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Factors that affect microbial growth by Pranzly.pptx

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Intrinsic and extrinsic factors Intrinsic factors include Characteristics of the food itself are called intrinsic factors. These include naturally occurring compounds that influence microbial growth, MOISTURE CONTENT  pH AND ACIDITY NUTRIENT CONTENT BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE REDOX POTENTIAL NATURALLY OCCURING AND ADDED ANTIMICROBIAL Extrinsic factors are those that refer to the environment surrounding the food. TYPES OF PACKAGING AND ATMOSPHERES EFFECT OF TIME/TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS ON MICROBIAL GROWTH STORAGE AND HOLDING CONDITION PROCESSING STEPS

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PRESENTED BY PRANZLY
Microbial growth requires time/temperature control during
storage, distribution, sale and handling at retail and in food
service to assure consumer protection.
Many factors must be evaluated for each specific food when making
decisions on whether it needs time/temperature control for safety.
The need for time/temperature control is primarily determined by-
1)The potential for contamination with pathogenic
microorganisms of concern (including processing influences),
and
2)The potential for subsequent growth and/or toxin production.
TYPES OF
FACTORS
Intrinsic factors are
those that are
characteristic of the
food itself;
Extrinsic factors are
those that refer to the
environment
surrounding the food.
INTRINSIC FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MICROBIAL
GROWTH
• Characteristics of the food itself are called intrinsic factors.
• These include naturally occurring compounds that influence microbial
growth,
1. MOISTURE CONTENT
2. pH AND ACIDITY
3. NUTRIENT CONTENT
4. BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
5. REDOX POTENTIAL
6. NATURALLY OCCURING AND ADDED ANTIMICROBIAL
MOISTURE CONTENT
• Microorganisms need water in an available form to grow in food products. The
control of the moisture content in foods is one of the oldest exploited
preservation strategies.
• Water activity is defined as the ratio of water vapor pressure of the food
substrate to the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature.
• aw = p/po,
•
• where p = vapor pressure of the solution and po = vapor pressure of the
solvent (usually water).
• The aw of pure water is 1.00 and the aw of a completely dehydrated food is
0.00.
Table 3-1. Approximate aw values of selected food
categories.
Animal Products aw
fresh meat, poultry, fish 0.99 - 1.00
natural cheeses 0.95 - 1.00
pudding 0.97 - 0.99
eggs 0.97
cured meat 0.87 - 0.95
Plant Products aw
fresh fruits, vegetables 0.97 - 1.00
bread ~0.96
bread, white 0.94 - 0.97
bread, crust 0.30
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CONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptx
 

Factors that affect microbial growth by Pranzly.pptx

  • 2. Microbial growth requires time/temperature control during storage, distribution, sale and handling at retail and in food service to assure consumer protection. Many factors must be evaluated for each specific food when making decisions on whether it needs time/temperature control for safety. The need for time/temperature control is primarily determined by- 1)The potential for contamination with pathogenic microorganisms of concern (including processing influences), and 2)The potential for subsequent growth and/or toxin production.
  • 3. TYPES OF FACTORS Intrinsic factors are those that are characteristic of the food itself; Extrinsic factors are those that refer to the environment surrounding the food.
  • 4. INTRINSIC FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MICROBIAL GROWTH • Characteristics of the food itself are called intrinsic factors. • These include naturally occurring compounds that influence microbial growth, 1. MOISTURE CONTENT 2. pH AND ACIDITY 3. NUTRIENT CONTENT 4. BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE 5. REDOX POTENTIAL 6. NATURALLY OCCURING AND ADDED ANTIMICROBIAL
  • 5. MOISTURE CONTENT • Microorganisms need water in an available form to grow in food products. The control of the moisture content in foods is one of the oldest exploited preservation strategies. • Water activity is defined as the ratio of water vapor pressure of the food substrate to the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature. • aw = p/po, • • where p = vapor pressure of the solution and po = vapor pressure of the solvent (usually water). • The aw of pure water is 1.00 and the aw of a completely dehydrated food is 0.00.
