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Project Management National Conference 2011                                  PMI India  Program Management Approach  for a...
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Project Management National Conference 2011                                          PMI India                      The fo...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                        PMI India                     The progr...
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  1. 1. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Program Management Approach for a Complex Business Transformation Sachdeepak S Arora Delivery Project Executive, IBM India Pvt. Ltd.2|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  2. 2. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Contents 1 Abstract ............................................................................................................................4 2 Keywords...........................................................................................................................5 3 Introduction.......................................................................................................................5 4 The Case Study...................................................................................................................6 5 Key Challenges / Risks Managed.....................................................................................16 6 Critical success factor.......................................................................................................18 7 Best Practices...................................................................................................................19 8 Business Benefits Realization .........................................................................................21 9 Lessons learnt...................................................................................................................22 10 Conclusion......................................................................................................................23 11 Author’s Profile..............................................................................................................243|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  3. 3. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India 1 Abstract This case study showcases successful application of Project Management Methodology for a large scale Business Transformation program being implemented by one of the top ten global business organizations. The client decided in 2006 to transform itself to a Globally Integrated Enterprise by 2015, in order to meet the following objectives a. Leverage global resources through common processes b. Adopt standards for seamless intra and Inter-organization operations c. Provide adequate controls through compliance and governance d. Improve productivity and efficiency to expand margin and increase EPS To meet the above business goals, client embarked on a program which involves a. Transformation of Business Processes to be globally consistent. b. Implementation of single ERP instance to support business processes. c. Integration of business operations management d. Deployment of shared services model to support functions like HR, procurement, finance etc. e. A major Organization Change Management initiative to ensure smooth transition to future organization design The key elements of PM approach include a. Key stake holders’ identification and a business case approval b. Logical distribution of the initiative to Project Portfolios, Programs and Projects c. Setting up of team/s4|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  4. 4. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India d. Establishing a governance model and communication cadence e. Program plan preparation, which includes Proof of concepts / prototypes for new technologies and processes, large scale Business Process transformation activities, Systems Integration and Organization Change Management activities. f. High level release / roll out strategy g. Execution and control process h. Focused risk management i. Creation of reusable assets The ‘business benefits measurements’ have confirmed that the program is on track. This paper highlights the effectiveness of PM Methodology in meeting challenges in such large business transformation program. 2 Keywords Business Process Transformation, Program Management, Complex system integration Project Management 3 Introduction This paper is a case study of successful application of program management methodology for executing a large scale business transformation program. The client is one of the top ten global business enterprises in electronics and service industry with revenue of approx. 100 billion USD and is present in 170 countries with 4,00,000 employees. The client embarked on a large scale business transformation program in 2006 in order to achieve the following business objectives. • Simplify and standardize business processes across business units and geographies.5|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  5. 5. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India • Achieve speed to the marketplace. • Integrate across the business units to enable solutions and bundled offerings to the clients • Deliver products and services globally • Increase integration with back office to leverage cost competitiveness and productivity • Provide additional flexibility to adapt to changing business needs • Increase spend on strategic projects and reduce on tactical projects • Cut down on cost of operations • Increase ability to leverage scale to improve efficiencies thru initiatives like shared services, back office operations etc. • Reduce revenue “leakage” • Improve forecast accuracy • Ensure improved quality and availability of information across Geos and BUs • Improves business controls / audit posture • Provides real time data 4 The Case Study The client assigned the task of this transformation to a top business exec. The Client selected SAP as technology platform • Scope The scope for the first wave covered business processes from Opportunity to order, Order to cash, Finance and Human resource. The processes in scope are listed in the table below6|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  6. 6. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Opportunity to Order Order to Cash Finance Human Resource - Quotation/Proposal - Sales Contract - General Ledger - HR Management Management Processing Administration - Pricing and - Contract and - Currency / Statutory - Compensation Contracts Project Registration - Inter-company Management - Price and Margin - Service Contracts Processing - Org Mgt Management Management - Project Systems - Time and - Partner Channel - Sales Order - Profitability Analysis Attendance Management Management - Profit Centre - Payroll - Product - Service Order - Cost Centres / Internal - Employee Self Configuration Management Service Orders - Lead Management - Billing - Manager’s - Opportunity - Contract and - Financial Closing Self service Management Project Close - Manage Banking - Invoicing Functions - Cost Recognition - Tax Accounting & - Revenue Settings Recognition - Account Payable - Logistics Execution - Manage Accounts - Complaints And Receivable Returns - Collections Management - Installed Base - Dispute Management Management - Credit Management - Product - Account for Fixed Assets Configuration - Support Capital Tracking Services - Support Property Control - Project Based Cost - Business Controls & - Revenue Reporting Forecasting - Perform Supplier enablement - Execute Procurement opportunities - Purchase Order Logistics - Financial Master Data • Global Template Approach: Development of one common global template was of strategic importance in order to achieve business requirement of common business processes across the organization. In addition, the global template serves the following requirements of the program. • Minimize retrofitting, rework, regression testing • Provide 95% of configuration before deployments begin7|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  7. 7. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India • Promote buy-in and ownership through collaborative blueprint workshops involving representatives from all geographies, business units and global process owners • Develop a foundation for standardization controls to better manage the systems landscape to maintain an integrated design • Develop a framework for a repeatable structure used for operations support across enterprise. Global Common Standards Defines all globally applicable system structures and data standards, such as: global Chart of Accounts, SAP hierarchies, master data. Common Processes This repository for the key integrated business process scenarios, including common interfaces, reports and bolt-ons. Leverage able Content Broadly applicable content across business units and geographies offering reduced total implementation and long-term support costs Regional / Business Unit Variations Market specific customizations Differentiation SOA will be used to maintain those processes that differentiate IBM in the marketplace Figure – 1: Global template approach • Planning The initiative was spilt logically into various programs, project portfolios and projects. A full cycle implementation was carried out at a small business entity as a proof of concept. The scope for POC was carefully chosen to represent the entirety of8|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  8. 8. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India process design in a smaller version. Similarly, prototypes for new technologies were prepared Deployment plan to roll out the template across the enterprise in a release model was prepared. The roll out plan is based on business priorities like emerging markets , requirement of applications in the geographies where the existing system are not able to take the growth load , geographies where cost of maintaining existing systems are very high. Figure 2 lays out life cycle the program and specifies the dependencies in the lifecycle. Figure – 2: A large scale business transformation program lifecycle First release Business Case Prototype / Pilot / App. Proof of concept Establish Business benefits Set Up operations Centers of measurement Management Competency & Excellence Achievement Subsequent of Business Global releases Goals Templates We are her e • Methodology IBM Ascendant method is being used for the implementation. The project life cycle has seven phases and six domains. Deliverables of each domain in each phase are well defined in the method9|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  9. 9. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Fig -3: IBM Ascendant Method The Ascendant SAP Methods offer guidance, like a map or a recipe, and can be altered to meet the specific needs of a project. The methodology provides a consistent, structured, and practical approach to 1. What needs to be done 2. How it should be done 3. How it should be controlled 4. Who should do it • Establishing the key leadership team Establishing key leadership team was the first step. In addition to the regular Job description process to on board the team, the following additional factors were considered keeping in view the complexity and the volume of the program. • Org structure is generally dynamic, since the technical and leadership skills required at beginning of the life cycle are very different and of the highest quality than the skills required for steady state operations and roll outs. • The steady state operations and rollouts to be achieved through centers of competency or excellence functioning effectively. • The desired key resources may not be available at the outset, as they may be involved in other programs and will require to be brought in, at different stages in the program life cycle. • The requirement of type of leadership may change depending upon the program situation and phase of the program lifecycle. • Strategy program planning team is different from the routine project management team and focuses on the long term business benefits realization10|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  10. 10. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India • The teams engaged at early stages of program are likely to require support from their leadership since some of the deliverables may not meet the expectations as anticipated. • The number of resources required is likely to increase / decrease significantly to meet peaks and turfs of the requirements. • Development of Technical Applications & Systems • Design & Build Best of class resources were chosen to work on solution and design. ‘As is’ design was converted to a ‘To be’ design document. Solution design team worked closely with business. After the business blue print was signed off, a ‘Requirement Traceability and Verification Matrix’ was prepared as per SEA guidelines. Solution design team configured the system and developed functional as well as technical specifications. More than 1500 objects and 400 interfaces were developed in the first phase itself. A large number of reports, data conversion programs, enhancements, workflows and forms were developed. • Data Migration Millions of data elements were migrated from various legacy systems in to SAP. A process assigning data element ownership to the right business owner was established. The global data standards were followed. The data migration cycle included a seven step approach. They were data extraction, mapping, cleansing, a scrambling (to ensure data privacy compliance), development of conversion programs, conversion and data verification & validation. The data element owners assumed the responsibility of confirmation that the data loaded is correct and meets the business logic as part of exit criteria • Testing11|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  11. 11. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India The following cycles of testing were carried out. A total of 1800 test scripts were executed during system integration testing phase • Functional / Unit Testing was owned by the developers / configuration team • Integration Testing was owned by the development team. However, during the later cycles, after majority of the defects were taken care of, members from business and sustenance team joined the development team. This helped reducing time for users’ acceptance testing and also transition to sustain. The test scripts were prepared based on the functionality captured in the ‘requirement traceability and verification matrix’ • User Acceptance Testing involved multiple users and also testing of global template elements .Users were trained in SAP prior to taking up users’ acceptance tests. • Regression Testing, wherever applicable , was carried out • Performance / Stress Testing for validating network and system load capacity were carried out . The test results met the defined exit criteria. • Scope Change Management Process A scope change management process was set up. Each change request had to go through a change board approval. Despite strict control, about 500 CRs were required for the first release. The change board met more frequently closer to ‘ Go Live ‘ . All domain leads were required to carry out impact assessment on every change request. Closer to go live only those domains which were considered relevant were asked to submit impact analysis and others were informed to respond in case they believed there is an impact. This expedited the process for CR approvals. • Stake Holders’ Management There are many stake holders in this complex program including the business users, top management, steering committee, business process leaders, the teams who were redeployed as part of future org design and the project team members.12|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  12. 12. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India The following factors increased the complexity in stake holders’ management. • Diversity of stake holders: local, regional, global business leaders, unions etc. • Enterprise-wise impact of every important decision • Higher costs of delivery • Higher opportunity costs • Tracking & Controlling A project communication plan based on project tracking, controlling and communication needs was developed. Processes like on boarding and off boarding were developed. Artifacts like project charter, team charter and communication plan were created. Team rooms, program Wikis and other virtual tools for sharing and storing project the artifacts were made available. Entry and exit criteria for each major deliverable and key milestone were defined. Communication cadence thru status calls, face to face workshops, milestone check point meetings, executive and steering committee reviews, quality and audit reviews were put in place Conference calls involving resources from Europe, US, Australia and India required time rotation so that disadvantage of working at odd hours could be shared by all teams IBM Seven Keys to success process was used for reporting at senior management level. IBM Seven Keys to Success 1. Stake holders are committed 2. Business benefits are being realized 3. Work and Schedule are predictable 4. Scope is realistic and manageable 5. Team is high performing13|P a g e 6. Risks are being mitigated Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management 7. Delivery organization benefits are being realized
