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  1. 1. Photography Applications Unit 57 Patrick Gouldsbrough
  2. 2. Advertising One of the biggest forms of revenue for companies, advertising is a very powerful media tool. It can influence an audience to buy a certain product, which the photographs will aim to do within the advertisement. Advertising photography can be in many forms, while also using various techniques, which depends on the product and the target audience the product is aimed at. The photographer who is capturing the product will want to capture it in the best way to try and sell the product, this is the main feature of advertising photography. Out of the photography applications, Advertising photography is the most edited kind. With a range of lenses, artificial light and boosting of colour saturation, Advertising photography relies on the editing to try san d sell their products. Without it, their products will look ordinary and the consumer appeal will be low. In terms of contexts, Advertising would fit in to many, if not all the categories, which includes: •Magazines •Newspapers •Hoardings •Books •Web Pages •Individual clients •Galleries The only questionable one within this would be galleries. However, as it states later in the presentation, many peoples definition of art is different, so could therefore be classed as art and subsequently be gallery worthy.
  3. 3. Advertising professionals Jonathan Knowles Tim Wallace Huw Jones
  4. 4. Aims to capture the products main features Certain topics aren’t specified for this type of photography because they advertise products, which could be anything. Artificial light is used in this, as well as other pieces of advertising photography. One of the most edited photography types, due to the product needing to look it’s best. Uses a range of lenses in this particular adverting photography piece. You can especially see this on the right hand side of the image, which depicts close-ups of the cars main features. Advertising photography tend to be Studio based. On the other hand, car adverts like this are sometimes captured outside, which will mean natural light will be used. However, the photo will still be heavily edited, so the product and location look their best.
  5. 5. Promotional This photography application is similar to advertising, but doesn’t have to look aesthetically pleasing to the audience because it’s function isn’t to sell the product, just to raise the profile of it. Promotional photography can still be for products, but on my examples and traditionally, the thing been promoted is an event or a media product such as an album or movie. As stated above, the difference between advertising and promotional photography is that promotional may only be commissioned to raise the profile of the product, not to try and sell it. Compared to Advertising, the amount of post-production that gets carried out on promotional photography is a lot less. This is again because the product on the poster/leaflet is trying to become known, not trying to be bought by the audience, so doesn’t have to be enhanced as much as advertising photograph pieces. However, like advertising, promotional photography would fit all the contexts, which are: •Magazines •Newspapers •Hoardings •Books •Web Pages •Individual clients •Galleries The explanation for why gallery is included is the same as advertising, people define art differently and therefore a promotional piece could be gallery worthy.
  6. 6. Promotional professionals George Fairburn (Bands, musicians and athletes)
  7. 7. It aims to capture the main object, or in this case, protagonists, instead of the product. Studio image based, but like I said in advertising, some images use natural light and outdoor locations to promote the products. Promotional is the same as advertising in terms of light, it uses artificial light for the photographs. It’s heavily edited but as a whole, promotional photography isn’t as edited as advertising photography. Like advertising photography, the image can be of anything. However, promotional tends to have the topic of event or media product. A range of lenses are used in this photography type as well. As you can see, a long lens shot used to get the facial features and expressions of the characters.
