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ID MATERIALS AND
APPLICATIONS
RAMAJI PRANAV
BACHELOR OF DESIGN -ID
DIFFERENT MATERIALS
 ECO-FRIENDLY PAINTS
 PAPER AND WALLPAPERS
 FOAM
 ADHESIVE
 EPOXY
 TERRAZZO
 MAGNET
 TRASH AND SCRAP
 ACRYLICS
 JALI AND PARTITIONS
TERRAZZO
 Terrazzo is a composite material,
poured in place or precast, which
is used for floor and wall
treatments. It consists of chips
of marble, quartz, granite, glass,
or other suitable material, poured
with a cementitious binder,
polymeric, or a combination of
both.
TYPES OF TERRAZZO
Sand Cushion Terrazzo
This system is composed using a half
inch cement matrix topping. It consists
of a sand dusting, an isolation
membrane, a wire reinforcement, and an
underbed. It requires a 2.5 or 3-inch
depressed slab.
Bonded Terrazzo
This system is composed using a half
inch cement matrix topping. An underbed
made of sand and cement bonds with the
concrete slab. The terrazzo is poured on
top. Requires the concrete slab to be
depressed 1.75 inches.
TYPES OF TERRAZZO
Monolithic Terrazzo
This system is composed using a half
inch cement matrix topping. It consists
solely of the bonding agent and the
terrazzo topping.
Rustic Terrazzo
This system is composed using a non-
ground, textured cement matrix topping. This
system can be combined with bonded and
monolithic systems. It requires a two-inch
depressed slab. It is classified by its distinct
textured surface.
Thin-Set Epoxy Terrazzo
This system is composed using a 1/4 inch or
3/8 inch resin-based matrix topping. It can be
specified with glass, synthetic, or granite
aggregates in addition to marble. This
system is well known for its brilliant colors
and durability.
PROPERTIES OF TERAZZO
1. Durability
2. Unlimited Design
3. Low Maintenance and Low
Costs
4. Sustainability
5. Bacteria Resistance
6. Slip Resistance
MORE ABOUT TERAZZO
MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF
TERAZZO
 Terrazzo is made by combining a cement base
(sand, water, and cement) with a mixture of
ground minerals - like marble, granite, and
quartz - and can be applied to almost any
surface, vertical or horizontal. The technique,
produced using a completely hand-crafted
method, was used worldwide in the
construction of modern buildings and is noted
for its durability, resistance (to water and
abrasion), and easy maintenance. This made it
a go-to material in the creation of flooring for
houses and the common areas of residential
and office buildings.
APPLICATIONS AND
EXECUTION
MAGNET
Magnet is defined as a material that can
produce its own magnetic field.
This magnetic field is invisible but
is responsible for the most notable
property of a magnet: a force that
pulls on other ferromagnetic
materials, such as iron, steel, nickel,
cobalt, etc. and attracts or repels
other magnets.
TYPES OF MAGNETS
Permanent Magnet
Permanent magnets are those magnets that
are commonly used. They are known as
permanent magnets because they do not lose
their magnetic property once they are
magnetized.
There are four types of permanent magnets:
•Ceramic or ferrite
•Alnico
•Samarium Cobalt (SmCo)
•Neodymium Iron Boron (NIB)
Temporary Magnet
Temporary magnets can be magnetized
in the presence of a magnetic field.
When the magnetic field is removed,
these materials lose their magnetic
property. Iron nails and paper-clips are
examples of the temporary magnet.
Electromagnets
Electromagnets consist of a
coil of wire wrapped around
the metal core made from
iron. When this material is
exposed to an electric
current, the magnetic field
is generated making the
material behave like a
magnet. The strength of the
magnetic field can be
controlled by controlling the
electric current.
HOW ARE MAGNETS AVAILABLE
 Magnets are available in nature
 They are processed and made into
different forms like powder paints
etc...for interiors purpose
APPLICATIONS AND EXECUTION OF
MAGNETS IN INTERIORS
MAGNETIC WALL SYSTEM
with storage shelves
MAGNETIC SHEETS
TRASH AND SCRAP
 Garbage, trash, rubbish, or
refuse is waste material that is
discarded by humans, usually due
to a perceived lack of utility.
... Garbage is commonly sorted
and classified into kinds of
material suitable for specific kinds
of disposal.
