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nitrogen fixation by Pranzly.ppt

nitrogen fixation -non-biological nitrogen fixation -biological nitrogen fixation -symbiotic and non symbiotic nitrogen fixation -root nodule formation in legumes -mechanism of nitrogen fixation

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PRESENTED BY- PRANZLY
NITROGEN FIXATION
Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of free nitrogen
into nitrogenous compounds to make it available
for absorption of plant.
 Lawes and gilbert in 1891 showed that legumes
had the inherent ability to add nitrogen to the soil.
plays a major role in “global biological productivity
ROLE OF NITROGEN IN PLANT
• Growth of all organisms depends on the availability of mineral nutrients
• Essential component Of proteins, nucleic acids and other cellular constituents.
• Major substance in plant next to water
• Building block
• Play important role in metabolic growth, reproduction and heredity.
• Constituent of
Chlorophyll Protein
Alkaloids Vitamins
SOURCES
• ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN
 78% of atmosphere N2 is termed as dinitrogen.
 This N2 is fixed (N2-> NH3) by bacteria called Diazotrophs,& phenomenon is
diazotrophy.
• NITRATES AND NITRITES AND AMMONIA
 Nitrate(NO3) is a chief form.
 Amino acid in the soil
• ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUND IN INSECTS
Types
The table below shows some estimates of the amount of N2 fixed on a global scale. Total bio
N2 fixation is estimated to be twice as much as the total N2 fixation by non-bio processes
NON-BIOLOGICAL
• It includes Haber’s process:
• This reaction takes places at high temperature 500°C and pressure of 4000
atms.
• Lightning and UV radiation cause the formation of nitrogen oxides.
• These gases reached in soil through rain or dew and total N2 input in soil.
• Reaction involved:
• N2 + O2
𝑳𝑰𝑮𝑯𝑻𝑵𝑰𝑵𝑮
.
> 2NO (nitric oxide)
• 2NO +O2
𝑶𝑿𝑰𝑫𝑨𝑻𝑰𝑶𝑵
.
> 2NO2

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nitrogen fixation by Pranzly.ppt

