One of the biggest forms of revenue for companies, advertising is a very powerful
media tool. It can influence an audience to buy a certain product, which the
photographs will aim to do within the advertisement.
Advertising photography can be in many forms, while also using various
techniques, which depends on the product and the target audience the product is
The photographer who is capturing the product will want to capture it in the best
way to try and sell the product, this is the main feature of advertising
Out of the photography applications, Advertising photography is the most edited
kind. With a range of lenses, artificial light and boosting of colour saturation,
Advertising photography relies on the editing to try san d sell their products.
Without it, their products will look ordinary and the consumer appeal will be low.
In terms of contexts, Advertising would fit in to many, if not all the categories,
The only questionable one within this would be galleries. However, as it states
later in the presentation, many peoples definition of art is different, so could
therefore be classed as art and subsequently be gallery worthy.
Aims to capture the
Certain topics aren’t specified for this type
of photography because they advertise
products, which could be anything.
Artificial light is used in
this, as well as other
pieces of advertising
One of the most edited
photography types, due
to the product needing
to look it’s best.
Uses a range of lenses in this
particular adverting photography
piece. You can especially see this on
the right hand side of the image,
which depicts close-ups of the cars
Advertising photography tend to be Studio based.
On the other hand, car adverts like this are
sometimes captured outside, which will mean
natural light will be used. However, the photo will
still be heavily edited, so the product and location
look their best.
This photography application is similar to advertising, but doesn’t have to look
aesthetically pleasing to the audience because it’s function isn’t to sell the
product, just to raise the profile of it.
Promotional photography can still be for products, but on my examples and
traditionally, the thing been promoted is an event or a media product such as an
album or movie.
As stated above, the difference between advertising and promotional
photography is that promotional may only be commissioned to raise the profile of
the product, not to try and sell it.
Compared to Advertising, the amount of post-production that gets carried out on
promotional photography is a lot less. This is again because the product on the
poster/leaflet is trying to become known, not trying to be bought by the audience,
so doesn’t have to be enhanced as much as advertising photograph pieces.
However, like advertising, promotional photography would fit all the contexts,
The explanation for why gallery is included is the same as advertising, people
define art differently and therefore a promotional piece could be gallery worthy.
George Fairburn (Bands,
musicians and athletes)
It aims to capture the main
object, or in this case,
protagonists, instead of the
Studio image based, but like I said in advertising,
some images use natural light and outdoor
locations to promote the products.
Promotional is the same
as advertising in terms of
light, it uses artificial light
for the photographs.
It’s heavily edited but as a whole,
promotional photography isn’t as
edited as advertising photography.
Like advertising photography, the image
can be of anything. However,
promotional tends to have the topic of
event or media product.
A range of lenses are used in this
photography type as well. As you
can see, a long lens shot used to
get the facial features and
expressions of the characters.
The main function of Fashion Photography is to get the consumer to buy the products
been advertised. For this reason, Fashion photography is heavily edited in the postproduction stages. Colours are enhanced and the models are visually enhanced,
therefore making the product or photograph look as good as it can. Fashion
photography, along with advertising photography are the most commonly edited
image types out of them all.
This application is commonly seen in magazines and newspapers, either
accompanying an article, which the illustration application does, or on an advert,
which the advertising application does. However, the technological advancement of
the internet means that fashion photography is all over the internet.
This type of photography is about exhibiting the clothes as the main feature, while at
the same time creating a mood or a moment in a narrative. This would involve
thinking about what happened before and after the shot was taken. Photography isn't
just about the shot, it encompasses a wider meaning, in terms of telling a
Fashion photography happens traditionally in a studio or on a set, which means
artificial light is used. However, they could also be taken in location. The images are
heavily edited, as well as been manipulated in their production. No fashion shot is
ever observational, due to the appeal of the clothes not been as high if they were
captured as they were.
Dependent on the shoot, a range of lenses may be used. However, this feature and
the ones stated above all depends on the photographers style of photography.
Fashion Photography comes under less contexts than the previous two. The ones
that do apply are:
•Gallery (Fashion, like everything, can be debated as art)
Fashion photography professionals
Traditional fashion photography images,
including this one, is taken to showcase the
clothes. It does this in this particular image
by using the background to give symbolic
codes to the item of clothing (eg. The dress
is newspaper, everything seems like that in
that particular dress).
All, or most, images captured in
terms of fashion photography is
manipulated. This will ensure a shot
that will satisfy both the
photographer and the subject been
A range of lenses
could be used in
but stereotypically, a
wide lens is used.
