Prof. Dr. Petra Grell
Doing (qualitative) social research … The research process  Theoretical Paradigms and Perspectives The Researcher as a Mul...
<ul><li>… is not only about asking questions, it’s about making decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting the relationsh...
<ul><li>What is meant to be a (relevant) part of the phenomenon depends on the theory   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The lear...
<ul><li>Results depend on the perspective you choose for a research </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
Subject-scientific learning theory (1)  <ul><li>Subject’s standpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-scientific learning theory ...
Subject-scientific learning theory (2) <ul><li>Holzkamp criticizes the prevalent idea that learning is initiated by a thir...
Subject-scientific learning theory (3) <ul><li>Core concepts  </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive learning “If I learn defensively...
Differences <ul><li>Learner‘s standpoint </li></ul><ul><li>No teaching-learning short circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive ...
<ul><li>Curriculum > </li></ul><ul><li>> Teaching environment > </li></ul><ul><li>> Tasks and topics are given to learners...
Research with subject-scientific learning theory on eLearning - New Learning Culture   <ul><li>A. Grotlüschen (2002) Resis...
Expansive Learning? <ul><li>Learners resist  to be fitted into a (“self-regulated”) teaching environment and to learn the ...
Grell <ul><li>Grotlüschen 200X </li></ul>New   Learning Culture (including  eLearning)
Grell 2005 „ Learners have a lot of problems.  They are rude” „ Teachers are incompetent and not respectful“ New   Learnin...
Grell 2008 „ Researches / Experts can’t help us …” „ Teacher have problems to understand …” New   Learning Culture (includ...
Benefits and Limitations <ul><li>Paradigmatic shift: learner’s standpoint: Is it meaningful to the learner? </li></ul><ul>...
Statement for discussion <ul><li>The well-known shift from teaching to learning hasn’t come that far. Research about eLear...
References <ul><li>Barre, K;  Greb, U; Hoops, W; Grell, P (2008): Innovationsbereitschaft unter Praxisdruck. In: Berufs- u...
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Investigate E-Learning with Subject-Scientific Learning Theory. Benefits and Limitations

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Investigate E-Learning with Subject-Scientific Learning Theory. Benefits and Limitations

