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Mantra for Entrepreneurial Project Management
J&k pcc ltd
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Title of the paper: Entrepreneurial Approach , befitting Project Management& selective PM methodology
as catalyst for success at Projects & Business Growth
Theme : A case Study- Mapping Failures and Success While “Driving as an entrepreneur through
inspiring Stakeholder Management ,Business Growth ,Customer relations and Performing as a leader
with a purpose”
Key Words :
A Case study - Mapping Failure & Succes s While “Driving as an Entrepreneur through ins piring Stakeholder
Management, Business Growth, Customer Relations and performing as a Leader with a Purpos e”
Name of the Project : 200 Bed Additional Ward Block at LD Hospital Srinagar.
Project Address : Srinagar, J&K-India.
Service Provider : J&K PCC Ltd – A Public Sector Undertaking-J&K Govt
Client : Health & Medical Education Deptt ; Govt; of J&K Budget : INR 31.07 Crore Duration : 48 Months Status :
Project Completion 99%. (40% Handed over& operational).
Presentation Flow ( in a stage gate Model): Idea Feasibility, Pre- Launch, Post-Launch, Project Definition -Project
Development, Project Implementation, Commissioning & Testing, Handover & Closing.
What shall I bring out in the case study presentation?
• Dis connect between End us ers/Sponsors/Service Providers / SMEs - The idea generators & entrepreneurs as
• Change through integrated change control process - Missing change control Boards/ Adhoc decisions for changes -
a Challenge to Entrepreneurial functioning
• Budget overruns –Budget Revisions /Lop sided Project Definition/Customer relationship dilution/ Loss of business
• Indifference of End Us ers availing the facility for the intended purpos e -various reasons -entrepreneurship killers
• Brown Field Project-Lack of Vision and absence of Master Plan for the Project campus - Potential Risk for the
• Bringing in top Management through motivation & inform ational Feedback from Project Manager - The Triggers for
a Leader with a Purpose .
• Les s ons Learnt to drive as entrepreneur for bus ines s growth through leadership with purpos e.
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Table of Contents
i Cover Page Page 1
ii TOC Page 2
1. Introduction Page 3
2. Entrepreneurship Explained Page 4
3. Project Management Frame Work Page 4
4. Project Management Methodology Page 5
5.Case Study – features, Project Backgrounder & Constraints Page 5-6
6. Disconnect between Sponsors/End users/ Service providers/SMEs Page 6-7
7. Missing Change Control Boards (CCB) Page 7
8. Lopsided Budgets due to inadequate Project Definition Page 7
9. Indifference of End Users availing the Project on completion Page 8
10. Brown Field Project – A Challenge Page 8
11. Role of Top Management, their non cooperation as
triggers for Leadership with a purpose Page 8
12. Conclusion and Lessons Learnt Page 9
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In modern day project Management what could be the role of entrepreneurship? To understand the
question and finally to come up with a satisfactory answer it becomes imperative that we understand the
meaning and definition of Entrepreneurship and Project Management each as standalone concepts. And
then try to find the commonalities between them. This will help us in integrating these two distinct yet
converging thought processes and when used in tandem , whether these make an impact on the
business outcome and growth vis-a-vis Project in hand. In the process we might visualize an end to end
progress path of a Project while achieving Project objectives with optimal investment of resources that
yield high ROI, with minimal disturbance to Nature’s Environmental balance. Traditionally we have been
focusing on processes and knowledge Areas without any significant attention to Entrepreneurial
functioning coupled with using a selective methodology. Now we are well aware that Entrepreneurship,
Project Management and PM methodology are the Buzz Words of present Century . So we need to have
an in depth understanding of these concepts that together make our Project Management implementation
more business oriented, leaner and therefore more successful
For purpose of analysis, a straight and somewhat simplified definition of
Entrepreneurship is ‘a person’s strong inclination to search ,identify and own new ideas, he or she being
capable of accepting or rejecting these ideas and developing the accepted ideas that seem to carry
‘innovative tags and value’. It might further mean adapting the selected ideas for real world project work
conducting feasibility study, to conclude that these projects fulfill business needs for self, social and
community development, while identifying , calculating & taking Risks, threats and opportunity alike.