In a studio, where a traditional
fashion photography image is
Artificial light is used to capture this
image, which is due to the image
been, as previously mentioned,
captured in a studio.
A variation of techniques are used in
the post-production. This may
include addition of colour, fixing of
skin imperfections and additional
Photojournalists capture moments of a narrative they are trying to communicate or helping
to communicate to the consumer. These pieces of photojournalism give viewers a visual
aid of the news story these images accompany.
Photojournalism can come in many forms: Sport, war and celebrities are the most common
forms of photojournalism. However, news can come in all forms, so the photographs that
accompany them must meet these demands also.
The Photographers who capture these images must abide by the ethical approaches that
are followed by Journalists and other Photojournalists, they can’t photograph whatever
they want, the must limit/censor what they take pictures. On the other hand, as you can
see from the images on the right, many images are needed to anchor the text, regardless
of violent content.
Photograph editing in Photojournalism has been the subject of a high and lengthy debate.
Some believe that they are trying to tell the story how it is, so the images that accompany
should follow the same guidelines. Others believe that a little post-production should be
added to the photograph and it is acceptable.
These images are traditionally observational, due to the ‘in the moment’ angle they have to
take when reporting the news, plus, some moments don’t get a second chance to be
captured. Photojournalists work with whatever light they have, whether they are outside or
inside. If they want additional light, sometimes it’s limited to flash gun, due to the resources
been reduced in a war/terror zone.
If the Photographer is close to the action, a wide lens will be used to capture the
photograph. If the subject/event is further away, a telephoto lens will be used, this is
common in war zones and riot areas that can’t be entered by news crews.
Photojournalism falls into the same amount of contexts as fashion, which didn't have as
many as the Adverting application. These contexts apply to photojournalism:
•Galleries (some famous photojournalism pieces are in galleries war, race riots etc.)
Manipulation in this particular
photography field is highly debatable.
Some believe that a bit of post-production
is fine, while others believe a true
representation isn’t carried out if any
manipulation of the picture is undertaken.
In this image, a true representation of the
London riots is captured. No artificial lights, no
post-production. A wide lens is used, while a
location, instead of a studio, is used.
Wider lenses are used
if the subject or event
is close to the
lenses will however be
used if the
photographer is far
away from the action.
Photojournalism must not be
must instead be observational.
This is due to the true
representation that this kind of
photographer is trying to
Photojournalism photographers have to work with the light they have for
their ‘true representation’ shots. However, if they need additional light, it is
restricted to a flash gun. This is for two reasons: 1) If they report in troubled
areas or war zones, they won't carry all their equipment, while 2) they don’t
want to draw attention to themselves when in these previously mentioned
One of the most common photography applications of them all, portraiture, also
known as portrait, is the employment of a technique in which the face, facial
features and facial expressions is captured in the photograph.
Portraiture photography has many approaches to it:
The constructionist approach states that “the photographer constructs an idea
around the portrait — happy family, romantic couple, trustworthy executive”. This
particular approach is one that is used in the majority of studio and social
photography. This will therefore mean techniques such as artificial lighting and
post production editing will be used on the image.
An Environmental approach shows the subject of the image in their natural
environment, whether this is work, social or family environments. This approach
reveals more about the subject compared to all the other approaches.
A Candid approach to a portrait would mean a photograph would be captured
without the subjects knowledge of been photographed. This kind of approach is
always observational and ambient light is always used.
The Creative approach is an increasingly popular approach within portrait
photography high street studios. This kind of approach relies on post-production
techniques been used on the images (lighting, colour saturation etc.)
The contexts which Portraiture applies to is:
This type of photography generally requires a wide lens for it’s images.
However, the natural shot won’t be kept; a medium close-up angle will
be traditionally used also. This will enable the photographer to capture
the main feature of the portraiture format, the facial features of the
subject. However, if a medium close-up isn’t used to capture the
photograph, the post-production technique of cropping will be used.
used quite heavily on
these types of
images. This is not
for the same reasons
as fashion and
advertising (to look
good), but instead to
look the best for the
A location can be used for
Portraiture photography, but
many, like this particular
example, as well as the ones on
the other page, are taken in a
These image types are manipulated. If they
weren’t, you would end up with unnecessary
shots of the subject looking away or unaware of
High street studio
A few photography types can be involved in this photography application.
Portraiture and wedding photography are just two kinds that could be related to
High street studio, which is due to the images been produced in the High street
Venture, a big company in the industry tend to concentrate on family portraits,
which they popularised with their high key look.
Due to high rent prices and the economic climate, high street photographers are
finding it increasingly more difficult to stay in business. Instead, home studios
are becoming more popular for independent photographers to make a business
out of photography.