  8. 8. Fashion The main function of Fashion Photography is to get the consumer to buy the products been advertised. For this reason, Fashion photography is heavily edited in the postproduction stages. Colours are enhanced and the models are visually enhanced, therefore making the product or photograph look as good as it can. Fashion photography, along with advertising photography are the most commonly edited image types out of them all. This application is commonly seen in magazines and newspapers, either accompanying an article, which the illustration application does, or on an advert, which the advertising application does. However, the technological advancement of the internet means that fashion photography is all over the internet. This type of photography is about exhibiting the clothes as the main feature, while at the same time creating a mood or a moment in a narrative. This would involve thinking about what happened before and after the shot was taken. Photography isn't just about the shot, it encompasses a wider meaning, in terms of telling a narrative/story. Fashion photography happens traditionally in a studio or on a set, which means artificial light is used. However, they could also be taken in location. The images are heavily edited, as well as been manipulated in their production. No fashion shot is ever observational, due to the appeal of the clothes not been as high if they were captured as they were. Dependent on the shoot, a range of lenses may be used. However, this feature and the ones stated above all depends on the photographers style of photography. Fashion Photography comes under less contexts than the previous two. The ones that do apply are: •Newspaper •Magazine •Web Pages •Gallery (Fashion, like everything, can be debated as art)
  9. 9. Fashion photography professionals David Bailey John French Nigel Barker
  10. 10. Traditional fashion photography images, including this one, is taken to showcase the clothes. It does this in this particular image by using the background to give symbolic codes to the item of clothing (eg. The dress is newspaper, everything seems like that in that particular dress). All, or most, images captured in terms of fashion photography is manipulated. This will ensure a shot that will satisfy both the photographer and the subject been photographed. A range of lenses could be used in fashion photography, but stereotypically, a wide lens is used. In a studio, where a traditional fashion photography image is captured. Artificial light is used to capture this image, which is due to the image been, as previously mentioned, captured in a studio. A variation of techniques are used in the post-production. This may include addition of colour, fixing of skin imperfections and additional light.
  11. 11. Photojournalism Photojournalists capture moments of a narrative they are trying to communicate or helping to communicate to the consumer. These pieces of photojournalism give viewers a visual aid of the news story these images accompany. Photojournalism can come in many forms: Sport, war and celebrities are the most common forms of photojournalism. However, news can come in all forms, so the photographs that accompany them must meet these demands also. The Photographers who capture these images must abide by the ethical approaches that are followed by Journalists and other Photojournalists, they can’t photograph whatever they want, the must limit/censor what they take pictures. On the other hand, as you can see from the images on the right, many images are needed to anchor the text, regardless of violent content. Photograph editing in Photojournalism has been the subject of a high and lengthy debate. Some believe that they are trying to tell the story how it is, so the images that accompany should follow the same guidelines. Others believe that a little post-production should be added to the photograph and it is acceptable. These images are traditionally observational, due to the ‘in the moment’ angle they have to take when reporting the news, plus, some moments don’t get a second chance to be captured. Photojournalists work with whatever light they have, whether they are outside or inside. If they want additional light, sometimes it’s limited to flash gun, due to the resources been reduced in a war/terror zone. If the Photographer is close to the action, a wide lens will be used to capture the photograph. If the subject/event is further away, a telephoto lens will be used, this is common in war zones and riot areas that can’t be entered by news crews. Photojournalism falls into the same amount of contexts as fashion, which didn't have as many as the Adverting application. These contexts apply to photojournalism: •Magazines •Newspapers •Web pages •Galleries (some famous photojournalism pieces are in galleries war, race riots etc.)
  12. 12. Photojournalism professionals Gary Knight Martin Argles George Osodi
  13. 13. Manipulation in this particular photography field is highly debatable. Some believe that a bit of post-production is fine, while others believe a true representation isn’t carried out if any manipulation of the picture is undertaken. In this image, a true representation of the London riots is captured. No artificial lights, no post-production. A wide lens is used, while a location, instead of a studio, is used. Wider lenses are used if the subject or event is close to the photographer. Longer/telephoto lenses will however be used if the photographer is far away from the action. Photojournalism must not be manipulated/controlled and must instead be observational. This is due to the true representation that this kind of photographer is trying to portray. Photojournalism photographers have to work with the light they have for their ‘true representation’ shots. However, if they need additional light, it is restricted to a flash gun. This is for two reasons: 1) If they report in troubled areas or war zones, they won't carry all their equipment, while 2) they don’t want to draw attention to themselves when in these previously mentioned areas.