Finally, it would include putting in efforts to Market either a product, result or service , to earn revenue and
then repeat this process to recycle the earned revenue through more innovation, modification and newer
On the other hand Project Management Framework can be explained as
identification and definition of processes, tools and techniques across various knowledge areas , knit
together to convert the abstract concepts (that are fuel for Entrepreneurship) into Physical activity for
business gains and Project Outcome ,based on highly organized efforts involving various stakeholders
through use of resources, while considering Various Environmental organizational factors .From these
definitions we can equate the two thought processes i.e Entrepreneurship and Project Management
Frame work with the ‘ Flesh and skeleton in a Human Body. Add to these the thought process i.e Project
Management Methodology that acts like a Soul in Human Body. The three concepts make it a perfect and
useful Combination , capable of delivering the result, service or a product with greater efficiency and high
Entrepreneurship Project Management Framework
Fig 1. Self Explanatory .( Conceived by this Author)
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Expanding on our earlier definition of Entrepreneurial endeavor we will now make an effort to understand
its other dimensions. Entrepreneurship can be defined as a process by which an entrepreneur can
identify an opportunity and transform such idea into a purposeful activity that might involve business case
that ultimately culminates into a product, result or service ,by fair exploitation of resources ,through an
efficient financial management ,in the process taking up challenges & risks by embracing change and
innovation- as a Change Leader.
Entrepreneurs are a motivated lot who take ownership of work they undertake
and display Resilience, leadership quality, tolerance to risks and commitment to offer variety in their
products for their logical goal of achieving repetitive success in their Business ventures.
Some of the primary drivers for Growth of entrepreneurship in recent times are:
a)Knowledge Explosion b) Deregulation and de Licensing of business environment c) Rapid
Technological innovation d) Dissatisfaction with traditional Job oriented careers. e) State Sponsorship
and Patronage for self employment f) Ever increasing Consumer culture
To sum up we can say that the attributes an entrepreneur must possess include
but are not limited to: a) Capability to recognize opportunity ,b) Motivation to sustain business despite
temporary failures due to unfavorable environment and other Risks. c)Ability to muster finance and
resources d) Leadership e) Ability to adapt to different situations f) Flexibility g) Motivation to Excel .
Project Management Frame work
There is a famous Proverb and I call it Project Management proverb- it goes like “All work is Project”. So
,the moment we think of work , we have a project in hand. Projects by virtue of their unique nature offer
little or no options . So we need to manage them. Thus comes into play the Project Management and no
sooner an idea is selected by an entrepreneur , he or she may require to launch it for definition
,development ,implementation and finally testing ,commissioning ,handover and closing. This is where the
Project Management comes in. For successfully completing the Project for its desired goals and
objectives an entrepreneur must make an efficient use of Project Management principles . Utilization of
Project Management knowledge, that includes processes ,tools .Techniques and even methodologies
becomes, a must have baggage for an entrepreneur. I would suggest, that an entrepreneur must not only
be familiar with Project Management processes ,tools techniques and their application, but should attain
sufficient expertise by formally learning project Management Frame work .
This also holds true when applied vice versa . When a Project Management
Practitioner acts as an entrepreneur he or she is likely to achieve Project Accomplishment with
excellence. A Project Manager slipping into the shoes of owner and managing the project exactly the
same way as an entrepreneur has 50% more chances of doing project successfully . This also means a
Project Manager treated by Employer Organizations as owner of that project ,can show fantastic results
on ground as all of his/her entrepreneurship qualities might come to fore . How to evolve that system is
presently beyond the scope of this paper. Project Management framework and Entrepreneurship
together lead the path to convert a business venture into a success story.
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Project Management Methodology
Project Management Frame work that encompasses Knowledge areas and Process groups as laid down
in PMI Standards - the latest among the series being PMBoK Guide Vth Edition and other practice
standard - provide clear ,concise and detailed guidelines for Managing our projects in an efficient and
standardized manner. Yet we may face difficulties in absence of a PM methodology. Waterfall , Stage
Gate and Agile are but a few examples of PM Methodologies in vogue.
An entrepreneur who is to achieve excellence in his ‘projects and business’,
must be familiar with the methodologies so that he /she may adhere to these from idea stage right
through to project closing ,thereby watching over health and status of the Project, continuation or
termination of a project throughout its life cycle and exercise control at various stages of business. A
Stage Gate methodology might be the one point solution, to have an end to end overview of various
stages of project Life cycle.