Studios use artificial light to produce their photographs, as well as postproduction techniques that help get a more professional and smoother image.
Techniques such as red-eye remover, colour saturation and distort may be used
during this process. As for lenses, a wide lens is commonly used for high street
studio photography, due to the limited space in the studio.
Again, depending on the photographers style, the image will differ in styles. As
mentioned previously, Venture used a high key look, which they made popular in
this particular section.
These images have few contexts, due to the personal and sentimental nature of
the picture, rather than a photograph of public interest. This will therefore mean
that the images will not be in magazines or newspapers, unless they’re of
Contexts relevant to high street studio photography:
High street studio professionals
The style of image seems to
change from photographer to
photographer. Venture, an
example on an earlier slide, is
noted for popularising the high
key studio look.
Like the previous application, a manipulated photograph type is the
most common to high street studio. This is for similar reasons to
the portraiture application, except on a larger scale. This is due to
the high street studio type normally been for a family portrait,
where as portraiture been of a singular person.
In general, wide lenses
are used for the high
the room in the studio
photographs is limited.
Studio, as the name suggests, is captured
inside a studio. For this reason, artificial
light will be required to produce the light
for this photography.
Colour saturation, red-eye removal and
skin imperfection repair are just a few of
the techniques that could be used in the
Architectural photography involves the capturing of buildings and architectural structures
(struts, staircases etc.)
Architectural photographers, unlike many other photography applications, have to have a
level of skill in the specialised techniques, while also having skill with specialist equipment
such as a tilt lens.
The images that are produced by this kind of photographer can then be used by any of
these job roles:
•Construction body (company or individual)
They might choose to use the photographs for things like: Brochures, web pages, adverts
or editorial pieces. This, like previously mentioned, must mean the architectural
photographer must be skilled, or they won’t get any business from any of the above
Dependant on the use of the image, the photograph may be edited. For example, if a
hotelier uses the image, they’ll want it edited so it will look good in their brochure. Where
as a property developer and a consulting engineer won’t want the images edited during
post-production because they want to build/develop the building/structure as it’s captured,
an observational image, unedited image.
Architectural has a range of contexts that could be used, especially if you combine this
application with advertising of a building. The context that could apply are:
Architectural photography professionals
Frederick H. Evans
Like photojournalists, architectural photographers must work with the light they
have. A small amount of artificial light could be added by this kind of photographer.
However, a difference between the two kinds of photographer is that the
architectural photographer isn’t restricted to the amount of equipment and
therefore artificial light, where a the photojournalist is.
This image type
cannot be captured in
the studio, so must
instead be taken in
Post production techniques on this type of image differs,
depending on the intended use. Like stated earlier, a hotelier
will need the images edited to look as good as possible, almost
bordering on advertising standards. Where as a property
developer will want the image as it was captured, so they can
work on it accurately.
The choice of lens for the images also varies. This is
dependant on the distance between the
photographer and the intended
building/architectural structure, while also
considering the feature you want to capture (the
whole building or just a part?)
Like Photojournalism, these kind of photographs are used to accompany
newspaper articles, which gives the consumer more information on the story.
Similar to all photograph applications featured, illustration photography can have
a big impact on the reader, in terms of influence. The power of media, not only
photos, can sway a consumer to vote for a particular political group amongst
other things, Illustrations aid this by anchoring itself to the text.
However, illustrations don’t have to be in newspapers or magazines, they can
also be in text books or educational books. If they are found in these forms, there
tends to be more than one photograph on a page, this is due to the step by step
information been conveyed to the consumer in text books.
The style and the technique differs depending on the subject and genre of the
product. If the images are for a text book, the photograph may have a few postproduction alterations made, where as in newspapers and magazines it is highly
debatable, like mentioned in the Photojournalism section.
Due to the similarities in the taking and editing rules of the images, the contexts
of illustrations are similar to Photojournalism photography. The contexts that
could be linked to this application are:
* Illustrations can’t be put in galleries because without the articles, Illustrations
have no meaning, unlike Photojournalism photography.
Illustration photography professionals
The same argument as
photojournalism stands. The post
production of an image should or
should not be carried out?
However, more than photojournalism,
Illustration must be observational
because they are reporting the news,
something which cannot be repeated
the same again.
This photography application is
one of only a few that can
feature both sides of the
technique. Illustration can be
studio or location, artificial or
natural light and wide or a
This photography application
is similar to the
depend on the subject the
accompanying text is on.
