5 Motivational Theories Project Manager Must Know!
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This presentation talks about the 5 motivational theories that project manager must understand in order to understand team better and motivate them to towards achieving project objectives. This is part of PMBOK and is helpful in your preparation for PMP or CAPM certification exams. Or you can use this to understand more about project management.
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5 Motivational Theories Project Manager Must Know!
A guide to passing PMP® exam! series..5 Motivational TheoriesProject Manager Must Know!Based on the PMBOK® bookFor a free eBook on Project Management, and brain-friendlynotes for PMP® and CAPM® certification examsvisit www.PMExamSmartNotes.comBrought to you bywww.PMExamSmartNotes.com
Motivation is a psychological featurethat makes a living being strivetowards achieving a goal, and controlsits behavior in this respect.Motivating self and team is a primaryneed of a project manager tosuccessfully manage the project.
Even best of the team members needconstant motivation to work towardsachieving project objectives.There are 5 motivational theoriesapplicable in general to all, and in specificto project management. Getting a goodunderstanding of these give useful insightsto you as a project manager to manage theteam better.
1- Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsAbraham Maslow proposed apsychological theory in 1943, which hesubsequently extended to apply tohuman developmental psychology, andpublished in his book in 1954. It cameto be known as "Maslows hierarchy ofneeds".
Maslows theory is represented as a pyramidwith layers of needs - basic needs at the bottom,and the subsequent layers above representingevolved needs that motivate an individual.Bottom four levels of the pyramid are termed asdeficiency needs - which means that theirabsence will make an individual tense andstressed.The top layer goes beyond the needs of thesefour layers, and is driven by the constant need tobecome a better individual.
Maslow’s Layer 1: PsychologicalNeeds such as food, water and sleepform core and basic needs of humanbeings. Only after these needs arefulfilled do mans actions getmotivated by higher needs.
Maslow’s Layer 2: SafetyThese are security of body,employment, health and family -which are a level higher than manspsychological needs.
Maslow’s Layer 3: Love and belongingThis represents interpersonal needs ofa man - love and belongingness withfellow human beings. Friendship,family, intimacy maintain mansemotional stability.
Maslow’s Layer 4: EsteemHumans have the innate need to feel respected,valued and wanted. The activities a man getsinvolved with (such as a profession, hobbies)give him a sense of contribution. Maslowidentified lower and higher needs - lowerneeds are expectation of respect from others,and higher needs include respect for self.People with imbalance in these needs sufferfrom inferiority complex.
Maslow’s Layer 5: Self-actualizationThis need stems from the adage "what a mancan be, he must be". This refers to therealization of ones potential. This is a perceivedneed, in the sense that man needs to strive toachieve whatever he considers to be the idealstate of being. And this ideal state may differbetween individuals. For one this may bebecoming a selfless altruist, and for someoneelse this could be being a top notch athlete.
2: McGregors Theory X and Theory YDouglas McGregor developed this theoryin the 1960s. He was a managementprofessor at MIT Sloan School ofManagement and also taught at the IndianInstitute of Management Calcutta. TheoryX and Theory Y refers to the perceptionmanager has of his employees.
Theory XTheory X states that a manager sees hisemployees as fundamentally lazy, andthat they always are on the lookout toescape work. This belief makes managersto micromanage their employees, andresults in mistrust and restrictivesupervision. Theory X manager tends toblame others for everything.
Theory YTheory Y type of manager believes that everyemployee is self-motivated and can be trusted.And that they can think for themselves, acceptresponsibility, and, given right environment theycan perform well. This type of thinking buildspositive work environment. There will be opencommunication, lesser hierarchy andcollaborative decision making in such anenvironment.
3: Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene TheoryFrederick Herzberg proposedMotivation-Hygiene theory in 1968,which states that content of apersons job is the primary source ofmotivation. This opposes the popularbelief that money alone is the primarymotivation for people to work.
Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theoryhygiene factors such as pay, job security,working conditions, fringe benefits, job-policieswill only reduce dissatisfaction, and bythemselves do not motivate people. Otherfactors such as levels of challenge, work,recognition, advancement, autonomy andopportunity for creativity are termed asmotivational factors that make people want towork.
4: McClellands Need TheoryDavid McClelland was American psychologicaltheorist, proposed that people are motivated byachievements, affiliation and power.• People who are motivated by achievementsprefer to master a job or situation, prefer to workon task that are moderately difficult, and preferwork where success is based on effort (and notfactor of luck), and that they would like to getfeedback on their work.
McClellands Need Theory• People who are motivated by affiliation prefer to workwith people in power and love to establish relationshipwith them, be part of such elite group where theirwork is accepted and respected.• People who are motivated by power prefer to work inpositions of power (military, police and heads ofdepartments) and they intrinsically want to influence,teach and encourage people. They place high value ondiscipline. They have zero-sum goals where for one towin, someone else has to lose.
5: Expectancy TheoryThis was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale School ofManagement in 1964. This is based on the assumptionthat people choose a specific behavior based on theirexpectation of the intended result. He introduced threevariables -• Expectancy (E) : Expectation leads to desiredPerformance• Instrumentality (I) : Performance leads to favorableOutcome (rewards such as promotion, salary increase)• Valence (V) : This is the importance one places onrewards, based on their needs, goals and sources ofmotivation
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