This brings us to our third essential component i.e’ Project Management
Methodology’ that goes into making a Project & business venture a success. The stage gate methodology
,makes a complete overview of the Project from its Pre-Launch stage that involves the idea ,feasibility
study , Project definition to post launch stage through Project Development, implementation ,Testing
/Commissioning /operational Phase ,acceptance, Handover and Closing .Through various stage gates we
can control the Projects while determining their business viability and need to terminate or continue same.
Fig 2. Customizable and Adaptable Methodology for Project Management ( Courtesy Mounir A. Ajam –
Author of Book ‘Project Management: the CAM2P Model’.
Note: The Diagram has been reproduced from the above mentioned book with due permission from the
Author with the intention to give readers an introduction to the Stage Gate Model discussed in this paper.
Further reading is, however, suggested for better understanding of the Model. The diagram is only an
adaptation of the Original diagram in the book, redrawn by this Author.
Case Study-features, Project Backgrounder & Constraints
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This case study pertains to a Building Construction Project undertaken to Augment the existing facility of
a Maternity Hospital by 200 Bed capacity wards, including OPD . The Client was “ Health and Medical
Education Deptt under State Government” and Project was sponsored by state Government. The End
Users would be the medical staff including doctors , administrative personnel of existing Local Govt
Hospital and the beneficiaries i.e general Public falling within the catchment area. The Project was
budgeted for INR 31.05 Crore( USD 5.175 M ) to be completed within 48 Months. The business goals of
sponsors were to ensure an additional Ward facility to meet the increase in demand of patients. The
business goal of Service Providers was to render Quality deliverables while maintaining Market
Reputation ,going strictly by ‘Basic Requirements’ and to present a reasonable budget with inbuilt profit
percentage and contingencies .
On financial front, the contract between Sponsors and Service Providers was
the one under state Govt statutes that authorized the service provider organization as the favored
contractor for EPC Project . The Project Charter better known by the name of Accord of Administrative
Approval or AAA authorized service providers to initiate Project. Usually it is delayed yet the project gets
The funding came from State Govt; original source being Central Government through annual Plan
Outlay prioritized by Planning Commission of India.
Disconnect between End Users/Sponsors/Service Providers/SMEs
Those who have been actively into Project Management Practice are aware of contribution of stake
holder Management in Project Success. The latest PMBoK Guide Vth Edition has now incorporated Stake
Holder Management as an independent Knowledge area. Project Management outcome is dependent
on the management of stake holder expectations through application of various processes and using
interpersonal skills to leverage benefits of these processes.
An entrepreneurial Drive was lunched to inspire stake holders Management
through adequate contact and meetings between Sponsors, End Users and Top Management of service
Providers and SMEs. Interpersonal skills led to participation of key stakeholders i.e Sponsors and End
Users through collaborative Leadership . But Organizational Environmental factors that included change
of Guard at political Executive level and non participation of End User Expert staff , were dampening the
entrepreneurial efforts, such factors being beyond the control of a Project Manager, which proved spoil
sport .Only partial Success could be achieved to knit and convince the stake holders together for a
Adequate emphasis on making good use of PM process ‘Collect
Requirements’ and an entrepreneurial drive to elicit basic requirements from End users, not documented
earlier, was launched. Tools & techniques like Interviews, focused workshops, Questionare and surveys
were employed a fresh. The idea generators ,in this case grass root level end users including Theatre
Supervisors and Lab Assistants, were revisited for discussion. This helped in getting to know some
essential basic requirements. The change requests were processed for approval .Revision in scope , its
fallout on Budget and time lines were analyzed and communicated to stakeholders.
Sponsors, as an after thought, had pushed for a change request to
incorporate the Operation Theatres (OTs), but accompanying requirement for adequate space for Labor
Room and allied facilities like Central sterilization etc. were ignored. Despite adequate response from
service providers for incorporating state of art OTs ,the lack of a labor room and other allied services
posed challenge due to space constraint ,resulting in a stale mate with sponsors and end users .The BRD
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was depicting the Project as ‘ Additional Ward facility’. Yet Change requests had been just pushed
through by sponsors. Despite their hard posturing , the change in their attitude was brought about through
motivation and consistent logical stand taken by the Project Manager coupled with a sustained dialogue.