TYPES IN TRASH AND SCRAP
Trash and scraap is classified into two
types
1 ferrous
In this type all the metalic objects
metalic wastage is recycled by the
designers or architects or by some
industries and new product is made
2 Non ferrous
In this type non metallic objects such as
plastic and other type of materials are
recycled
HOW IT IS PROCESSED
APPLICATION AND EXECUTION
ACRYLICS
Acrylic is an incredibly used
thermosetting plastic for
applications requiring
transparency where high
impact resistance is not an
issue. It can be cut into
extremely fine shapes using
laser cutting technology
because the material vaporizes
upon impact with the
concentrated laser energy.
TYPES OF ACRYLICS
Cast Acrylic Sheet: Cast Acrylic is a form of poly(methyl
methacrylate) (PMMA). It is formed by casting the monomer,
methyl methacrylate mixed with initiators and possibly other
additives into a form or mold. Sheet and rod stock are
generated by casting into static forms, while tubing is done in
rotational molds.
Extruded Acrylic Sheet:Extrusion is a continuous
manufacturing production method
where acrylic monomers are first heated then fed
through barrels where the chemical process occurs. As a
result, extruded acrylic is heterogeneous with properties
that may vary depending upon the direction of extrusion.
Acrylic Mirror Sheet.: Acrylic Mirror is a lightweight,
reflective thermoplastic sheet material used to enhance
the look and safety of displays, POP
, signage, and a
variety of fabricated parts. ... Approximately half the
weight of glass, acrylic is far cheaper to deliver and
transport than glass and much easier to install.
The most common type is a clear acrylic sheet. This sheet
is transparent and can, thus, be used as an alternative to
glass in building designs. Apart from being a better UV
protection, it is also a better insulator than glass making
it a great glazing replacement.
Another popular choice is acrylic mirror sheet. The silver
mirrored sheet provides high-quality reflections meaning
it can be used in place of glass in a mirror. In addition,
coloured acrylic sheets are often used to add life to a
building. They are available in hundreds of colours and
have multiple uses. Coloured acrylic is very aesthetically
pleasing and can complement many interiors.
PROPERTIES OF ACRYLICS
 Acrylic plastic is a transparent thermoplastic homopolymer
that is often colloquially referred to as plexiglass. This plastic
has unique properties that make it ideal for a variety of
purposes, ranging from basic household items to fiber optic
cables that power the world. These properties have allowed
acrylic to enjoy immense popularity in manufacturing as well as
DIY projects:
 High impact resistance
 High optical clarity
 Innate weatherability and UV resistance
 Excellent dimensional stability
 Lightweight
 Excellent chemical resistance
MANUFACTURING
APPLICATION AND EXECUTION
acrylic available in many shapes and sizes, they can also be molded and colored to fit specific
applications.
JALI AND PARTITIONS
 A jali or jaali, (jālī, meaning “net") is the
term for a perforated stone or latticed
screen, usually with an ornamental pattern
constructed through the use of calligraphy
and geometry. ... The jali helps in lowering
the temperature by compressing the air
through the holes.
TYPES OF GRILL BOARDS
 WPC (Wood Plastic Composite) made from
a unique combination of wood fiber and
new plastic. ... WPC Jali is one of the
quickest and easiest ways to freshen up
your surroundings. We make jail for Front
Elevation, Room Partition, Roof Ceiling
and Doors & Window.
 Medium-density fibreboard is an
engineered wood product made by
breaking down hardwood or softwood
residuals into wood fibres, often in a
defibrator, combining it with wax and a
resin binder, and forming it into panels by
applying high temperature and pressure.
MDF is generally more dense than plywood
Stainless Steel Jali
Stainless steel comes in a
variety of grades and
categories. Like galvanized
steel, stainless steel has an
anti-corrosive element added
to it, typically 10 percent
chromium.
PROCESSING GRILL BOARDS
Selection of Material
Selection of Pattern Cutting the material as per
pattern tgrough CNC
MACHINES
APPLICATION AND EXECUTION
 Partition Jali.
 Exterior Facade Jali.
 Ceiling Jali.
 Wall Hanging Jali.
 Railing Jali.
 Customize Jali
ECO-FRIENDLY PAINTS
nvironmentally friendly paint is made from a
variety of natural materials, including clay,
milk proteins, citrus, balsam and other
minerals. One example is milk paint, which is
made from the milk protein such as casein and
a little lime. Milk paints have been used for
hundreds of year and usually come in powder
form.
Types in eco- Friendly paints
Zero-VOC paints: The level of VOCs in
these paints is so low that they can be
termed as ‘zero-VOC paints’. As per
the EPA* standard, the total VOC
content should be less than 5 gram
per liter of paint.