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Petra Grell
  2. 2. Doing (qualitative) social research … The research process Theoretical Paradigms and Perspectives The Researcher as a Multicultural Subject The Art, Practices and Politics of Interpretation and Presentation Methods of Data Collection and Analysis Research Strategies
  3. 3. <ul><li>… is not only about asking questions, it’s about making decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting the relationship between theory and research topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing a certain perspective (and reflecting its limitations) </li></ul></ul>Doing (qualitative) social research …
  4. 4. <ul><li>What is meant to be a (relevant) part of the phenomenon depends on the theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The learning objects and their meaning to the learner? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The learner’s interests in his/her life? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is learning a predictable outcome of a teaching process? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is learning an independent and non-predictable process? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Implicit assumptions and their implications to the results. </li></ul>Reflecting the relationship between theory and research topic
  5. 5. <ul><li>Results depend on the perspective you choose for a research </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capturing the individual’s point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describing the social world/everyday life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rich descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth-Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Triangulation or: reflection of limitations </li></ul>Choosing a certain perspective
  6. 6. Subject-scientific learning theory (1) <ul><li>Subject’s standpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-scientific learning theory (Holzkamp) focuses on the learners, especially their fundamental reasons to learn in close connection to their capacity to act. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning always occurs if the subject encounters obstacles or resistance in carrying out his normal activities.” (Holzkamp 2004, p. 29, translated by: A. Grotlüschen 2005) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Subject-scientific learning theory (2) <ul><li>Holzkamp criticizes the prevalent idea that learning is initiated by a third party. (If something is taught, learning emerges.) </li></ul><ul><li>Holzkamp calls this the “teaching-learning short circuit”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Subject-scientific learning theory (3) <ul><li>Core concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive learning “If I learn defensively, I only do so because I see a threat to my existing world and can react in no other way than by learning.” (Grotlüschen 2005 p. 16) “to prevent teachers from imposing punish-ments, to satisfy them, i.e. to demonstrate or even give a semblance of learning’” (Holzkamp, 2004, p. 30) . </li></ul><ul><li>Expansive learning Enlarging useful capacities/abilities to overcome significant obstacles and to act and participate in my world. (It’s based on action problems.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Differences <ul><li>Learner‘s standpoint </li></ul><ul><li>No teaching-learning short circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive learning </li></ul><ul><li>Expansive learning </li></ul><ul><li>Observer’s standpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Research on teaching tools, communication tools, cooperation tools </li></ul><ul><li>No awareness for the topic of learning and its meaning to the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-scientific learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalent eLearning Research </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Curriculum > </li></ul><ul><li>> Teaching environment > </li></ul><ul><li>> Tasks and topics are given to learners (learners have to be motivated to get involved) > </li></ul><ul><li>> Learning is supposed to emerge > </li></ul><ul><li>> Tools to facilitate teaching or communication or cooperation > </li></ul><ul><li>> Testing the learning outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Person > </li></ul><ul><li>> encounters obstacles in carrying out his normal activities > </li></ul><ul><li>> if it’s significant and can’t be solved he/she starts a learning loop > </li></ul><ul><li>> expansive learning to enlarge abilities to act and participate </li></ul><ul><li>(or defensive learning to ward off a threat) </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-scientific learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalent eLearning Research </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research with subject-scientific learning theory on eLearning - New Learning Culture <ul><li>A. Grotlüschen (2002) Resisting to learn with eLearning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eLearning in continuing vocational training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P. Grell (2005) Resisting to learn in a new learning culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research workshop on learning, adult education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2008) Resisting to implement a new learning culture </li></ul>
  12. 12. Expansive Learning? <ul><li>Learners resist to be fitted into a (“self-regulated”) teaching environment and to learn the given topics. Their decision to resist is meaningful from their subjective viewpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>One type of acting: to show more or less opponent behavior against teachers, who are able to impose sanctions, and to learn significant subjects from each other in hidden spaces. (Grell 2005) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Grell <ul><li>Grotlüschen 200X </li></ul>New Learning Culture (including eLearning)
  14. 14. Grell 2005 „ Learners have a lot of problems. They are rude” „ Teachers are incompetent and not respectful“ New Learning Culture (including eLearning)
  15. 15. Grell 2008 „ Researches / Experts can’t help us …” „ Teacher have problems to understand …” New Learning Culture (including eLearning)
  16. 16. Benefits and Limitations <ul><li>Paradigmatic shift: learner’s standpoint: Is it meaningful to the learner? </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the whole and complex phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>One perspective (no triangulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on intended learning, no incidental learning </li></ul><ul><li>Far-reaching consequences for any planning of teaching </li></ul>
  17. 17. Statement for discussion <ul><li>The well-known shift from teaching to learning hasn’t come that far. Research about eLearning isn’t focused on the learner and his/her interests. </li></ul><ul><li>eLearning with no focus on the learner’s learning interests leads to (non-effective) defensive learning. </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Barre, K; Greb, U; Hoops, W; Grell, P (2008): Innovationsbereitschaft unter Praxisdruck. In: Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik Online Bwpat Spezial 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Denzin, N; Lincoln, Y (Eds) (2000): Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second Edition. Sage Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Faulstich, P; Ludwig, J (Eds.) (2004): Expansives Lernen. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Hohengehren. </li></ul><ul><li>Flick, U (1995): Stationen des qualitativen Forschungsprozesses. In: Flick, U. et al (Eds.): Handbuch qualitative Sozialforschung. 2.nd Ed. Weinheim. p. 147–173. </li></ul><ul><li>Grell, P (2005) Forschende Lernwerkstatt. Münster: Waxmann. </li></ul><ul><li>Grotlüschen, A (2002): Widerständiges im Web. Virtuell selbstbestimmt? Münster: Waxmann. </li></ul><ul><li>Grotlüschen, A (2005): Expansive Learning. Benefits and limitations of subject-scientific learning theory. In European Journal Vocational Training III/2005, Nr. 36/, S. 15-20. </li></ul><ul><li>Holzkamp, K (1993): Lernen. Subjektwissenschaftliche Grundlegung. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Holzkamp, K (2004): Wider den Lehr-Lern-Kurzschluß. Interview. Erschienen in Faulstich/Ludwig 2004, p. 29-38. </li></ul>[email_address] Prof. Dr. Petra Grell

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