Adequate attention to Quality of the Deliverables through Quality Assurance and Quality Control helped
minimize loss of business and strengthening the Customer(End User in this Case) relationship .
As is customary in Govt Sponsored Projects the pre-launch stage, gets feeble attention and is completely
handled by Sponsors that may include the idea , need & feasibility study ,value engineering alternative
identification and like. Often the pre launch stage remains invisible to Service providers and Project
Managers who join very late. This situation was handled by leveraging the triple pronged strategy of
making entrepreneurial efforts, simultaneously following Project management framework and adhering to
stage gate methodology. The entrepreneurial Initiative to make a connect between Post Launch and pre
launch Project stages proved very helpful . As the Project Manager was motivation to take ownership of
the Project and its business outcome , an effort towards bringing in the idea generators was put in . Thus
the vacuum created by differing perspectives about the Scope of the Project was filled by making
frequent efforts to make the sponsors and end users realize that scope had been defined based on
requirements framed by idea generators who had been at helm earlier .
Missing Change Control Board (CCB)
One of the biggest worries of Project Manager was to avoid scope creep . The lack of understanding
among the Key End Users to realize that increasing the Scope of work has a direct bearing on the Budget
of the Project was a matter of concern. There were always random change requests from Sponsors and
End Users side . This was happening because End users would not give credence to BRD and Project
Charter and since no formal Change Control board was constituted .Confrontation was rampant while
processing of the Change Requests . Any rejection of change request ,( Most of the time a change
request was from Minister or Top Bureaucrat) would be treated with displeasure. This would result in a
host of issues and bad will .The Project Manager who had to look after the Budget and deliver the Project
with requisite Quality parameters for a defined Scope ,this was a nightmare. However, as an entrepreneur
the Project Manager ,evolved ‘ tactical deterrent’ ,and it was communicated to Sponsors and End Users
,that any Change request from them must be promoted in a written form with the initiators name,
designation and rank in Hierarchy registered on it . The change requests were processed for their impact
on Budget, Quality and Time lines and returned with comments . This was in consonance with the
Government Rules and regulations and was not contradicting any standing orders. This served t he
purpose in the sense that vague and unnecessary Change requests fraught with Budgetary pressures
and with least benefits, were filtered and only a few valid Change requests got approved and
Lop sided Budgets due to inadequate Project Definition
One of the essential characteristics of an entrepreneur is to revisit the Budget of a Project at the Project
Development stage . While defining a Project there can be certain missing features that do not get
enlisted in time . Thus the process of Scope Definition needs to be revisited . A project Manager in such
projects is supposed to act as an owner of the project who bothers about Budget overrun and the funds.
The funds being drawn from tax payers money. However, under- Budgeted Projections would be even
greater embarrassment as neither the Scope nor the Quality parameters would be met. It was in this
context that the scope and quality parameters were revisited during the definition and Project
Development stages but prior to implementation stage. In this case it turned up that the Budget forwarded
earlier was not adequate to achieve the required deliverables as per scope and specifications. The Cost
Estimates were got checked vis-à-vis the scope and specifications and it revealed that the Project had
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been grossly underestimated by almost 30% . The Revised Estimates were framed and forwarded for
verification and Approval . Revised Cost offer was submitted to Sponsors with Justification notes and
Reasons . The same was accorded the approval and the Project was comfortably completed within the
Budget. But this required a lot of discussions, explanatory presentations and Motivation that was
achieved through Entrepreneurial efforts .