Low-VOC paints: As specified by the
EPA, these paints can have VOC
concentrations ranging from 5 to 200
gram per liter of paint.
Natural paints: These paints are made
of natural compounds such as tree
resins, water, plant oil, essential oil
and natural dyes. They do not contain
any VOCs. Water-based paints do not
have an odor, while oil-based paints
have a smell.
Clare Paint is dedicated to bringing
designer-curated colors and
environmentally-friendly paint right to
your door. 100% of their paints are
Zero-VOC and Greenguard Gold
Certified, while their factories have
low-waste production methods,
recycled packaging, and water
conservation systems throughout.
BioShield is an eco-friendly paint
some companies offers a line of
solvent-free, zero-VOC paints for
interior, exterior as well as wall
finishes and wood stains. As “healthy
living paints”, some companies
strives to create products from natural
and easily-renewable resources
without harmful chemicals, toxins, or
additives.
Milk paint is made from milk protein,
and is a healthier alternative that is
not a water-based latex or oil-based
paint, like many commercial options.
Milk Paint has tons of great color
options—including loose pigments so
that you can blend your own custom
color.
Another safe alternative to
conventional paints are mineral and
plant-based pigments that are
sustainably harvested from the earth.
This is a more hands-on painting
process that requires you to mix the
pigments with additional materials but
they end result is worth the extra
effort. Earth Pigments offers
beautifully rich colors including earth
tones made from ocher, bright oxide
pigments, and natural mica.
MANUFACTURING OF PAINTS
Laboratory
Weighing the raw
materials
Dispersion
PRE MIXING AND GRINDING
INSPECTION AND FINENESS
CHECKING
FILLING
APPLICATIONS AND EXECUTION
used to protect, color, or provide
texture to objects. Paint can be made
or purchased in many colors—and in
many different types, such as
watercolor or synthetic. Paint is
typically stored, sold, and applied as a
liquid, but most types dry into a solid.
PAPER AND WALLPAPER
Paper is a thin sheet material produced by
mechanically and/or chemically processing
cellulose fibres derived from wood, rags,
grasses or other vegetable sources in water,
draining the water through fine mesh leaving
the fibre evenly distributed on the surface,
followed by pressing and drying
paper that is pasted in vertical strips over the walls of a room to
provide a decorative surface.
Wallpaper is a material used in interior decoration to decorate the
interior walls of domestic and public buildings. It is usually sold
in rolls and is applied onto a wall using wallpaper paste.
... Wallpaper is made in long rolls which are hung vertically on a
wall.
TYPES
1. Liner Wallpaper
Also known as lining paper, this type of
wallpaper is made from paper or
fiberglass. It is effective for hiding wall
defects and minimizing repairs, and it
can be a base for more delicate
wallpaper types. It can be used alone,
and maybe even painted. Moreover, it is
easy to apply and remove.
2. Printed Wallpaper
This type is commonly used and
available in wide variety of colors and
patterns. The digitally-printed wallpaper
is normally cheaper than the hand-
printed, and it can be mass-produced,
but it could be torn easily. Also, the
printing ink is water-based, so it’d better
not be used in kitchens and bathrooms.
3. Vinyl Wallpaper
This type of wallpaper is composed printed paper coated with a layer
vinyl. It is the most commonly used type of wallpaper, currently,
because of its high durability. The thicker the vinyl coating layer is, the
more durable the wallpaper will be. Vinyl paper can be used in
kitchens and bathrooms, as it can of withstanding steam. It is can also
be washed, making for easy maintenance.
4. Foil Wallpaper
A polished metal foil is used as a base for this type to give the interior
space a shiny metallic effect. Due to its high reflectivity, foil wallpaper
highlights wall defects. So, the base wall needs to be repaired, treated,
or covered with lining paper first. The lining and adhering process
needs to be neat enough, not to ruin the foil’s reflectivity and shine.
. Flock Wallpaper
Flock wallpaper is distinct for its fuzzy three-
dimensional patterns, created from a velvet-like fiber
that is printed on a base of paper. It is one of the most
expensive wallpaper types, yet it is hard to maintain.
Its velvety texture reflects a sense of luxury; however,
it is not washable and could be hard to remove.