  • 6. Table 3-1. Approximate aw values of selected food categories. Animal Products aw fresh meat, poultry, fish 0.99 - 1.00 natural cheeses 0.95 - 1.00 pudding 0.97 - 0.99 eggs 0.97 cured meat 0.87 - 0.95 Plant Products aw fresh fruits, vegetables 0.97 - 1.00 bread ~0.96 bread, white 0.94 - 0.97 bread, crust 0.30
  • 7. Table 3-2. Approximate aw values for growth of selected pathogens in food. Organism Minimum Optimum Maximum Campylobacter spp. 0.98 0.99 Clostridium botulinum type E* 0.97 Shigella spp. 0.97 Yersinia enterocolitica 0.97 Vibrio vulnificus 0.96 0.98 0.99 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0.95 0.99 Salmonella spp. 0.94 0.99 >0.99 Vibrio parahaemolyticus 0.94 0.98 0.99
  • 8. PH AND ACIDITY • Increasing the acidity of foods, either through fermentation or the addition of weak acids, has been used as a preservation method since ancient times. The pH is a function of the hydrogen ion concentration in the food: pH = -log10 [H+] • The optimum growth pH is the most favorable pH for the growth of an organism. • The lowest pH value that an organism can tolerate is called the minimum growth pH and the highest pH is the maximum growth pH. • These values can cover a wide range, which is important for the preservation of food and to microorganisms’ survival in the stomach. For example, the optimum growth pH of Salmonella spp. is 7.0–7.5, but the minimum growth pH is closer to 4.2.
  • 9. Most bacteria are NEUTROPHILES, meaning they grow optimally at a pH within one or two pH units of the neutral pH of 7 (see Figure 2). Most familiar bacteria, like Escherichia coli, staphylococci, and Salmonella spp. are neutrophiles and do not fare well in the acidic pH of the stomach. Microorganisms that grow optimally at pH less than 5.55 are called ACIDOPHILES. For example, the sulfur-oxidizing Sulfolobus spp At the other end of the spectrum are ALKALIPHILES, microorganisms that grow best at pH between 8.0 and 10.5. Vibrio cholerae EXTREME ALKALIPHILES grows above 10 and have adapted to their harsh environment through evolutionary modification of lipid and protein structure and compensatory mechanisms to maintain the proton motive force in an alkaline environment.
  • 10. The curves show the approximate pH ranges for the growth of the different classes of pH- specific prokaryotes. Each curve has an optimal pH and extreme pH values at which growth is much reduced. Most bacteria are neutrophiles and grow best at near-neutral pH (center curve). Acidophiles have optimal growth at pH values near 3 and alkaliphiles have optimal growth at pH values above 9.
  • 11. Lactic acid bacteria that ferment milk into yogurt or transform vegetables in pickles thrive at a pH close to 4.0. Sauerkraut and dishes such as pico de gallo owe their tangy flavor to their acidity. Acidic foods have been a mainstay of the human diet for centuries, partly because most microbes that cause food spoilage grow best at a near neutral pH and do not tolerate acidity well.
  • 12. View from space of Lake Natron in Tanzania. The pink color is due to the pigmentation of the extreme alkaliphilic and halophilic microbes that colonize the lake. (credit: NASA
  • 13. NUTRIENT CONTENT • Microorganisms require certain basic nutrients for growth and maintenance of metabolic functions. These nutrients include water, a source of energy, nitrogen, vitamins, and minerals. • Examples- of minerals required for microbial growth include phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, calcium, and potassium. • Fruits are rich in ascorbic acid and meat in rich in vitamin B. • Egg white contain biotin and also avidin which binds with biotin and make it unavailable for microorganisms.
  • 14. BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE • Plant and animal derived foods, especially in the raw state, have biological structures that may prevent the entry and growth of pathogenic microorganisms. • Examples of such physical barriers include testa of seeds, skin of fruits and vegetables, shell of nuts, animal hide, egg cuticle, shell, and membranes.
  • 15. EXAMPLES • During the preparation of foods, processes such as slicing, chopping, grinding, and shucking will destroy the physical barriers. Thus, the interior of the food can become contaminated and growth can occur depending on the intrinsic properties of the food. For example, Salmonella spp. have been shown to grow on the interior of portions of cut cantaloupe, watermelon, honeydew melons and tomatoes. • The egg is another good example of an effective biological structure that, when intact, will prevent external microbial contamination of the perishable yolk; contamination is possible, however, through transovarian infection.
  • 16. REDOX POTENTIAL • The oxidation-reduction or redox potential of a substance is defined in terms of the ratio of the total oxidizing (electron accepting) power to the total reducing (electron donating) power of the substance. • The redox potential (Eh) is measured in terms of millivolts.
