Feminist Theory Group Projec Tfinal Twu

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Feminist Theory Group Projec Tfinal Twu

  1. 1. Feminist Theory <br />
  2. 2. FS 5123 – Feminist Theories<br />Texas Woman’s University<br />March 30, 2010<br />Feminist Theory: Understanding Gender and Violence<br />Feminist Theory Group Members:Pamela Randolph, Yvonne Thomas, and Pimara Thongsaeng<br />
  3. 3. Feminist Theory: Understanding & Gender Violence : Introduction <br />Yearly reports indicate that men perpetrate abusive behaviors towards their intimate partner. Women account for approximately one-fourth of the individuals reporting that they are victims of intimate partner physical and/or sexual violence (Whitaker et al, 2007). <br />Feminists have faced the difficulty of addressing the consequences of violence against the female gender (Comack & Brickey, 2007). Feminist perspectives have been utilized to investigate various studies in regards to family issues. <br />Research on family, human rights, gender, and violence has emerged throughout the century. The concept of feminism has expanded on women movements and maltreatment. <br />Additionally, feminist theory has been employed to point out the mainstream of women’s voices and gender inequality. <br />The articles presented within this collaboration on theory conceptualization clearly illustrate various feminist perspectives in regards to understanding gender and violence. <br />
  4. 4. Feminist Theory <br />
  5. 5. Feminist Theory<br />Feminist theory is a theory that focuses not only women and the situations they have encountered, but the focus is also on politics and social action (Boss et. al, (1993), p. 592). Feminist theory also calls attention to the viewpoint of gender differences, gender bias, model of gendered behaviors, and sexual inequality (Chibucos & Leite, (2005), p. 209). <br />There are various perspectives of the feminist theory. Feminist theory puts emphasis on and represents the following subject matters collectively:<br /><ul><li>The female gender and their life experiences.
  6. 6. Acknowledgment women’s oppression and subordination under existing societal arrangements.
  7. 7. Commitment to the termination of unfair subordination.
  8. 8. Awareness that gender interactions and relations are vital to the entirely of social life. (Boss et al (1993), p. 592).</li></ul>The framework of feminist theory is developed to position itself in the boundaries of women and their life experiences. From a feminist viewpoint, social environments should be considered along with gender relations in order to understand the experiences of social life. Gender is a socially construction, therefore, feminist theory highlights the sex differences between male and female and social expectations, such as behaviors, values, and attitudes, which reflect to the social norms in each gender (Chibucos & Leite, 2005). These shape the changes of women and their experiences from the feminist perspectives.<br />
  9. 9. Feminist Theory ConceptsThe concepts of feminism are (1) Liberal feminism that focuses on men, women, and their equality in human rights, (2) Radical feminism that focuses on system of power and asserts that family is a foundation of society. Furthermore, it points out that men hold more power and can oppress women in their families, (3) Socialist feminism which focuses on the oppression of class and gender in society, (4) Interpretative feminism which focuses on natural of women’s subordination, and (5) Postmodern feminism which focuses on oppression and subjugation (Chibucos & Leite, (2005), p. 594). <br />
  10. 10. Feminist Theory StrengthsAccording to Chibucos & Leite, (2005), feminist theory emphasis a strong point of view in regards to gender bias. It points out the differences between gender, family, and social expectations through the feminist perspectives. Women are viewed as passive, whereas men are viewed as active. However, feminists indicate that women who have been impacted by social forces affect their families. Feminist theory also uses scientific methodology to study and investigate on family issues. It also focuses on family level. Men tend to have more power and use that power to oppress women. Therefore, feminist theory tries to diminish gender inequality in the family and within society. Furthermore, feminist theory reveals the reality of women’s lives which are oppressed both directly and indirectly (Chibucos & Leite, 2005). <br />
  11. 11. Feminist Theory: <br />Understanding Gender and Violence<br />
  12. 12. Understanding Gender and Violence<br />It is of utmost importance to understand gender and violence. A thorough perception of gender, along with gender norms, will assist in a thorough attentiveness to the reality of gender violence. Thus, enabling researchers, along with governmental and state agencies to acquire the proper tools required to minimize gender violence. The examination of gender perceptions, behaviors, and inequalities, with distinctive emphasis on women and their experiences, is the general focus of feminist theory (Chibucos et al (2005), p. 209). Another focal point of feminist theory is to empower women and disenfranchised groups by informing and encouraging various transformations within societal structures (Chibucos et al (2005), p. 209). <br />
  13. 13. “The Making of Unwanted Sex: Gendered and Neoliberal Norms in College Women’s Unwanted Sexual Experiences” – Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras’ objective in this feminist study is to investigate the aspects and experiences of women’s consent to unwanted sex with their male partners in relation to feminist critique of the accountability of gendered norms. The results were utilized to contend that gender and neoliberal principles maneuver in sequence to replicate women’s consent to unwanted sex (Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras, 2008). <br />
  14. 14. Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras’ research suggest that, sexual relationships between intimate partners is interpreted as consensual or nonconsensual. Non consensual sex is considered an act of rape (Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras, 2008), and rape is a big issue in regards to gender and violence. The end results indicated that a young woman’s sexual behavior is established and/or created and there must be a great deal of comprehension amongst both gender and the ideals of economic policies (Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras, 2008). Consequently, the results assist in providing an enhanced understanding of both gender and unwanted sex which is considered violence (rape). No matter how mild or severe the action is, violence is an unwanted pursuit of forcefulness towards its victims. <br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras’<br />Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras’ research suggest that, sexual relationships between intimate partners is interpreted as consensual or nonconsensual. Non consensual sex is considered an act of rape (Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras, 2008), and rape is a big issue in regards to gender and violence. The end results indicated that a young woman’s sexual behavior is established and/or created and there must be a great deal of comprehension amongst both gender and the ideals of economic policies (Bay-Cheng and Eliseo-Arras, 2008). Consequently, the results assist in providing an enhanced understanding of both gender and unwanted sex which is considered violence (rape). No matter how mild or severe the action is, violence is an unwanted pursuit of forcefulness towards its victims. <br />