  14. 14. Portraiture One of the most common photography applications of them all, portraiture, also known as portrait, is the employment of a technique in which the face, facial features and facial expressions is captured in the photograph. Portraiture photography has many approaches to it: The constructionist approach states that “the photographer constructs an idea around the portrait — happy family, romantic couple, trustworthy executive”. This particular approach is one that is used in the majority of studio and social photography. This will therefore mean techniques such as artificial lighting and post production editing will be used on the image. An Environmental approach shows the subject of the image in their natural environment, whether this is work, social or family environments. This approach reveals more about the subject compared to all the other approaches. A Candid approach to a portrait would mean a photograph would be captured without the subjects knowledge of been photographed. This kind of approach is always observational and ambient light is always used. The Creative approach is an increasingly popular approach within portrait photography high street studios. This kind of approach relies on post-production techniques been used on the images (lighting, colour saturation etc.) The contexts which Portraiture applies to is: •Magazines •Newspapers •Web pages •Galleries •Individual clients
  15. 15. Portraiture professionals Patrick Lichfield Hamish Brown Ross Halfin
  16. 16. This type of photography generally requires a wide lens for it’s images. However, the natural shot won’t be kept; a medium close-up angle will be traditionally used also. This will enable the photographer to capture the main feature of the portraiture format, the facial features of the subject. However, if a medium close-up isn’t used to capture the photograph, the post-production technique of cropping will be used. Post-production is used quite heavily on these types of images. This is not for the same reasons as fashion and advertising (to look good), but instead to look the best for the customer, the individual client. A location can be used for Portraiture photography, but many, like this particular example, as well as the ones on the other page, are taken in a studio. These image types are manipulated. If they weren’t, you would end up with unnecessary shots of the subject looking away or unaware of been photographed.
  17. 17. High street studio A few photography types can be involved in this photography application. Portraiture and wedding photography are just two kinds that could be related to High street studio, which is due to the images been produced in the High street studios. Venture, a big company in the industry tend to concentrate on family portraits, which they popularised with their high key look. Due to high rent prices and the economic climate, high street photographers are finding it increasingly more difficult to stay in business. Instead, home studios are becoming more popular for independent photographers to make a business out of photography. Studios use artificial light to produce their photographs, as well as postproduction techniques that help get a more professional and smoother image. Techniques such as red-eye remover, colour saturation and distort may be used during this process. As for lenses, a wide lens is commonly used for high street studio photography, due to the limited space in the studio. Again, depending on the photographers style, the image will differ in styles. As mentioned previously, Venture used a high key look, which they made popular in this particular section. These images have few contexts, due to the personal and sentimental nature of the picture, rather than a photograph of public interest. This will therefore mean that the images will not be in magazines or newspapers, unless they’re of celebrities. Contexts relevant to high street studio photography: •Individual client
  18. 18. High street studio professionals Venture photography
  19. 19. The style of image seems to change from photographer to photographer. Venture, an example on an earlier slide, is noted for popularising the high key studio look. Like the previous application, a manipulated photograph type is the most common to high street studio. This is for similar reasons to the portraiture application, except on a larger scale. This is due to the high street studio type normally been for a family portrait, where as portraiture been of a singular person. In general, wide lenses are used for the high street studio application because the room in the studio to capture photographs is limited. Studio, as the name suggests, is captured inside a studio. For this reason, artificial light will be required to produce the light for this photography. Colour saturation, red-eye removal and skin imperfection repair are just a few of the techniques that could be used in the post-production stage.
