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Digital und interaktiv in der Hochschuldidaktik – internationale Perspektiven

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Vortrag auf der E-Learning-Fachtagung am
02. Dezember an der Hochschule Darmstadt

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Digital und interaktiv in der Hochschuldidaktik – internationale Perspektiven

  1. 1. Digital und interaktiv in der Hochschuldidaktik – internationale Perspektiven Vortrag auf der E-Learning-Fachtagung am 02. Dezember an der Hochschule Darmstadt 02.12.2013| Fachbereich Humanwissenschaften| Institut für Allgemeine Pädagogik und Berufspädagogik | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell
  2. 2. Faszination/Hype: MOOC „Nothing has more potential to lift more people out of poverty (...). Nothing has more potential to unlock a billion more brains to solve the world’s biggest problems. And nothing has more potential to enable us to reimagine higher education than the massive open online course, or MOOC, platforms“ (Thomas Friedman, New York https://moocfellowship.org Times, Jan 26, 2013)
  3. 3. http://de.slideshare.net/SHofhues/vielspuk-um-moocs
  4. 4. Faszination/Hype: OER „The potential for open educational resources (OER) to transform the global educational landscape is immense. OER have emerged as one of the most powerful resources to transverse the global education landscape (along with the World Wide Web and the Internet) in the past century.“ (Olcott 2012, p. 283) Don Olcott Jr. (2012) OER perspectives: emerging issues for universities, Distance Education, 33:2, 283-290, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2012.700561; OER Global Logo CC by Jonathas Mello
  5. 5. OER Aktivitäten – OECD Country Questionnaire „Thus, only one country out of 28 does not expect OER issues to be a policy priority in the near future.“ (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 9) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  6. 6. OER Aktivitäten – OECD Country Questionnaire „Germany has raised a number of fundamental objections to the idea of OER.“ „Germany was the only country who responded that the OER issue is not expected to become a policy priority in the near future. (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 7 & p.9) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  7. 7. OER – Möglichkeiten (OECD Country Questionnaire 2012) „There are technological, economic, social, and legal drivers behind the expansion of the OER movement. (...) But, most importantly, there is a strong sense in different parts of the educational community that OER offers a major opportunity to promote the notion of sharing knowledge as a public good.“ (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 18) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  8. 8. OER Vorteile – OECD Country Questionnaire 2012 •  Open and flexible learning opportunities •  Increased efficiency and quality of learning resources •  Cost-efficiency of OER •  The innovative potential of OER •  Systemic transformative capacity (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 18f.) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  9. 9. Verschenktes Potenzial: Materialvielfalt nutzen „However, despite the rhetoric about new social and participatory media generally and OER specifically, the reality is that their uptake and reuse in formal educational contexts has been disappointing. “ (Conole 2012, p. 131) Gráinne Conole (2012) Fostering social inclusion through open educational resources (OER), Distance Education, 33:2, 131-134, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2012.700563
  10. 10. Wer profitiert? „Furthermore, the ever increasing technologically rich learning environment in which today’s learners and teachers are immersed is raising issues in terms of social exclusion; the technological divide might be narrower but it is deeper – those not connected or not using these new technologies are being left behind at an alarming rate.“ (Conole 2012, p. 131) Gráinne Conole (2012) Fostering social inclusion through open educational resources (OER), Distance Education, 33:2, 131-134, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2012.700563
  11. 11. Bereitstellen digitaler Inhalte „Germany has raised a number of fundamental objections to the idea of OER. They question whether a lack of digital content prevents learning, particularly in the case of people with low qualifications, and whether well-educated people will benefit the most from OER.“ (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 7) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  12. 12. Bildungsschere „As with participation in adult learning more generally, educational Internet use was structured by age, occupational class and educational engagement.” (Patrick White & Neil Selwyn 2012) Patrick White & Neil Selwyn (2012) Learning online? Educational Internet use and participation in adult learning, 2002 to 2010, Educational Review, 64:4, 451-469
  13. 13. „Digital Natives“ http://www.zhw.uni-hamburg.de/uploads/schulmeister_net-generation_v3.pdf
  14. 14. ARD/ZDF-Onlinestudie Wert über 90%
