Indian ocean tsunami case study


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GCSE or A-level geography case study on the Asian tsunami 2004

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Indian ocean tsunami case study

  1. 1. Indian Ocean tsunami 2004 (a secondary impact of an earthquake)Causes• The earthquake that caused the tsunamistruck at 7:58am on December 26th 2004• The earthquake was caused by thesubduction of the Indo-Australian plate(oceanic) under the Eurasian plate(continental) 240km off the coast of Indonesia• This mega-thrust earthquake involved a 20metre uplift of the sea floor all the way along afault line which was over 1000km in length• The uplift of the sea floor caused adisplacement of billions of tonnes of watersetting in motion a tsunami wave which hit thecoast of Indonesia within half an hour of theearthquake
  2. 2. Indian Ocean tsunami 2004 (a secondary impact of an earthquake)Impacts of the earthquake Primary effects of the tsunami• despite being 240km off the coast the • The wave killed people in 14 differentseismic waves from the earthquake still caused countries around the Indian Oceandamage to poorly built homes and better built totalling over 250,000structures over 3 storeys high in Banda Aceh (a • The highest death toll was on thecity on the coast of Sumatra) Indonesian island of Sumatra where over 130,000 were killed and over 30,000 remain missing • In Sumatra over 500,000 people were made homeless, over 80,000 houses were destroyed as well as serious damage to any ports, boats, roads, bridges, hospitals, forests and crops within 1km of the shore • 8 people were killed in South Africa which is over 8000km from the epicentre and over 8000 tourists from Australia, Europe and America were also killed • In Sri Lanka, a train was derailed by the force of the wave killing over 1000
  3. 3. Indian Ocean tsunami 2004 (a secondary impact of an earthquake)Secondary effects of the tsunami• Diseases such as cholera and dysenteryspread due to the lack of clean water andsanitation in the refugee camps killing anestimated 150,000• Incomes were lost due to the destruction offishing boats and damage to the ocean bed• Loss of foreign income from tourism wassignificant in Thailand• Emotional and psychological impacts on thesurvivors and aid workers• Land disputes broke out as documents werelost in the devastation and in some cases landwas destroyed by erosion from the wave
  4. 4. Indian Ocean tsunami 2004 (a secondary impact of an earthquake)Short term responses• Bodies were buried in mass graves to helpprevent the spread of diseases• Over $7billion was provided by governmentsand NGOs (charities) in the aid effort and tohelp with reconstruction• Up to 5 million people had to be relocatedinto temporary refugee camps and had to beprovided with shelter, food and water• It took months to simply clear the debrisbefore rebuilding could start again Long term responses • The Indonesian government decided to relocate the people from the refugee camps straight into new homes. The building of these new home took a lot longer than expected due to the lack of building materials and destruction of main transport routes. • An tsunami early warning system (shown below) has now been installed in the Indian Ocean at a cost of $20 million