Accordingly, it is best used for rooms with lower
Properties of wallpaper
 Easy to peel and stick
 Can select the matching of the
design
 Wallpaper Washability it is
scrubbable Washable Can wipe
with a damp cloth
 Wallpaper removability
 Gives High rich look
MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF
WALLPAPER
APPLICATION AND EXECUTION OF
WALLPAPER
FOAM
 Foam is an object formed by trapping pockets
of gas in a liquid or solid. A bath sponge and
the head on a glass of beer are examples
of foams. In most foams, the volume of gas is
large, with thin films of liquid or solid
separating the regions of gas.
Types of foam
Dry Fast Foam is very good for outdoor uses. It is
non-water absorbent and won’t mold, rot or mildew. It
is very resilient and buoyant, with an open-cell
structure. Dry Fast Foam is used for filtering or
padding that is subject to high amounts of liquid.
Memory Foam, also known as Viscoelastic Foam, is a
high-quality foam that conforms to your body shape.
Memory foam was developed for space shuttle
seating and is currently used for mattresses and
therapeutic applications.
Latex Rubber Foam is the first type of
foam on the market that is non-
allergenic and long-lasting. It is used in
top of the line products including
mattresses, cushions, and pillows.
High-Density Foam is sold primarily for mattresses,
average quality sofas, chair cushions, bay windows,
boats, and camping pads. High-Density Foam is the
most commonly used foam type in the furniture
manufacturing industry
MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF
FOAM
 Foams are made by forming gas
bubbles in a plastic mixture, with
the use of a blowing agent. Foam
manufacture is either a continuous
process for making laminate or
slabstock or a batch process for
making various shapes by cutting
or molding:
APPLICATION AND USES OF FOAM
Furniture
Foam tiles
Interior decoration
purpose
Mattress
ADHESIVES
 Adhesive, also known as glue, cement,
mucilage, or paste, is any non-metallic
substance applied to one or both surfaces
of two separate items that binds them
together and resists their separation.
TYPES OF ADHESIVES
REACTIVE ADHESIVES
Reactive adhesives are adhesives that
set by means of chemical, physical or
catalytic processes. Depending on the
reactive behaviour, they can have one
or two components.
TWO-COMPONENT REACTIVE
ADHESIVES
Two-component reactive adhesives
consist of components in liquid, paste
or powder-form, which must generally
be precisely mixed in the stated
proportions. The processing time (pot
life) is limited, with setting
commencing immediately. The glued
joint must be fixed in place until fully
set, with the setting time dependent
on the type of adhesive and the
ambient temperature
 synthetic resin adhesive intended for wood
working and various materials where one
of the surfaces to be bonded is porous. SH
strongly binds wood, plywood, laminate,
veneers, MDF and all types of boards and
cork.
Synthetic Rubber Adhesives can bind foam/rubber foam to foam
and they are used in upholstery (rexine to foam/rubber foam),
wood/plywood to foam/rubber foam/rexine, and metal to
foam/rubber foam. ... The Synthetic Rubber Adhesives are used
for making superior quality sofa, chair, and mattresses .
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
APPLICATIONS OF ADHESIVES
EPOXY
Epoxies are thermoset plastics made by the
reaction of two or more industrial chemical
compounds. Epoxy resins are used in a wide
array of consumer and industrial applications
because of their toughness, strong adhesion,
chemical resistance and other specialized
properties
TYPES OF EPOXY
 Bisphenol Epoxy Resins
 Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA) is a commonly used
variety of commercial epoxy resin. It is produced as a result of the
reaction of bisphenol-A on contact with epichlorohydrin in the
presence of a basic catalyst. This variety of epoxy resin has the
lowest molecular weight.
 Aliphatic Epoxy Resins
 These types of epoxy resins are produced either as a result of
double bond epoxidation (involving cycloaliphatic epoxides and
epoxidized vegetable oils) or reaction with epichlorohydrin
(glycidyl ethers and esters). Cycloaliphatic epoxides feature one or
more aliphatic ring in the molecule containing the oxirane ring.
They have a defined aliphatic structure, high oxirane content, and
absence of chlorine. This makes for low levels of viscosity, good
weather resistance, low dielectric constants, and high Tg.
Epoxy Resin Diluents
The creation of epoxy diluents involves the glycidylation of aliphatic alcohols or
polyols. The materials produced as a result of such processes may be either
monofunctional (e.g. Dodecanol glycidyl ether), difunctional (butanediol
diglycidyl ether), or higher functionality (e.g. Trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether
Epoxy Putty
Epoxy putty may refer to any one of a collection of room-temperature
hardening substances, used as space-filling adhesives. The compositions
of such putty may vary, depending on the manufacturer and application.