  • 17. NATURALLY OCCURING AND ADDED ANTIMICROBIAL • Some foods intrinsically contain naturally-occurring antimicrobial compounds that convey some level of microbiological stability to them. There are a number of plant-based antimicrobial constituents, including many essential oils, tannins, glycosides, and resins, that can be found in certain foods. • Specific examples include eugenol in cloves, allicin in garlic, cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol in cinnamon, allyl isothiocyanate in mustard, eugenol and thymol in sage, and carvacrol (isothymol) and thymol in oregano. • Some animal-based foods also contain antimicrobial constituents. Examples include lactoferrin, conglutinin and the lactoperoxidase system in cow's milk, lysozyme in eggs and milk, and other factors in fresh meat, poultry and seafood.
  • 18. • are those that refer to the environment surrounding the food. 1. TYPES OF PACKAGING AND ATMOSPHERES 2. EFFECT OF TIME/TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS ON MICROBIAL GROWTH 3. STORAGE AND HOLDING CONDITION 4. PROCESSING STEPS EXTRINSIC FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MICROBIAL GROWTH
  • 19. TYPES OF PACKAGING AND ATMOSPHERES • First, they can have a direct toxic effect that can inhibit growth and proliferation. Carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and oxygen (O2) are gases that are directly toxic to certain microorganisms. • A second inhibitory mechanism is achieved by modifying the gas composition, which has indirect inhibitory effects by altering the ecology of the microbial environment. 3), and oxygen (O2) are gases that are directly toxic to certain microorganisms
  • 20. MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING (OR MAP) IS THE PRACTICE OF MANIPULATING THE ATMOSPHERE INSIDE PACKAGING CONTAINING PERISHABLE FOODS (FOR EXAMPLE, BEEF, PORK, CHICKEN, AND FISH). THE GOAL OF THE PROCESS IS TO INCREASE THE SHELF LIFE OF THE PRODUCT CONTAINED WITHIN. PROS  Longer shelf life  Enhanced visual appeal  Stays fresh longer  No chemical preservatives  Long-lasting flavor preservation  Sustained nutritional content CONS  More expensive  Less consumer base  Complicated to package  A higher level of quality assurance required
  • 21. Oxygen Facultative Anaerobe- do not require O2 but grows better in its presence. Eg- Escherichia coli. Aerotolerant Anaerobe- grows equally well in the presence of O2 Eg- Streptococcus pyogenes Obligate Aerobe- grows only in presence of O2. Eg- Mycobacterium tuberculosis Microaerophile- require O2 little 2%-10%for growth and is damage by atmospheric oxygen level 20%. Eg-Campylobacter Spirillum volutans. Obligate Anaerobe- does not tolerate O2 and dies in its presence. Eg-Clostridium, Bacteroids
  • 22. IMPACT OF TIME • Shelf life is the time period from when the product is produced until the time it is intended to be consumed or used. Several factors are used to determine a product's shelf life, ranging from organoleptic qualities to microbiological safety. • When time alone is used as a control, the duration should be equal to or less than the lag phase of the pathogen(s) of concern in the product in question. • Effect of temperature or pH on lag times of Listeria monocytogenes fromUSDA PMP ver 5.1 (2% NaCl, aw 0.989)
  • 23. IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE • All microorganisms have a defined temperature range in which they grow, with a minimum, maximum, and optimum. The log growth rate constant is found to be proportional to the reciprocal of the absolute temperature: • • G = -µ / 2.303 RT where, G = log growth rate constant µ = temperature characteristic (constant for a particular microbe)R = gas constant T = temperature (°K)
  • 24. Table 3-9. Temperature ranges for prokaryotic microorganisms. Group Temperature °C (°F) Minimum Optimum Maximum Thermophiles 40 - 45 (104 - 113) 55 - 75 (131 - 167) 60 - 90 (140 - 194) Mesophiles 5 - 15 (41 - 59) 30 - 45 (86 - 113) 35 - 47 (95 - 117) Psychrophiles -5 - +5 (23 - 41) 12 - 15 (54 - 59) 15 - 20 (59 - 68) Psychrotrophs -5 - +5 (23 - 41) 25 - 30 (77 - 86) 30 - 35 (86 - 95)
  • 26. STORAGE AND HOLDING CONDITION •Storage conditions will be limited to the storage/holding temperature, and the time/temperature involved in cooling of cooked items, and the relative humidity to which the food or packaging material may be exposed. • Relative humidity is the amount of moisture present in atmosphere
  • 27. PROCESSING STEPS  Processes that destroy vegetative cells but not spores (when product formulation is capable of inhibiting spore germination);  Post-process handling and packaging conditions that prevent reintroduction of vegetative pathogens onto or into the product before packaging; and  The use of packaging materials that while they do not provide a hermetic seal, do prevent reintroduction of vegetative pathogens into the product.