Sweetener - II

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Various parts of plants have a unique taste. Some plants yield natural sweeteners that are much more sweet than the processed sugar. These sugars have unique qualities capable of maintaining good health as compared to the processed sugars.

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Sweetener - II

  1. 1. Natural sources of Sweeteners (Sweeteners: Part – II) Presented by Dr. Sudhakar Kokate Director PPRC, India
  2. 2. Advantages of Natural Sweeteners No calorific value Cause the least possible side-effect Qualitative & quantitative improvement of sweeteners is within the reach of biologists through modern breeding and biotechnology techniques. PPRC/INDIA 01
  3. 3. Thaumatococcus daniellii (Bennett) Benth. PPRC/INDIA 02
  4. 4. Thaumatocacus danielli (Bennett) Benth.  Family: Marantaceae  Miraculous fruit  Distribution in West Africa  Aril of fruit PPRC/INDIA 03
  5. 5.  Sweetening principle: Protein – Thaumatin (Trade name Talin I & II)  Sweetening intensity: 5000 times than sucrose  Uses: to sweeten bread, fruits, palm wine, tea, coffee Thaumatocacus danielli (Bennett) Benth. PPRC/INDIA 04
  6. 6. Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii (Stapf) Diels PPRC/INDIA 05
  7. 7.  Family: Menispermaceae  Berry from West Africa  Sweetening principle: Protein – Monellin  Sweetening intensity: 1500 – 3000 times sweeter than sugar  Taste life: max 24 hrs. Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii (Stapf) Diels PPRC/INDIA 06
  8. 8. Stevia rebaudiana PPRC/INDIA 07
  9. 9.  Family: Asteraceae  Cultivated in Japan & S.E. Asia  Leaves are useful  Sweetening principle:  Diterpene glycosides  Rebaudioside A-E  Dulcoside A & B Stevia rebaudiana PPRC/INDIA 08
  10. 10.  Sweetening intensity: 300 times sweeter than sugar  Uses: Sweetening drinks, tea, coffee, used for treating diabetes Stevia rebaudiana PPRC/INDIA 09
  11. 11. Citrus grandis, Citrus paradisii PPRC/INDIA 10
  12. 12.  From Malaysia, N.E. India  Common names: Seville orange or Shaddock, Grapefruit  Part: Fruit Citrus grandis, Citrus paradisii PPRC/INDIA 11
  13. 13.  Sweetening principle: Flavonoid derivatives, Neohesperidin dihydrochalcones  Sweetening intensity: 600 – 1000 times sweeter than sugar Citrus grandis, Citrus paradisii PPRC/INDIA 12
  14. 14. Zero calorie sweeteners  Brazzein: West Africa  Curculin: Fruit of Curculigo latifolia from Malaysia  Lue Han Cuo: Monk fruit in China  Miraculin: West Africa PPRC/INDIA 13
  15. 15.  Monellin: Berry from Central & West Africa  Penadin: Climbing plant from West Africa  Stevia: Native to South America  Stevioside: Extract of plant from South America Zero calorie sweeteners PPRC/INDIA 14
  16. 16. Polypodium glycyrrhiza D. Eaton PPRC/INDIA 15
  17. 17.  Family: Polypodiaceae  Known as Liquorice fern  Distribution: Coastal Alaska, Central California  Plant part: Rhizome Polypodium glycyrrhiza D. Eaton PPRC/INDIA 16
  18. 18.  Sweetening principle: Triterpene glycoside- glycyrrhizin  Sweetening intensity: 50 – 100 times as sweet as sugar Polypodium glycyrrhiza D. Eaton PPRC/INDIA 17
  19. 19. Polypodium vulgare Linn. PPRC/INDIA 18
  20. 20.  Family: Polypodiaceae  Wall fern, European polypody  Useful plant part: rhizome  Sweetening principle: steroid saponin, osladin  Sweetening intensity: 3000 times as sweet as sucrose  Very low yield Polypodium vulgare Linn. PPRC/INDIA 19
  21. 21. Myrrhis odorata PPRC/INDIA 20
  22. 22.  Family: Apiaceae  Known as sweet cicely, sweet cheroil  Distributed in Europe, West Asia  Fresh whole plant useful  Sweetening principle: phenylpropanoid-trans anethole  Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar Myrrhis odorata PPRC/INDIA 21
  23. 23. Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) PPRC/INDIA 22