They perform the function of strong adhesive fills, which bind, set, and
waterproof a variety of materials. The waterproof sealing is assured upon
the application of epoxy putty.
PROPERTIES
• High strength
• Low Shrinkage
• Excellent adhesion to various substrates
• Effective electrical insulation
• Chemical and solvent resistance, and
• Low cost and low toxicity
Epoxies are easily cured, and they are also compatible with most substrates. They tend to wet
surfaces easily, making them especially suitable for composite applications. Epoxy resin is also
used to modify several polymers such as polyurethane or unsaturated polyesters to enhance
their physical and chemical attributes.
MANUFACTURING OF EPOXY
APPLICATION AND EXECUTION
THANK YOU

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New generation Interior materials

  • 1. ID MATERIALS AND APPLICATIONS RAMAJI PRANAV BACHELOR OF DESIGN -ID
  • 2. DIFFERENT MATERIALS  ECO-FRIENDLY PAINTS  PAPER AND WALLPAPERS  FOAM  ADHESIVE  EPOXY  TERRAZZO  MAGNET  TRASH AND SCRAP  ACRYLICS  JALI AND PARTITIONS
  • 3. TERRAZZO  Terrazzo is a composite material, poured in place or precast, which is used for floor and wall treatments. It consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable material, poured with a cementitious binder, polymeric, or a combination of both.
  • 4. TYPES OF TERRAZZO Sand Cushion Terrazzo This system is composed using a half inch cement matrix topping. It consists of a sand dusting, an isolation membrane, a wire reinforcement, and an underbed. It requires a 2.5 or 3-inch depressed slab. Bonded Terrazzo This system is composed using a half inch cement matrix topping. An underbed made of sand and cement bonds with the concrete slab. The terrazzo is poured on top. Requires the concrete slab to be depressed 1.75 inches.
  • 5. TYPES OF TERRAZZO Monolithic Terrazzo This system is composed using a half inch cement matrix topping. It consists solely of the bonding agent and the terrazzo topping. Rustic Terrazzo This system is composed using a non- ground, textured cement matrix topping. This system can be combined with bonded and monolithic systems. It requires a two-inch depressed slab. It is classified by its distinct textured surface. Thin-Set Epoxy Terrazzo This system is composed using a 1/4 inch or 3/8 inch resin-based matrix topping. It can be specified with glass, synthetic, or granite aggregates in addition to marble. This system is well known for its brilliant colors and durability.
  • 6. PROPERTIES OF TERAZZO 1. Durability 2. Unlimited Design 3. Low Maintenance and Low Costs 4. Sustainability 5. Bacteria Resistance 6. Slip Resistance
  • 8. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF TERAZZO  Terrazzo is made by combining a cement base (sand, water, and cement) with a mixture of ground minerals - like marble, granite, and quartz - and can be applied to almost any surface, vertical or horizontal. The technique, produced using a completely hand-crafted method, was used worldwide in the construction of modern buildings and is noted for its durability, resistance (to water and abrasion), and easy maintenance. This made it a go-to material in the creation of flooring for houses and the common areas of residential and office buildings.
  • 10.
  • 11. MAGNET Magnet is defined as a material that can produce its own magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, steel, nickel, cobalt, etc. and attracts or repels other magnets.
  • 12. TYPES OF MAGNETS Permanent Magnet Permanent magnets are those magnets that are commonly used. They are known as permanent magnets because they do not lose their magnetic property once they are magnetized. There are four types of permanent magnets: •Ceramic or ferrite •Alnico •Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) •Neodymium Iron Boron (NIB) Temporary Magnet Temporary magnets can be magnetized in the presence of a magnetic field. When the magnetic field is removed, these materials lose their magnetic property. Iron nails and paper-clips are examples of the temporary magnet. Electromagnets Electromagnets consist of a coil of wire wrapped around the metal core made from iron. When this material is exposed to an electric current, the magnetic field is generated making the material behave like a magnet. The strength of the magnetic field can be controlled by controlling the electric current.
  • 13. HOW ARE MAGNETS AVAILABLE  Magnets are available in nature  They are processed and made into different forms like powder paints etc...for interiors purpose
  • 14. APPLICATIONS AND EXECUTION OF MAGNETS IN INTERIORS MAGNETIC WALL SYSTEM with storage shelves MAGNETIC SHEETS
  • 15.