  17. 17. “Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury Between Relationships with Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence” – The objective of Whitaker, Haileyesus, Swahn, and Saitzmans’ research is to examine the prevalence of both male and female reciprocal and nonreciprocal intimate partner violence, along with determining whether reciprocity (give and take) is linked to violence frequency and injury (Whitaker et al, 2007). <br />Whitaker, Haileyesus, Swahn, and Saitzman suggest that “gender is at the forefront of feminist theories of partner violence and it has been consistently found that male perpetrators are more likely to inflict injury than female perpetrators” (Whitaker et al, 2007). Therefore, they researched the main effect of gender in regards to the severity of violence and the interaction connecting reciprocity and gender to distinguish whether the effect of reciprocity differed for men and women (Whitaker etal, 2007). <br />
  18. 18. “Dating Violence and the Health of Young Women: A Feminist Narrative Study” – The objective of Ismail, Berman, and Ward-Griffins’ research is to examine dating violence, investigate contextual factors along with the ways these factors shape young women’s experiences, observe health situations derived from these experiences, and to explore how violence in dating is provoked and how it can be controlled (Ismail et al, 2005). <br />Ismail, Berman, and Ward-Griffins’ research results showed that environment and gender are both critical aspects in shaping the experiences of young women. This research resulted in a range of health problems, both emotional and physical, with very little support avenues. This indicated that when these women tried to obtain assistance, health care providers, family members, and friends were not very supportive and displayed unconcerned attitudes towards them (Ismail et al, 2005). <br />
  19. 19. Depiction of Theory’s Application to the Understanding of Gender and Violence<br />Radical feminism is a great place to begin when trying to understand the issue of gender and violence. The emphasis of the male gender’s claimed authority over women, dominance, and male power are aspects of radical feminism and a central part of the locus of women’s oppression (Boss et al (1993), p. 594). The radical feminism theory consists of two branches:<br />
  20. 20. Depiction of Theory’s Application to the Understanding of Gender and Violence<br />The Patriarchal Structure – Pornography, prostitution, sexual harassment, rape, abortion, sterilization and/or heterosexuality.<br />Cultural Feminism – Women’s cultural, sexual, and spiritual experiences are celebrated. (Boss et al (1993), p. 594) <br />Women’s bodies, men’s dominance over a woman’s sexuality, and men’s utilization of rape and battering of women, are theoretical focal points of radical feminists that need to be eliminated because these are critical violations of a woman’s physical integrity (Boss et al (1993), p. 594). <br />
  21. 21. Depiction of Theory’s Application to the Understanding of Gender and Violence<br />Roe v Wade was an imperative attempt to improve the women’s sexual autonomy. The attentiveness to both men and women is crucial in theorizing gender and violence. In addition to this, intimate violence is concerted both politically and theoretically by feminists (Boss et al (1993), p. 616). <br />
  22. 22. Depiction of Theory’s Application to the Understanding of Gender and Violence<br />Conclusion<br />“Men’s control of women’s sexuality is not only ideological, but also evident in patterns of physical coercion and violence” (Boss et al (1993), p. 616). Feminist theory indicates violence perceptions in each gender. Abusive behavior can be portrayed in both sexes. As far as abusive and violence is concerned, men are more dangerous to women than women are men. In addition to this, feminist theory depicts the feminist perspectives which are focused on the empowering of women. Women are free to choose what they do and/or don’t want in regards to their relationship with men. Moreover, women do not have to be the victims of abusive partner violence. <br />
  23. 23. In Conclusion <br />Women are free to choose what they do and/or don’t want in regards to their relationship with men. Moreover, women do not have to be the victims of abusive partner violence. “Feminist theories have been accompanied by extensive efforts to change these patterns, for example, movements to shelter and empower battered women, changing rape laws, and teaching women self-defense” (Boss et al (1993), p. 616). <br />
  24. 24. Feminist Theory Visual Project <br /> Comack, E., & Brickey, S. (2007). Constituting the Violence of Criminalized Women. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 49(1), 1-36. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection Database. <br />Ismail, F., Berman, H., & Ward-Griffin, C. (2007). Dating violence and the health of young women: a feminist narrative study. Health Care for Women International, 28(5), 453-477. Doi: 10.1080/07399330701226438. <br />Whitaker, D.J., Saltzman, L.S, Haileyesus, T., & Swahn, M. (2007). Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury between Relationships with Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5), 941-947. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.079020.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />References<br />Bay-Cheng, L.Y., & Eliseo-Arras, R.K. (2008). The Making of Unwanted Sex: Gendered and Neoliberal Norms in College Women's Unwanted Sexual Experiences. Journal of Sex Research, 45(4), 386-397. Doi: 10.1080/00224490802398381.<br />Boss, P.G., Doherty, W.J., LaRossa, R., Schumm, W.R., & Steinmetz, S.K. (1993). Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A contextual approach. New York: Plenum Press.<br />Chibucos, T. R. & Leite, R. W. (2005). Readings in Family Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.<br />

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