  24. 24.  Tea of heaven  Distributed in Japan, Korea  Useful plant part: Leaves  Sweetening principle: Phyllodulcin, hydrangenol  Sweetening intensity: 400 times sweeter than sugar Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) PPRC/INDIA 23
  25. 25. Perilla frutescens (Linn.) Britt PPRC/INDIA 24
  26. 26.  Family: Lamiaceae  Known as Perilla mint, wild coleus  Whole plant is useful  Sweetening principle: Monoterpene-perillartine (Perillaldehyde)  Sweetening intensity: 2000 times as sweet as sugar Perilla frutescens (Linn.) Britt PPRC/INDIA 25
  27. 27. Engelhardia roxburghiana wall PPRC/INDIA 26
  28. 28.  Family: Juglandoceae  E. chrysolepis Hance  Known as Huang-qui (Chinese)  Distributed in India, China, Indo-china, Malaysia  Leaves are useful Engelhardia roxburghiana wall PPRC/INDIA 27
  29. 29.  Sweetening principle: Dihydroflavonol glycoside-neoastibine huangqioside, neohuangquiside  Leaves used to make sweet tea  Sweetness increases on heating Engelhardia roxburghiana wall PPRC/INDIA 28
  30. 30. Periandra dulcis Mart. PPRC/INDIA 29
  31. 31.  Family: Fabiaceae  Distributed in Brazil  Root useful part  Sweetening principle: Periandrin I-IV Glycorrhizin  Used as Liquorice substitute Periandra dulcis Mart. PPRC/INDIA 30
  32. 32. Tessaria dodoneifolia (Hook & Arn.) PPRC/INDIA 31
  33. 33.  Family: Asteraceae  Arrow weed  Distributed in Paraguay, Tropical America  Young shorts useful  Sweetening principle: Dihydroflavanol (Dihydroquercetin-3-acetate)  Sweetening intensity: 80 times sweeter than sugar Tessaria dodoneifolia (Hook & Arn.) PPRC/INDIA 32
  34. 34. Abrus precatorius Linn. PPRC/INDIA 33
  35. 35.  Family: Fabaceae  Known as Crab’s eye, Indian Liquorice  Distributed in tropics  Leaves are useful part Abrus precatorius Linn. PPRC/INDIA 34
  36. 36.  Sweetening principle: Cycloartane glycoside Glycorrhizin  Sweetening intensity: 30 – 100 times sweeter than sugar Abrus precatorius Linn. PPRC/INDIA 35
  37. 37. Lippia dulci Trev. PPRC/INDIA 36
  38. 38.  Family: Verbenaceae  Known as Honey herb  Distributed in Central America, West Indies  A small shrubby herb, flowers are white  Aerial parts useful Lippia dulci Trev. PPRC/INDIA 37
  39. 39.  Sweetening principle: Sesquiterpene- hernandulcin  Sweetening intensity: 1000 times sweeter than sugar Lippia dulci Trev. PPRC/INDIA 38
  40. 40. Illicium verum Hook F. PPRC/INDIA 39
  41. 41.  Family: Illicinaceae  Distributed in South China  A slow growing tree  Useful plant part: dried fruits  Used in flavouring liquors and medicines Illicium verum Hook F. PPRC/INDIA 40
  42. 42.  Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoid- trans-Anethole  Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar Illicium verum Hook F. PPRC/INDIA 41
  43. 43. Piper marginatum Jacq. PPRC/INDIA 42
  44. 44. Piper marginatum Jacq.  Family: Piperaceae  Dried leaves are useful  Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoid- trans-Anethole  Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar PPRC/INDIA 43
  45. 45. Curculigo latifolia Dryand ex Ait. PPRC/INDIA 44
  46. 46. Curculigo latifolia Dryand ex Ait.  Family: Hypoxidaceae  Distributed in India and Malaysia  A rhizomatous polygamous herb  Useful part: Fruit  Sweetening principle: Protein “Curculin” PPRC/INDIA 45
  47. 47. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. PPRC/INDIA 46
  48. 48. Foeniculum vulgare Mill.  Family: Apiaceae  Known as Fennel  Distributed in Europe, Mediterranean regions  A perennial herb  Fresh aerial parts are useful  Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoid-trans- Anethole PPRC/INDIA 47
  49. 49. Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. PPRC/INDIA 48
  50. 50. Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC.  Family: Apiaceae  Also known as Smooth sweet cicely  Distributed in North and South America  A perennial herb PPRC/INDIA 49