  • 16. TRASH AND SCRAP  Garbage, trash, rubbish, or refuse is waste material that is discarded by humans, usually due to a perceived lack of utility. ... Garbage is commonly sorted and classified into kinds of material suitable for specific kinds of disposal.
  • 17. TYPES IN TRASH AND SCRAP Trash and scraap is classified into two types 1 ferrous In this type all the metalic objects metalic wastage is recycled by the designers or architects or by some industries and new product is made 2 Non ferrous In this type non metallic objects such as plastic and other type of materials are recycled
  • 18. HOW IT IS PROCESSED
  • 20.
  • 21. ACRYLICS Acrylic is an incredibly used thermosetting plastic for applications requiring transparency where high impact resistance is not an issue. It can be cut into extremely fine shapes using laser cutting technology because the material vaporizes upon impact with the concentrated laser energy.
  • 22. TYPES OF ACRYLICS Cast Acrylic Sheet: Cast Acrylic is a form of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). It is formed by casting the monomer, methyl methacrylate mixed with initiators and possibly other additives into a form or mold. Sheet and rod stock are generated by casting into static forms, while tubing is done in rotational molds. Extruded Acrylic Sheet:Extrusion is a continuous manufacturing production method where acrylic monomers are first heated then fed through barrels where the chemical process occurs. As a result, extruded acrylic is heterogeneous with properties that may vary depending upon the direction of extrusion.
  • 23. Acrylic Mirror Sheet.: Acrylic Mirror is a lightweight, reflective thermoplastic sheet material used to enhance the look and safety of displays, POP , signage, and a variety of fabricated parts. ... Approximately half the weight of glass, acrylic is far cheaper to deliver and transport than glass and much easier to install. The most common type is a clear acrylic sheet. This sheet is transparent and can, thus, be used as an alternative to glass in building designs. Apart from being a better UV protection, it is also a better insulator than glass making it a great glazing replacement. Another popular choice is acrylic mirror sheet. The silver mirrored sheet provides high-quality reflections meaning it can be used in place of glass in a mirror. In addition, coloured acrylic sheets are often used to add life to a building. They are available in hundreds of colours and have multiple uses. Coloured acrylic is very aesthetically pleasing and can complement many interiors.
  • 24. PROPERTIES OF ACRYLICS  Acrylic plastic is a transparent thermoplastic homopolymer that is often colloquially referred to as plexiglass. This plastic has unique properties that make it ideal for a variety of purposes, ranging from basic household items to fiber optic cables that power the world. These properties have allowed acrylic to enjoy immense popularity in manufacturing as well as DIY projects:  High impact resistance  High optical clarity  Innate weatherability and UV resistance  Excellent dimensional stability  Lightweight  Excellent chemical resistance
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. APPLICATION AND EXECUTION acrylic available in many shapes and sizes, they can also be molded and colored to fit specific applications.
  • 29.
  • 30. JALI AND PARTITIONS  A jali or jaali, (jālī, meaning “net") is the term for a perforated stone or latticed screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of calligraphy and geometry. ... The jali helps in lowering the temperature by compressing the air through the holes.
  • 31. TYPES OF GRILL BOARDS  WPC (Wood Plastic Composite) made from a unique combination of wood fiber and new plastic. ... WPC Jali is one of the quickest and easiest ways to freshen up your surroundings. We make jail for Front Elevation, Room Partition, Roof Ceiling and Doors & Window.
  • 32.  Medium-density fibreboard is an engineered wood product made by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibres, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and forming it into panels by applying high temperature and pressure. MDF is generally more dense than plywood Stainless Steel Jali Stainless steel comes in a variety of grades and categories. Like galvanized steel, stainless steel has an anti-corrosive element added to it, typically 10 percent chromium.
  • 33. PROCESSING GRILL BOARDS Selection of Material Selection of Pattern Cutting the material as per pattern tgrough CNC MACHINES
  • 34. APPLICATION AND EXECUTION  Partition Jali.  Exterior Facade Jali.  Ceiling Jali.  Wall Hanging Jali.  Railing Jali.  Customize Jali
  • 35.
  • 36. ECO-FRIENDLY PAINTS nvironmentally friendly paint is made from a variety of natural materials, including clay, milk proteins, citrus, balsam and other minerals. One example is milk paint, which is made from the milk protein such as casein and a little lime. Milk paints have been used for hundreds of year and usually come in powder form.