  13. 13. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India The program is on schedule; however the costs overshot by approx 13 %. The main reasons for costs to increase were • The additional effort and travel for face to face workshops on getting the business requirements articulated to the level of granularity. • Procurement of high / niche skilled expensive resources for solution and design. • Organization change management activities Organization readiness to accept such a large change required significant amount of OCM activity. The change agents were identified as sponsors in top management, advocates in senior execs & business heads, change process owners and coaches in the middle management The program has engaged specialist services for carrying out OCM activities. The change was mainly occurring from • Large scale business process transformation (from local to global) • New organization design and changes in roles • Skill gaps for managing future organization The main deliverables were • Future Org design A five step approach for developing future org design was adopted • Document and assess ‘As Is’ org.14|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  14. 14. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India • Envision ‘To Be’ org. • Design ‘To Be’ org. and Job roles • Define Skills and Competencies to close Gaps in ‘As Is’ – ‘To Be ‘ , map roles • Create plans to resolve gaps Business Strategy Future Organization & Process State Current People State Organizational Change Management Information Technology Fig -4: Factors impacting Future Org design • Communication A communication plan was developed based on communication need analysis for the organization. The plan detailed what needs to be communicated by whom and when. It also listed the medium of communication. Various types of communication material were developed. Communication was routed through key stake holders /change agents for appropriate impact. • Training Training need analysis was carried out. Based on requirement for various user groups, multiple types of training materials were developed and delivered. The super users were also sent for SAP training, prior to involvement in users’ acceptance testing. Learning Labs and Classroom trainings were organized. Computer based simulations were prepared for complex transactions. Web lectures and web pages providing information about new processes and tools were prepared and made available to the users to be accessed at their own time .15|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  15. 15. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India An organization readiness check point included completion of trainings to various user groups prior to go live 5 Key Challenges / Risks Managed The following were a few of the key risks experienced and managed in this engagement • Business process owners experienced difficulty in articulating requirements, since the processes were getting globally aligned for the first time in the organization. The processes owners were familiar with the local business requirements. Use of agile methodology was of some help to address this issue. Requirement Traceability Verification Matrix was of help in articulating requirements. • Where the process definition was incomplete or flawed, it created issues of acceptance by the users at the exit point. Program management tried defining Exit and Entry criteria with as much clarity as possible. • SAP solutions being implemented did not address all the requirements from the business. Additional budget and time were required for unplanned development work. The following are the reasons for the additional development work o There were business scenarios / requirements where the SAP solutions did not meet the business need and required customization. o There were SAP solutions which were not tried earlier and required some amount of customization. SAP time lines of delivering these changes did not support the project time lines and project had to bear the expenses for developing the solution o The right expertise to implement a few desired solutions was not accessible as required to meet the project time lines. • Low data quality created issues for migration and reconciliation in production since it was the first time the globally distributed (multiple applications) data was migrated in a single database and global data standards were implemented.16|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  16. 16. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India • A few weak configurable controls / access controls and/or Separation of Duties allowed errors and audit exposure. New roles at different levels were getting created for the first time as per the future org design scenario. • Very high volumes of users caused system to be unstable. This was especially true immediately after the roll outs / releases since more number of users (out of curiosity than normally as planned ) logged in and users spent more than required time (since they were learning to use the new application ) on the application . • System exited (went live) with some known or unknown problems due to oversight in testing and/or decisions made around Exit criteria. The users signing exit criteria found it difficult to understand process & technology transformation from local to global. The stay of hyper-care team was extended from planned 30 days to 45 days. Additional costs were picked up by the project • Multiple regulatory compliances brought in additional challenges for program management team since this transformation involved multiple countries, business units and applications. These compliance included o Data Privacy laws o Visa and work permits o Union agreements o Global trade practices and restrictions o Audits like SOX, Client specific , Service provider specific o Intellectual property protection • Management of diverse global delivery teams in virtual environments threw up additional challenges. A global and virtual team was best suited to this program since the complexity and diversity of the required skill sets dictated to bring on board variety of resources. Best in class resources were required for design and solution and could be picked up from any where and the most cost effective for routine operations. The team scaled up to approx 1000 resources during peak period.17|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  17. 17. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India The program spent additional money for o Additional communication time and infrastructure for virtual working. o Travel costs for face to face meetings and workshops o Cultural sensitivity trainings 6 Critical success factor In order to achieve the envisaged business benefits and make program successful, the following are considered as Critical Success Factors • Strong, active executive committee that demonstrates visible sponsorship of the project • Visible organizational commitment to make significant process and organizational changes, resulting in targeted benefits realization. • Dedicated, empowered project team able to make rapid decisions on behalf of business units • Country buy-in and accountability for results, especially for such large global implementation involving multiple countries. • Rigorous scope management process to limit modifications to standard SAP functionality and to keep scope within original estimates • Common enterprise level design, with limited process and configuration changes during the rollout/ releases of the project • Rapid decision making and issue resolution procedures, coupled with prompt escalation and resolution of critical business issue • Benefits Realization as an integral part of the Project, not a follow-on or collateral activity • Change management and organizational alignment processes in place to make the organization ready to accept change.18|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  18. 18. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India • Clear, concise, relevant, and actionable performance measures directly linked to each element of the business case and visible to all levels of the organization • One integrated team with clearly defined program objectives, goals, and timeline. 7 Best Practices The following are some of the best Practices implemented in the program • Establishment of the CoE / CoC .- A CoE was set up with the following objectives o CoE enables development of the required skills, development and upkeep of reusable assets thus bringing down the costs for the program o The location of the CoE was carefully selected considering costs and availability of required skills o The CoE charter includes that • All key resources are strategically part of the center. • The key deliverables of the program are owned by the center. • Implement best practices • Established ‘Core and Flexi team’ model o In order to optimize costs and delivery capabilities, a core and flexi team model has been adopted. This addresses resource requirements to meet ‘peaks and troughs’ o The critical skills are retained in the program as core team. These resources are usually on the leadership roles or posses niche skills. The flexi team is brought in on ‘as required basis ’. o The core team is highly skilled and is well versed in client specific business requirements. This team can guide / lead the flexi team. The flexi team is brought up to required skill levels by the core team through19|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  19. 19. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India an ‘on boarding’ process which include training in client specific processes and methods • Created reusable assets and assigned asset ownership A large number of reusable assets were created / being created. A process to continuously improve upon the existing reusable assets and skills based on the lessons learnt has been established. This process helps to meet the planned productivity improvement in the business case. The program management assets are o Templates - development, configuration, testing, communication etc. o Processes – engagement, change management, issues and risk management, decision making, o Physical assets - testing rooms, virtual Private networks, severs . o Soft ware Programs – configuration documentation , RICEFW programs (Reports , Interfaces, Conversions, Enhancements , Forms and workflows ) o Project Plans – Engagement & delivery, development, testing, cutover. o Test scripts , Data migration processes o Business Process Procedures – Global processes, desk top procedures. o Technical architect diagrams. • Prepared business continuity / Disaster Recovery. The client servers are hosted in a data center which has built up geographically dispersed back up to ensure continuity in case of any disaster / eventuality like earth quake /floods or damage due war / terrorist strikes. • Assigned data elements ownership – Each data element was assigned an owner. The owner was normally a business process owner, who dealt with the specific data element as part of his normal duties. He was responsible of ensuring that the clean data is provided for upload and after conversion, validate that data is correctly reflected in the new SAP system.20|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  20. 20. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India • Preparation of Check lists - Check lists defining entry & exit criteria for all major milestones were prepared. A check list for meeting Go Live criteria is listed below as an example. Go Live Check ListCompletion of all major test activities SIT: Signoff complete UAT: Signoff complete Performance Test: Test completeData Cleanup and Data Migration Data verification signoff completeActivities Data validation and correction CompleteExecution of users’ transition plan OCM roadmap execution in progress as per plan Bubble staff in placeCompletion of LCM Preparedness LCM staff in placePlan Knowledge transfer Complete Sustain Readiness Exit criteria metExecution of Cutover Plan Production verification Confirmed Dry run Complete Failover plan in placeOperational Readiness Documentation in place Hypercare support in placeTechnical Readiness Hardware in place; System build Complete Network upgrade complete Interface batch Scheduling/monitoring/performance completeOther Criteria Required for Go Live Disaster recovery plan confirmed Audit certification received 8 Business Benefits Realization The realized business benefits were measured in line with business case commitments. In addition to the global process alignment, there were tangible as well as intangible benefits. All tangible benefits were measured and reflected in quantities. Assessment about intangible benefits like increased employee morale, company branding etc. was also made. This exercise confirmed that the program was meeting the business case objectives and is in line with business leadership’s strategic vision Key benefits achieved are mentioned below21|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  21. 21. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Benefit Source MetricsSystem Sunset Number of systems / interfaces sunset / Number of Systems / interfaces partly sunset sunsetResource Savings Resource Costs Number of FTEs redeployedContract Savings Number of external support vendors Number of external venders’ reduced / activities curtailedControl Points saving Redundant Control Points Number of control points reduced Automated Control PointsStaff Efficiency & Transaction Time Reduction in Transaction processProductivity Iterations time Reduction in IterationCost savings The amount spent on the system to The difference between the support business amounts spent prior and post transformation with details of contributing factors. 9 Lessons learnt • Requirement of right skills - The requirement of right skills is critical for such a large transformation program. These skills are required across the domains like engagement, business, application, architect and organization change management. Right service provider, where these skills are available needs to be brought in to steer such programs right at the outset • The business finds very difficult to provide the requirements in the requirement gathering phase. Despite trainings, some gaps do remain with business teams to provide end to end process information and also understand to be processes. Hence changes in business requirements do come up during testing and even later part of the project. Methodologies like Agile and artifacts like ‘Requirement Traceability and Verification matrix’ are of help. • Program managers need to effectively monitor changes in the scope. A few slippages could result in additional work for months. On the other hand, missing on a few critical business requirements could make the developed22|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  22. 22. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India application inadequate for business to accept or may require an expensive work-around. • The change management process followed at the project involved mandatory assessment by all domains. The response from all domains delays processing of CRs .To expedite the approval process , CRs should be taken for approval after preliminary assessment by relevant domains and should be send to all domains for concurrence after approval. • Early involvement of users’ and sustain team members help reduce overall users’ acceptance testing and transition to sustain time • Data quality and application of global data standards to multiple local systems can create major data consistency issues. Assignment of data ownership to the right business process owner to validate the data is of help to get the right quality of data in to the system. 10 Conclusion Many multinationals are integrated businesses across geographies and business units to realize their strategic business objectives of rapidly responding to global marketplace and significantly reducing operations costs. The ERP packages provide technology platform to support such initiatives. Program managing such complex transformation initiatives throw multiple additional challenges. The Program Managers require high levels of skills of effectively communicating to virtual teams across diverse cultures, negotiating successfully , solving complex issues, providing leadership , managing relationship across multiple levels, managing ambiguity, demonstrating sound business Judgment and technical acumen to successfully deliver these envisaged business benefits to the clients, on time and with in budget23|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  23. 23. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India 11 Author’s Profile Sachdeepak is IBM certified Senior Project Manager and Certified SAP Consultant He has successfully managed complex and high valued IT /SAP business transformation Projects like Global SAP Implementation & Support and business transformation on SAP for one of the largest global IT Companies . He set up operations support and development of interfaces in WBI suite, managed Siebel implementation & support and Implementation of SAP in Uniliver Ltd. He managed ECC 5.0 upgrade, SAP releases and rollouts for Ericsson, while working in Stockholm. He led Implementation of SAP HR for Rohm & Haas, 3Com (while working in the US) & for L & T group of companies. He spearheaded automation of Airmen and Officers’ recruitment and selection processes for Indian Air Force In addition, to his delivery roles, Sachdeepak is a trainer and a certified instructor for Project Management and Project Financial and also a reviewer and mentor for PMs seeking Senior PM Certifications in IBM.24|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  24. 24. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India He holds MBA and M. Phil. (Org Mgt ) degrees and have published and presented papers on Project Management in system integration & application development at various forums like SAP Tech Ed, Society of PM Japan and PMI Chapter, Bangalore. sacarora@in.ibm.com , sdsarora@hotmail.com25|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management

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