhizospheric microorganism pH OF SOIL Rhizosphere becomes acidic due to root respiration and by oxidation of sulphur caused by Thiobacillsu spp.
  • 7. POSITIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOSPHERIC MICROORGANISMS ON PLANTS 1. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria act as biofertilizers by enhancing phytochrome production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production 2. Synthesize anti-fungal metabolites such as antibiotics 3. Responsible for direct growth promotion by the production of phytohormones. 4. Stimulate plant growth indirectly by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens 5. Supply of mineral nutrients from the soil to the plant.
  • 8. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOSPHERIC MICROORGANISMS ON PLANTS 1. Competition occur where the microorganisms compete with the plants for water, nutrient, and space 2. Might act as plant pathogens, resulting in different forms of plant diseases 3. Competition results in the loss of beneficial microorganisms.