  • 37. Types in eco- Friendly paints Zero-VOC paints: The level of VOCs in these paints is so low that they can be termed as ‘zero-VOC paints’. As per the EPA* standard, the total VOC content should be less than 5 gram per liter of paint. Low-VOC paints: As specified by the EPA, these paints can have VOC concentrations ranging from 5 to 200 gram per liter of paint. Natural paints: These paints are made of natural compounds such as tree resins, water, plant oil, essential oil and natural dyes. They do not contain any VOCs. Water-based paints do not have an odor, while oil-based paints have a smell.
  • 38. Clare Paint is dedicated to bringing designer-curated colors and environmentally-friendly paint right to your door. 100% of their paints are Zero-VOC and Greenguard Gold Certified, while their factories have low-waste production methods, recycled packaging, and water conservation systems throughout. BioShield is an eco-friendly paint some companies offers a line of solvent-free, zero-VOC paints for interior, exterior as well as wall finishes and wood stains. As “healthy living paints”, some companies strives to create products from natural and easily-renewable resources without harmful chemicals, toxins, or additives.
  • 39. Milk paint is made from milk protein, and is a healthier alternative that is not a water-based latex or oil-based paint, like many commercial options. Milk Paint has tons of great color options—including loose pigments so that you can blend your own custom color. Another safe alternative to conventional paints are mineral and plant-based pigments that are sustainably harvested from the earth. This is a more hands-on painting process that requires you to mix the pigments with additional materials but they end result is worth the extra effort. Earth Pigments offers beautifully rich colors including earth tones made from ocher, bright oxide pigments, and natural mica.
  • 40.
  • 41. MANUFACTURING OF PAINTS Laboratory Weighing the raw materials Dispersion PRE MIXING AND GRINDING INSPECTION AND FINENESS CHECKING FILLING
  • 42. APPLICATIONS AND EXECUTION used to protect, color, or provide texture to objects. Paint can be made or purchased in many colors—and in many different types, such as watercolor or synthetic. Paint is typically stored, sold, and applied as a liquid, but most types dry into a solid.
  • 43.
  • 44. PAPER AND WALLPAPER Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, rags, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through fine mesh leaving the fibre evenly distributed on the surface, followed by pressing and drying paper that is pasted in vertical strips over the walls of a room to provide a decorative surface. Wallpaper is a material used in interior decoration to decorate the interior walls of domestic and public buildings. It is usually sold in rolls and is applied onto a wall using wallpaper paste. ... Wallpaper is made in long rolls which are hung vertically on a wall.
  • 45. TYPES 1. Liner Wallpaper Also known as lining paper, this type of wallpaper is made from paper or fiberglass. It is effective for hiding wall defects and minimizing repairs, and it can be a base for more delicate wallpaper types. It can be used alone, and maybe even painted. Moreover, it is easy to apply and remove. 2. Printed Wallpaper This type is commonly used and available in wide variety of colors and patterns. The digitally-printed wallpaper is normally cheaper than the hand- printed, and it can be mass-produced, but it could be torn easily. Also, the printing ink is water-based, so it’d better not be used in kitchens and bathrooms.
  • 46. 3. Vinyl Wallpaper This type of wallpaper is composed printed paper coated with a layer vinyl. It is the most commonly used type of wallpaper, currently, because of its high durability. The thicker the vinyl coating layer is, the more durable the wallpaper will be. Vinyl paper can be used in kitchens and bathrooms, as it can of withstanding steam. It is can also be washed, making for easy maintenance. 4. Foil Wallpaper A polished metal foil is used as a base for this type to give the interior space a shiny metallic effect. Due to its high reflectivity, foil wallpaper highlights wall defects. So, the base wall needs to be repaired, treated, or covered with lining paper first. The lining and adhering process needs to be neat enough, not to ruin the foil’s reflectivity and shine. . Flock Wallpaper Flock wallpaper is distinct for its fuzzy three- dimensional patterns, created from a velvet-like fiber that is printed on a base of paper. It is one of the most expensive wallpaper types, yet it is hard to maintain. Its velvety texture reflects a sense of luxury; however, it is not washable and could be hard to remove. Accordingly, it is best used for rooms with lower
  • 47. Properties of wallpaper  Easy to peel and stick  Can select the matching of the design  Wallpaper Washability it is scrubbable Washable Can wipe with a damp cloth  Wallpaper removability  Gives High rich look
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52. FOAM  Foam is an object formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid. A bath sponge and the head on a glass of beer are examples of foams. In most foams, the volume of gas is large, with thin films of liquid or solid separating the regions of gas.