  • 2. NITROGEN FIXATION Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of free nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds to make it available for absorption of plant.  Lawes and gilbert in 1891 showed that legumes had the inherent ability to add nitrogen to the soil. plays a major role in “global biological productivity
  • 3. ROLE OF NITROGEN IN PLANT • Growth of all organisms depends on the availability of mineral nutrients • Essential component Of proteins, nucleic acids and other cellular constituents. • Major substance in plant next to water • Building block • Play important role in metabolic growth, reproduction and heredity. • Constituent of Chlorophyll Protein Alkaloids Vitamins
  • 4. SOURCES • ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN  78% of atmosphere N2 is termed as dinitrogen.  This N2 is fixed (N2-> NH3) by bacteria called Diazotrophs,& phenomenon is diazotrophy. • NITRATES AND NITRITES AND AMMONIA  Nitrate(NO3) is a chief form.  Amino acid in the soil • ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUND IN INSECTS
  • 5. Types The table below shows some estimates of the amount of N2 fixed on a global scale. Total bio N2 fixation is estimated to be twice as much as the total N2 fixation by non-bio processes
  • 6. NON-BIOLOGICAL • It includes Haber’s process: • This reaction takes places at high temperature 500°C and pressure of 4000 atms. • Lightning and UV radiation cause the formation of nitrogen oxides. • These gases reached in soil through rain or dew and total N2 input in soil. • Reaction involved: • N2 + O2 𝑳𝑰𝑮𝑯𝑻𝑵𝑰𝑵𝑮 . > 2NO (nitric oxide) • 2NO +O2 𝑶𝑿𝑰𝑫𝑨𝑻𝑰𝑶𝑵 . > 2NO2
  • 7. BIOLOGICAL FIXATION FIXATION OF ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN INTO NITROGENOUS SALTS WITH THE HELP OF MICRO ORGANISMS. IT IS OF TWO TYPES: It is a type of nitrogen fixation of atmospheric nitrogen carried out by micro- organisms like bacteria that are free living in soil. Examples include: Free living aerobic: Azotobacter, Beijerenckia. Free living anaerobic: Clostridium • TWO MAIN STEPS OF NON-SYMBIOTIC N2 FIXA TION 1. AMMONIFICATION 2. NITRIFICATION The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by microorganism living symbiotically inside the plant roots is called symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The system consists of bacteria of the species rhizobium together with many member of family Leguminosae such as peas, beans etc. to form nitrogen-fixing cooperatives.
  • 8. NON SYMBIOTIC TWO MAIN STEPS OF NON- SYMBIOTIC N2 FIXA TION AMMONIFICATION – the conversion of NH3 from natural nitrogen compound(amino acid) by microorganism. NITRIFICATION – the conversion of ammonium to nitrate. This is Brought about by the nitrifying bacteria, which are specialized to gain their energy by oxidizing ammonium, while using CO2 as their source of carbon to synthesize organic compounds.
  • 9. SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXATION • LEGUME SYMBIOSES- The most familiar examples of nitrogen-fixing symbioses are the root nodules of legumes (peas, beans clover, etc.) • Rhizobium forms nodules and participate in the symbiotic acquisition of nitrogen. • If legumes are bigger partner and rhizobia is a smaller such relationship developed is named as micro symbiosis and the strains are termed as micro symbionts.
  • 10. PROCESS OF ROOT NODULE FORMATION • Rhizobia live freely as soon as they come in contact with suitable host they starts the process of infection. • Polysaccharides on the surface of the bacteria bind it’s to the lessons on the surface of the root. • The factors for proteins located in the nodule are called nodulins on bacterial surfaces named as bactericidins which help in nodulation.
  • 11. 1. CURLING AND DEFORMATION OF ROOT HAIRS. • Invasion of rhizobia occurs through root hairs.
  • 13. 2. FORMATION OF INFECTION THREAD AND FORMATION OF NODULE.  The tip of curled root hair bends the bacteria (rhizobial polysaccharides and DNA) penetrates and grow in the form of an infection tube.  Meanwhile the polysaccharide reacts with the component of root hair cell to form an “organizer”.  the organizer induces the production of polygalacturonase (PG) followed by depolymerization of cell wall pectin.
  • 14. DEVELOPMENT & STRUCTURE OF ROOT NODULE
  • 15. LEGHAEMOGLOBIN • A red pigment similar to blood haemoglobin is found in the nodules between Bacteroides and the membrane envelops surrounding them. • The function of this molecule in nodules is to reduce the amount of Free oxygen, • thereby to protect the nitrogen- fixing enzyme nitrogenase, which is irreversibly inactivated by oxygen
  • 16. MECHANISM OF N2 FIXING MICRO ORGANISM Enzyme complex • Nitrogenase the process of biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by an engine complex called nitrogenase complex • Three different forms of nitrogenase NITROGENASE MOLYBDENUM VANADIUM IRON
  • 17. STRUCTURE • Dinitrogenase reductase (Fe- protein) Azoferredoxin. 1. Smaller component 2. Fe-S Protein component 3. Extremely sensitive to oxygen an inactivated by it 4. Dimer of two identical peptide chains each with molecular weight 30-72 kDa (Depending on microorganisms) 5. This dimer is bridged by 4(Fe-S) cluster. That are 12 titrable thiol (- SH ) group • Dinitrogenase (Mo-Fe protein) 1. Larger component ( Mo-Fe protein) 2. site of nitrogen fixation 3. This component is also sensitive to oxygen 4. Tetramer with two mixed peptide chains (Alpha2beta2) 5. Total molecular mass 180-235 kDa(approx). 6. Nitrogenase contain 2Mo atoms, about 24 labile S atoms and 30 titrable thiol groups.
  • 18. PROPERTIES • Nitrogenase is sensitive to oxygen hence biological nitrogen fixation requires anaerobic conditions. • Anaerobic Organism = OK • Aerobic Organism nitrogen fixation Occurs when conditions are made to maintain very low level of oxygen. • Apart from nitrogen the engines nitrogenase can reduce a number of other substrate example nitrous oxide (N2O) ,azide (N3- ), C2H2 (acetylene) ,protons (2H+) and catalyze hydrolysis of ATP.
  • 19. • NITROGEN FIXATION IS A REDUCTIVE PROCESS.
  • 20. CONT.  The reduction of N2 is obligatorily linked to reduction of two protons to form H2 molecule also as it is necessary for binding of N2 at the active site.  The electrons and ATP are provided by photosynthesis and respiration of the host.  In some rhizobia, hydrogenase enzyme is found which splits H2 to electrons and protons thereby increase the efficiency of N2 fixation.
  • 21. BIBLIOGRAPHY S.NO BOOKS 1. Textbook of MICROBIOBIOLOGY-by R.C DUBEY, D.K MAHESHWARI 2. Prescott’s microbiology(ninth edition) WEBSITES 3. Nitrogen Fixation- WIKIPEDIA 4. https://courses.lumenlearning.com Boundless microbiology Nitrogen Fixation RESEARCH PAPER 5. Jim Deacon, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburg, the microbial world, the nitrogen cycle and nitrogen fixation.