  20. 20. Architectural Architectural photography involves the capturing of buildings and architectural structures (struts, staircases etc.) Architectural photographers, unlike many other photography applications, have to have a level of skill in the specialised techniques, while also having skill with specialist equipment such as a tilt lens. The images that are produced by this kind of photographer can then be used by any of these job roles: •Architect •Consulting engineer •Surveyor •Construction body (company or individual) •Hotelier •Property developer They might choose to use the photographs for things like: Brochures, web pages, adverts or editorial pieces. This, like previously mentioned, must mean the architectural photographer must be skilled, or they won’t get any business from any of the above customers. Dependant on the use of the image, the photograph may be edited. For example, if a hotelier uses the image, they’ll want it edited so it will look good in their brochure. Where as a property developer and a consulting engineer won’t want the images edited during post-production because they want to build/develop the building/structure as it’s captured, an observational image, unedited image. Architectural has a range of contexts that could be used, especially if you combine this application with advertising of a building. The context that could apply are: •Newspaper •Magazine •Hoarding •Web Page •Galleries
  21. 21. Architectural photography professionals Frederick H. Evans Edwin Smith Julius Shulman
  22. 22. Like photojournalists, architectural photographers must work with the light they have. A small amount of artificial light could be added by this kind of photographer. However, a difference between the two kinds of photographer is that the architectural photographer isn’t restricted to the amount of equipment and therefore artificial light, where a the photojournalist is. This image type cannot be captured in the studio, so must instead be taken in location. Post production techniques on this type of image differs, depending on the intended use. Like stated earlier, a hotelier will need the images edited to look as good as possible, almost bordering on advertising standards. Where as a property developer will want the image as it was captured, so they can work on it accurately. The choice of lens for the images also varies. This is dependant on the distance between the photographer and the intended building/architectural structure, while also considering the feature you want to capture (the whole building or just a part?)
  23. 23. Illustration Like Photojournalism, these kind of photographs are used to accompany newspaper articles, which gives the consumer more information on the story. Similar to all photograph applications featured, illustration photography can have a big impact on the reader, in terms of influence. The power of media, not only photos, can sway a consumer to vote for a particular political group amongst other things, Illustrations aid this by anchoring itself to the text. However, illustrations don’t have to be in newspapers or magazines, they can also be in text books or educational books. If they are found in these forms, there tends to be more than one photograph on a page, this is due to the step by step information been conveyed to the consumer in text books. The style and the technique differs depending on the subject and genre of the product. If the images are for a text book, the photograph may have a few postproduction alterations made, where as in newspapers and magazines it is highly debatable, like mentioned in the Photojournalism section. Due to the similarities in the taking and editing rules of the images, the contexts of illustrations are similar to Photojournalism photography. The contexts that could be linked to this application are: •Newspapers •Magazines •Web pages •Books * Illustrations can’t be put in galleries because without the articles, Illustrations have no meaning, unlike Photojournalism photography.
  24. 24. Illustration photography professionals Adrian Dennis Adam Dean Jack Hill
  25. 25. The same argument as photojournalism stands. The post production of an image should or should not be carried out? However, more than photojournalism, Illustration must be observational because they are reporting the news, something which cannot be repeated the same again. This photography application is one of only a few that can feature both sides of the technique. Illustration can be studio or location, artificial or natural light and wide or a telephoto lens. This photography application is similar to the photojournalism one. Techniques, lenses, manipulated/observational, all depend on the subject the accompanying text is on. Studios could be used for the photogrpahers, especially if the main headline is of a famous person. A prtraiture taken in the studio maybe used as the illiustratio. This is why it is dependant on the subject or
  26. 26. Medical photography The purpose of medical photographs is to produce an accurate and truthful account of injuries and diseases. Another function of it is to capture operations and medical procedures. From there, the photographs that are taken can be used for analysis, along with accompanying medical reports, articles and research papers. This is why the images have to be accurate, if they aren’t, the research or papers that use the images for analysis will lose it’s credibility. Medical photographers are not very common, but are required, so each hospital will have a small medical illustration department that will capture most procedures, bits of equipment and patients. To capture the images, medical photographers will use digital cameras and flash. This is the same whether they are taking photographs of wards, operating theatres or post mortems. While these kinds of photographers don’t edit the images after they’ve taken them, due to the accuracy in the observational image been required, they use different techniques to take the photographs. These techniques include: • Thermal imaging •Micro and Macrography •Endoscopy (enables internal organs to get photographed) Unlike most so far, galleries are definitely not going to show this kind of photography. Books are the most common contexts for this type of application. The contexts medical photography applies to is: •Magazine •Web pages •Books
  27. 27. Medical photography professionals Socolow Photography company
  28. 28. The equipment used to take the photos is very specialist and large in quantity. Only a skilled photographer can handle this equipment, which is compulsory in only a few photography applications (architectural been the other). The cleanliness of the equipment matters in this field more than others as well. If this function isn't carried out, it could have severe consequences. Medical photography uses location instead of studio for it’s images. However, because every image is captured inside, light is already provided, so not much artificial light will be added. However, just to ensure the images won’t have to be taken again for may reasons, flash is added to the photographs.