  51. 51. Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC.  Sweetening principle: Phenylpropanoid- trans-Anethole  Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar PPRC/INDIA 50
  52. 52. Fraxinus spp. PPRC/INDIA 51
  53. 53. Fraxinus spp.  Family: Oleaceae  European ash  Distributed in East Asia, North America, Mediterranean regions  A small tree  Useful part: Stem  Sweetening principle: Mannitol PPRC/INDIA 52
  54. 54. Thladiantha grosvenori (Swingle) C. Jeffrey PPRC/INDIA 53
  55. 55.  Family: Cucurbitaceae  Distributed in China  Tendril climber with root tubers  Sweetening principle: Cucurbitane glycoside - mogroside V. Thladiantha grosvenori (Swingle) C. Jeffrey PPRC/INDIA 54
  56. 56. Tagetes filifolia Lag PPRC/INDIA 55
  57. 57. Tagetes filifolia Lag  Family: Asteraceae  Known as Irish lace  Distributed in Mexico  Fresh whole much branched annual herb PPRC/INDIA 56
  58. 58. Tagetes filifolia Lag  Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoids- trans-Anethole and Estragole  Sweetening intensity: trans-Anethole is 13 times sweeter than sugar PPRC/INDIA 57
  59. 59. Ocimum basilicum Linn. PPRC/INDIA 58
  60. 60. Ocimum basilicum Linn.  Family: Lamiaceae  Known as Sweet Basil  Distributed in old world tropics  An aromatic herb  Fresh aerial parts are useful PPRC/INDIA 59
  61. 61. Ocimum basilicum Linn.  Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoids- trans-Anethole and Estragole in volatile oil  Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar PPRC/INDIA 60
  62. 62. Taste modifying sugar substitutes PPRC/INDIA 61
  63. 63. These plants have certain chemical principles which have the property of modifying the taste of foods, making sour or bitter foods taste sweet. They temporarily suppress the sensitivity to sweet substances PPRC/INDIA 62
  64. 64. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schum.) Daniell PPRC/INDIA 63
  65. 65. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schum.) Daniell  Family: Sapotaceae  Miraculous berry / fruit  Found in West tropical Africa  Limited food application  Extraction difficult PPRC/INDIA 64
  66. 66. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schum.) Daniell  The fruits contain a glycoprotein – Miraculin which is taste modifier of sour foods with the sweet taste persisting for 1 – 2 hours PPRC/INDIA 65
  67. 67. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. PPRC/INDIA 66
  68. 68. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.  Family: Asclepiadaceae  A large woody climber of Asia, Africa and Australia  Ovate leaves, yellow flowers, follicles large seeds winged  Leaves contain “gymnemic acid” a taste modifying substance PPRC/INDIA 67
  69. 69. Cynara scolymus Linn. PPRC/INDIA 68
  70. 70. Cynara scolymus Linn.  Family: Asteraceae  A coarse perennial herb  Pinnate leaves, purple flowers  Native of Mediterranean region PPRC/INDIA 69
  71. 71. Cynara scolymus Linn.  Taste modifying substance Caffeolocunic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Cynarin  Sweet taste persists for 4 – 5 hours PPRC/INDIA 70
  72. 72. Larix decidua Mill. (L. europea) DC. PPRC/INDIA 71
  73. 73. Larix decidua Mill. (L. europea) DC.  Family: Pinaceae  A tall conifer of Central Europe  Taste modifying substance: “Melezitore” PPRC/INDIA 72
  74. 74.  Roots and tubers of some plants contain high quantity of Insulin which is converted to D- Fructose, basically better tolerated by Diabetes than any other carbohydrate  Therefore, high fructose sweeteners (HFS) are being developed to suit diabetic nutrition charts  Diabetic bread, other confectionary using insulin / HFS are being manufactured PPRC/INDIA 73
  75. 75. Dahlia PPRC/INDIA 74
  76. 76. Helianthus PPRC/INDIA 75
  77. 77. Inula PPRC/INDIA 76
  78. 78. Cichorium PPRC/INDIA 77
  79. 79. Castanea PPRC/INDIA 78
  80. 80. Carpesium PPRC/INDIA 79
  81. 81. Campanula PPRC/INDIA 80
  82. 82. Thank you!!

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