  • 53. Types of foam Dry Fast Foam is very good for outdoor uses. It is non-water absorbent and won’t mold, rot or mildew. It is very resilient and buoyant, with an open-cell structure. Dry Fast Foam is used for filtering or padding that is subject to high amounts of liquid. Memory Foam, also known as Viscoelastic Foam, is a high-quality foam that conforms to your body shape. Memory foam was developed for space shuttle seating and is currently used for mattresses and therapeutic applications.
  • 54. Latex Rubber Foam is the first type of foam on the market that is non- allergenic and long-lasting. It is used in top of the line products including mattresses, cushions, and pillows. High-Density Foam is sold primarily for mattresses, average quality sofas, chair cushions, bay windows, boats, and camping pads. High-Density Foam is the most commonly used foam type in the furniture manufacturing industry
  • 55. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF FOAM  Foams are made by forming gas bubbles in a plastic mixture, with the use of a blowing agent. Foam manufacture is either a continuous process for making laminate or slabstock or a batch process for making various shapes by cutting or molding:
  • 56. APPLICATION AND USES OF FOAM Furniture Foam tiles Interior decoration purpose Mattress
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. ADHESIVES  Adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any non-metallic substance applied to one or both surfaces of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
  • 60. TYPES OF ADHESIVES REACTIVE ADHESIVES Reactive adhesives are adhesives that set by means of chemical, physical or catalytic processes. Depending on the reactive behaviour, they can have one or two components. TWO-COMPONENT REACTIVE ADHESIVES Two-component reactive adhesives consist of components in liquid, paste or powder-form, which must generally be precisely mixed in the stated proportions. The processing time (pot life) is limited, with setting commencing immediately. The glued joint must be fixed in place until fully set, with the setting time dependent on the type of adhesive and the ambient temperature
  • 61.  synthetic resin adhesive intended for wood working and various materials where one of the surfaces to be bonded is porous. SH strongly binds wood, plywood, laminate, veneers, MDF and all types of boards and cork. Synthetic Rubber Adhesives can bind foam/rubber foam to foam and they are used in upholstery (rexine to foam/rubber foam), wood/plywood to foam/rubber foam/rexine, and metal to foam/rubber foam. ... The Synthetic Rubber Adhesives are used for making superior quality sofa, chair, and mattresses .
  • 64.
  • 65. EPOXY Epoxies are thermoset plastics made by the reaction of two or more industrial chemical compounds. Epoxy resins are used in a wide array of consumer and industrial applications because of their toughness, strong adhesion, chemical resistance and other specialized properties
  • 66. TYPES OF EPOXY  Bisphenol Epoxy Resins  Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA) is a commonly used variety of commercial epoxy resin. It is produced as a result of the reaction of bisphenol-A on contact with epichlorohydrin in the presence of a basic catalyst. This variety of epoxy resin has the lowest molecular weight.  Aliphatic Epoxy Resins  These types of epoxy resins are produced either as a result of double bond epoxidation (involving cycloaliphatic epoxides and epoxidized vegetable oils) or reaction with epichlorohydrin (glycidyl ethers and esters). Cycloaliphatic epoxides feature one or more aliphatic ring in the molecule containing the oxirane ring. They have a defined aliphatic structure, high oxirane content, and absence of chlorine. This makes for low levels of viscosity, good weather resistance, low dielectric constants, and high Tg.
  • 67. Epoxy Resin Diluents The creation of epoxy diluents involves the glycidylation of aliphatic alcohols or polyols. The materials produced as a result of such processes may be either monofunctional (e.g. Dodecanol glycidyl ether), difunctional (butanediol diglycidyl ether), or higher functionality (e.g. Trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether Epoxy Putty Epoxy putty may refer to any one of a collection of room-temperature hardening substances, used as space-filling adhesives. The compositions of such putty may vary, depending on the manufacturer and application. They perform the function of strong adhesive fills, which bind, set, and waterproof a variety of materials. The waterproof sealing is assured upon the application of epoxy putty.
  • 68. PROPERTIES • High strength • Low Shrinkage • Excellent adhesion to various substrates • Effective electrical insulation • Chemical and solvent resistance, and • Low cost and low toxicity Epoxies are easily cured, and they are also compatible with most substrates. They tend to wet surfaces easily, making them especially suitable for composite applications. Epoxy resin is also used to modify several polymers such as polyurethane or unsaturated polyesters to enhance their physical and chemical attributes.
  • 71.
  • 72.