Linked learning


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Linked learning

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Linked Learning in Chinese Higher Education Paul Hofmann Research Presentation November 10, 2010
  2. 2. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Overview of The People’s Republic of China  Founded in 1949  Estimated Population of 1.3 billion  Communist Government  Fourth largest country in the world by area
  3. 3. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Origins of Higher Education in China  Earliest Chinese University dates to 1100 B.C. during the Zhou dynasty  During the height of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.), more than 30,000 students attended the main campus in Chang ’An.
  4. 4. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Higher Education in Modern China  Today there are more than 20 million students are enrolled in 2,000 colleges and universities  Project 211 and Project 985
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Origins of Linked Learning in Chinese Higher Education  Linked Learning in China has emerged from three distinct generations of distance learning (Ding et al., 2010)  Correspondence-based education (People’s University, 1951)  Central Chinese Radio andTV Universities (1960)  Online Education (Qinghua University, 1998)
  6. 6. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Growth of Linked Learning in Chinese Higher Education  More than 166,000 Chinese students were enrolled in recognized e-learning programs in 2007.  By 2008, e-learning enrollment in China exceeds enrollment in the country’s radio and television universities for the first time.
  7. 7. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Barriers and Challenges to Linked Learning in China  Insufficient Infrastructure  Government Censorship  Issues with Approval and Administrative Oversight  Concerns about Cheating and a Perception of a Lack of Rigor  Legal Concerns  Pedagogical Differences  Teaching Differences  Learning Differences
  8. 8. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Insufficient Infrastructure  As of June 2010, Internet users in China reached 420 million (China Internet Network Information Center, 2010)  Despite being the largest linked market in the world, approximately 900 million Chinese remain unconnected.  Building sufficient infrastructure is complicated by a large geographic region with many isolated rural areas.
  9. 9. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Government Oversight and Authorization  Information technologies are viewed as a potential liberating force for democracy (Otani, 2010).  Decisions are made by government bureaucrats, not educators and learners (Carr-Chellman & Zhang, 2000).  Since 1999, only 67 COEs have been approved by the Ministry of Education (Zhao & Jiang, 2010).  Approval process is slow and highly politicized
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Cheating and a Lack of Rigor  Concerns over quality control; rigor, and efficacy (Ding et al., 2010)  Lack of perceived quality and prestige  Cheating is institutionalized in China ▪ GMAT (Damast, 2009) ▪ TOEFL / IELTS (Jaschik, 2006)
  11. 11. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Legal Concerns  A lack of established laws governing the Linked Learning Industry  Faculty and Student Rights  Concerns over Intellectual Property ▪ Curriculum ▪ Software ▪ Hardware
  12. 12. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Pedagogical Concerns  Linked Learning is pedagogically at odds with more than 3000 years of Chinese higher education  Teacher training is required to foster a student- centered, collaborative environment  Chinese Learners require more face-to-face interaction with peers and instructors than Linked Learning offers
  13. 13. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Opportunities  Innovative partnerships with overseas institutions  Economic opportunities for hardware vendors and foreign institutions  Opportunities for ongoing social change in China  Freedom of Speech  Human Rights  FairTrade
  14. 14. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING DESIGN Conclusions  The development of Linked Learning in China has mirrored the development of the same in the United States  Linked Learning will play an integral role in the further expansion of Chinese Higher Education.