  29. 29. Fine art photography Fine art photography can involve so many different applications and styles, if not all of them. It can encompass fashion, sport, documentary pieces or even advertising. This is due to art not been defined as a specific thing and therefore art can be anything, it just depends on peoples tastes and perceptions. Even though fine art can feature anything, nudes, architecture and wildlife are all popular selections to photograph. Colour or black and white can be used for this kind of photography. In terms of post production, it’s completely the photographers choice if they add post-production techniques, due to it not been compulsory to add or not to add them. Fine art images are usually used for prints or books and no other reason. Where as photojournalism and illustration accompanies news stories, while advertising aims to try and sell a product, fine art has no purpose to fulfil, it can be what it wants to be. This application is the most context able photography type of them all, been applicable to them all. •Magazine •Newspaper •Books •Hoardings (can have some significance or none) •Web pages •Galleries •Individual clients.
  30. 30. Fine art photography professionals Graham Nash Dominic Rouse Gordon Matta-Clark
  31. 31. In this particular image these techniques have been used: •Wide lens •Artificial light •Location •Post-production: Colour saturation, artificial light The same Graham Nash picture is another area of difference as well. Not the lens that’s used, but instead the angle that’s used. Every single image is captured in a mid or long shot, where as this particular image is captured in a mid close-up angle. Fine art photography is similar to illustration photography, dependant on the subject, the techniques differ. Images like this cannot be categorised as either manipulated or observational. However, this exact shot will never be captured again by a photographer so could be classed as observational. On the other hand, you can’t control the sky and the weather so can’t be completely be controlled by the photographer instructions, unlike a model. Both studio and location could be used. All of my examples use a studio, except for the bottom image of Graham Nash’s where the photograph is captured in a studio.
  32. 32. Documentary While Photojournalism is about capturing breaking news stories and can’t be worked on over a number of days, Documentary photography involves working on a project over a number of days (long term project), while occasionally including multi-stand and complicated narratives. However, like photojournalism, observational photographs are captured, as oppose to staged ones. Post-production features can be used on these images without it been debated, but not like the editing on advertising or fashion photographs. Lenses can be varied also, dependant on the image the photographer is requiring. On the other hand, sometimes the photographer isn’t requiring a shot, sometimes it comes out the blue and is an unexpected shot, which is another reason why it can’t be staged. This type of photography is the only application that allows the photographer to show the various aspects of the subject life, while showing their normal day to day life. Like other photography applications, documentary can tall a narrative through a number of images, instead of the one, like newspapers rely on to sell the product. Contexts documentary photography can apply to: •Newspapers •Magazines •Books •Galleries
  33. 33. Documentary photography professionals Roger Mayne John Bulmer Stuart Franklin
  34. 34. Location is used for these images, rather than a studio generally. This is because the same impact of the images may not be felt the same if they were captured in a studio. A prime example been the image on this page. A range of lenses and styles can be used by the photographer, which is dependent on the actual photographer. Observational photography is used to capture these images, instead of manipulated. This is due to documentary photography taking photographs in large quantities, instead of waiting for the one good shot, documentary photographers like to tell a narrative with their many pictures. Unlike photojournalism and Illustration, postproduction isn’t an issue for documentary photographs. Black and white effect is a popular postproduction technique added. This will give the image more impact, while making it more effective to the consumer/viewer.