Studios could be used for the
photogrpahers, especially if the
main headline is of a famous
person. A prtraiture taken in
the studio maybe used as the
illiustratio. This is why it is
dependant on the subject or
The purpose of medical photographs is to produce an accurate and truthful
account of injuries and diseases. Another function of it is to capture operations
and medical procedures.
From there, the photographs that are taken can be used for analysis, along with
accompanying medical reports, articles and research papers. This is why the
images have to be accurate, if they aren’t, the research or papers that use the
images for analysis will lose it’s credibility.
Medical photographers are not very common, but are required, so each hospital
will have a small medical illustration department that will capture most
procedures, bits of equipment and patients.
To capture the images, medical photographers will use digital cameras and flash.
This is the same whether they are taking photographs of wards, operating
theatres or post mortems.
While these kinds of photographers don’t edit the images after they’ve taken
them, due to the accuracy in the observational image been required, they use
different techniques to take the photographs.
These techniques include:
• Thermal imaging
•Micro and Macrography
•Endoscopy (enables internal organs to get photographed)
Unlike most so far, galleries are definitely not going to show this kind of
photography. Books are the most common contexts for this type of application.
The contexts medical photography applies to is:
Medical photography professionals
Socolow Photography company
The equipment used to take the photos is very specialist and
large in quantity. Only a skilled photographer can handle this
equipment, which is compulsory in only a few photography
applications (architectural been the other). The cleanliness of the
equipment matters in this field more than others as well. If this
function isn't carried out, it could have severe consequences.
Medical photography uses location
instead of studio for it’s images.
However, because every image is
captured inside, light is already
provided, so not much artificial light will
However, just to ensure the images
won’t have to be taken again for may
reasons, flash is added to the
Fine art photography
Fine art photography can involve so many different applications and styles, if not
all of them. It can encompass fashion, sport, documentary pieces or even
advertising. This is due to art not been defined as a specific thing and therefore
art can be anything, it just depends on peoples tastes and perceptions.
Even though fine art can feature anything, nudes, architecture and wildlife are all
popular selections to photograph. Colour or black and white can be used for this
kind of photography. In terms of post production, it’s completely the
photographers choice if they add post-production techniques, due to it not been
compulsory to add or not to add them.
Fine art images are usually used for prints or books and no other reason. Where
as photojournalism and illustration accompanies news stories, while advertising
aims to try and sell a product, fine art has no purpose to fulfil, it can be what it
wants to be.
This application is the most context able photography type of them all, been
applicable to them all.
•Hoardings (can have some significance or none)
Fine art photography professionals
In this particular image these techniques have
•Post-production: Colour saturation, artificial light
The same Graham Nash picture is another area of
difference as well. Not the lens that’s used, but
instead the angle that’s used. Every single image
is captured in a mid or long shot, where as this
particular image is captured in a mid close-up
Fine art photography
is similar to
dependant on the
Images like this cannot be categorised as either manipulated or
observational. However, this exact shot will never be captured
again by a photographer so could be classed as observational. On
the other hand, you can’t control the sky and the weather so
can’t be completely be controlled by the photographer
instructions, unlike a model.
Both studio and location could be used.
All of my examples use a studio, except
for the bottom image of Graham Nash’s
where the photograph is captured in a
While Photojournalism is about capturing breaking news stories and can’t be
worked on over a number of days, Documentary photography involves working
on a project over a number of days (long term project), while occasionally
including multi-stand and complicated narratives.
However, like photojournalism, observational photographs are captured, as
oppose to staged ones. Post-production features can be used on these images
without it been debated, but not like the editing on advertising or fashion
photographs. Lenses can be varied also, dependant on the image the
photographer is requiring. On the other hand, sometimes the photographer isn’t
requiring a shot, sometimes it comes out the blue and is an unexpected shot,
which is another reason why it can’t be staged.
This type of photography is the only application that allows the photographer to
show the various aspects of the subject life, while showing their normal day to
day life. Like other photography applications, documentary can tall a narrative
through a number of images, instead of the one, like newspapers rely on to sell
Contexts documentary photography can apply to:
Documentary photography professionals
Location is used for these images, rather than a studio generally.
This is because the same impact of the images may not be felt
the same if they were captured in a studio. A prime example
been the image on this page.
A range of lenses and
styles can be used by
which is dependent
on the actual
Observational photography is used to capture these images,
instead of manipulated. This is due to documentary photography
taking photographs in large quantities, instead of waiting for the
one good shot, documentary photographers like to tell a
narrative with their many pictures.
Unlike photojournalism and Illustration, postproduction isn’t an issue for documentary
photographs. Black and white effect is a popular postproduction technique added. This will give the image
more impact, while making it more effective to the