Indifference of End Users availing the Project on Completion
At the completion of the Project there was a new development and signals were emitting from end user
side that they may not accept and operate the new facility . At the outset it was rumored that the facility
was not to standard and there were lacunae . However, end users would avoid direct discussions .Now in
order to resolve this issue , an Entrepreneurial approach was taken . Instead of confronting the End
users it was decided to evaluate and ponder over other reasons that would be compelling factors for them
to avoid using the facility. After a long deliberation it turned out that the End users had failed to arrange
and train the necessary staff needed to run this additional facility which is usually a phenomenon with
Government work culture in Third world. They had ,therefore , diplomatically avoided to take up the facility
but in order to hide this they were trying to pass the buck . Time and again they were asked to point out
the lacunae . Thus all the good work done would have been just rubbished off by the End users. This was
killing development . When the business needs and objectives of the Project were about to be realized
the end users were playing the role of Entrepreneurship killers .This is why a Project Manager working
with the zeal of an entrepreneur, needs to be vigilant for such challenges and try to dig deeper into issues
and go for root cause analysis to defend the business interests and benefits of a Project making good use
of PM Processes.
Brown Field Project- A challenge
In case of Brown Field Projects a Project Manager who takes ownership of the Project has to be ready to
come up with some extra efforts and Budget provisions. Such situation itself indicates that the Budgets
have to be upgraded for Demolition works , Cost of Delayed work , Problematic Work Environment, space
constraints and its consequences for scope and timelines. A bunch of new and unique stakeholder
comes up in case of Brown field Projects which puts the Leadership skills, risk management and inter-personal
skills of an entrepreneur to test . The progress of work becomes a function of space availability
and Human interference . Extra Project Management effort is needed to overcome the consequences.
The extra burden on resources throws yet another challenge. So, while delivering a Project ,it is always
prudent to keep Contingencies reserves for Brown Field Projects and Plan accordingly.
Role of Top Management , their non co-operation as triggers for Leader with a purpose
Normally , Top Management is supposed to guide , Mentor , Coach ,help and insulate the Project
Manager at Govt Sponsored Projects . But if this is not forthcoming , the PM might face lots of
inconvenient behavior from Sponsors and End users side especially when PMOs are not in Place. This
brings extra pressure on an Entrepreneur cum Project Manager But in an entrepreneurial atmosphere
and when PM has resolved to act as an Owner of the Project , it automatically triggers an inspirational
phenomenon. Thus an entrepreneur cum Project Manager finds himself in the shoes of Top Management
and begins to feel and assume a purpose in all his leadership roles . He/she instead of getting bogged
down ,starts behaving as a leader with purpose. And this inspires him or her to take some decisions that
have risk involved with them . Thus in this Project , some decisions like choice of Material in finishing
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works that would enhance the image ,credibility and innovative approach of the Service Providers were
taken. Some risks were taken to add value to Products ---the hall mark of an entrepreneur. But fair
amount of technical evaluation was implemented and the innovation and choice of material was preceded
with lots of technical evaluation . Decisions to be taken for adding value to the Products of the Project
were taken in consultation with the Team and external Consultants –by instilling in them confidence for
introducing some innovations.
Barring little criticism from a few quarters ,the decisions proved to be
worth and appreciation came from various quarters when the Value added product i.e Building structure
came up aesthetically better and low on maintenance cost.
Conclusion and Lessons Learnt
At the end and in light of above situational scenarios we conclude that entrepreneurial spirit can be
infused into Projects for achieving business goals and self growth . Project Management and
entrepreneurship being stand alone thought processes, yet these can be integrated and practiced
together to achieve better business results and more successful Projects. An Entrepreneur and a Project
Manager are flip sides of same coin with PM Methodology as the philosophy behind both. The lessons
learnt at the case study are:
1. Entrepreneurship does not warrant success as a standalone Concept.
2. Project Management Frame work complements Entrepreneurship.
3. Stage Gate Methodology helps boost the Entrepreneurship at Projects and therefore at
4. Entrepreneurs should be aware of Entrepreneurship killers and devise methods to neutralize
5. Brown Field Projects taken up by Entrepreneurs need additional Planning & Risk Management
6. In order to avail the benefits of Stake holder management Entrepreneurs should develop relevant
Inter personal skills and understand the big picture
7. Entrepreneurs being change leaders they must follow Integrated Change Control process at their
8. The entrepreneurs need to develop their leadership attributes to take over reins in times of crisis.
9. Entrepreneurs must not hesitate to take formal training in Project Management Frame work and
PM methodologies as per their needs.
10. Nothing in business ventures needs to be left to chance but everything needs to be controlled.
11. The Project Managers at Projects in organizations should be recognized as Entrepreneurs who
act as owners of the Project and the Business goals involved with these.