  15. 15. Jugendliche: Wege der Internetnutzung in den letzten 14 Tagen 73 49 Handy/Smartphone 29 13 87 96 99 99 Computer/Laptop 0 20 Medienpädagogischer Forschungsverband Südwest: Basisstudie zum Medienumgang 12- bis 19-Jähriger Medienpädagogischer Forschungsverband Südwest: Basisstudie zum Medienumgang 12- bis 19-Jähriger 40 60 80 2013 2012 2011 2010 100 JIM-Studie 2012. Jugend, Information, (Multi-)Media in Deutschland. Stuttgart 2012. JIM-Studie 2013. Jugend, Information, (Multi-)Media in Deutschland. Stuttgart 2013. S. 30 15
  16. 16. ARD / ZDF Onlinestudie 2013 „Für zwei von drei jungen Menschen gehört „always on“ zum Alltag.“ (Eimeren 2013, S. 389)
  17. 17. Mobil Online 2009 bis 2013
  18. 18. Internetzugang via ... 2013
  19. 19. „Digital Natives“ JIM-Studie 2013, S. 54, http://www.mpfs.de/fileadmin/JIM-pdf13/JIMStudie2013.pdf
  20. 20. „Digital Natives“ http://www.zhw.uni-hamburg.de/uploads/schulmeister_net-generation_v3.pdf
  21. 21. Faszination/Hype: Web 2.0 Kreis, bunt mit Zacken: http://infos.mediaquell.com/files/2010/09/conversation_by_topgold.jpg Kreis, bunt und Netz: http://www.nextgenerationseo.de/2011/warum-social-media/ Kreis, bunt mit Linse: http://www.projektwerk.com/en/blog/tag/social-media/page/2
  22. 22. How Technology is Making Doctor-Patient Communication Easier, 2012 The Social Media Guide to Growing Your Personal Learning Network, 2012 “Current social software allows users to communicate, collaborate and publish in a number of ways, in a variety of media, and it also helps learners act together to build knowledge bases that fit their specific needs.” (Owen et al., 2006: 28) Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. & Facer, K. (2006). Social software and learning. Futurelab, HAL, 1, 1-36. Bild: http://www.onlinecollege.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/The-Social-Media-Guide-to-Growing-Your-Personal-Learning-Network.png Bild: http://www.careerealism.com/technology-communication-doctor-patient/ Faszination/Hype: Web 2.0
  23. 23. •  Klassische Rezeption •  Eins-zu-eins-Kommunikation •  Streuen und Remixen •  Lebensweltbezogene Artikulation •  Online-Kooperation http://www.flickr.com/photos/bibgirona/6799895064 |http://wirreworte.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/ kontakt-dosentelefon.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/hertzen/6587817621 (bearb. 3x) | http:// www.youtube.com/HerrTutorial (2011) | http://de.wikipedia.org/ Social Web … wie nutzbar
  24. 24. Anwendungen & Einsatzmöglichkeiten Blogs Basis für Reflexionen Microblogs Pointierte Denkanstöße Social Bookmarking Kooperative Form der Recherche Wikis Gemeinsames Strukturieren von Texten Sharing-Plattformen Feedback einer «authentic audience» Social Communities Gruppen bilden
  25. 25. Anwendungen & Einsatzmöglichkeiten Blogs •  Schriftliche Darstellungen schaffen eine Basis für Reflexionen und Rückmeldungen •  Wechselseitiges Kommentieren baut PeerNetzwerke zur aktiven Wissensgenerierung auf •  Hinaustreten aus dem universitären Schonraum und Hineinwirken in die «echte Welt» Wikis •  Gemeinsames Arbeiten an Ideen und gemeinsames Strukturieren von Texten, Materialien und Quellen (Wechselspiel von individueller Arbeit und Arbeit in Gruppen) •  Einüben des kooperativen Schreibens (z.B. in Form von Wikibooks) •  Gestaltung einer Umgebung für qualitatives Peer Feedback
  26. 26. Anwendungen & Einsatzmöglichkeiten Microblogs Sharing-Plattformen •  Pointierte Hinweise und Rückmeldungen, die konkrete Denkanstöße geben •  Initiieren ergänzender Diskussionen im virtuellen Raum •  Einem Experten/ einer Expertin folgen, um Netzwerkverbindungen aufzubauen •  «Sharing» von Material – Nutzung bestehender Materialien •  Kommentieren von Materialien zu Lehrveranstaltungen •  Einstellen eigener Präsentationen, um Feedback von einer «authentic audience» zu erhalten
  27. 27. Anwendungen & Einsatzmöglichkeiten Social Bookmarking •  Kooperative Form der Recherche •  Annotieren und Kommentieren der Quellen •  Identifizieren von Personen und Gruppen, die ähnliche Interessen verfolgen u.v.a. •  „Sharing“ von Material •  Kooperation •  Lerngemeinschaften / Communities bilden •  Wissenskonstruktion •  Wechselseitiges Kommentieren •  „authentic audience“, Heraustreten aus dem Schonraum
  28. 28. Mediendidaktik & Lerntheorien Situiertes Lernen –  Komplexe Ausgangsprobleme –  Authentizität und Situiertheit –  Multiple Perspektiven –  Artikulation und Reflexion –  Lernen im sozialen Austausch Konstruktivismus Konnektivismus Communities of Practice Subjektwissenschaft Pragmatismus –  Erfahrung –  Bezug zur Lebenswelt –  Temporaler Perspektivenwechsel –  Lernende Gemeinschaft
  29. 29. Anhäufung von … Keine Bildrechte! Fotos at the Chinese pavillion at 70th Biennale Venice 2013 Copyright by the artist und eine Vernachlässigung •  der Didaktik •  der bildenden Begegnung
  30. 30. Partizipationsmöglichkeiten entstehen –  Inhaltlich mitbestimmen –  Die eigene Perspektive einbringen „Sharing“ in einer lebendigen Community –  Über den Tellerrand Kritisches Denken und Reflexivität –  Aktive (Re-)Strukturierungen
  31. 31. Sichtung + Analyse (Grell & Rau 2010,2011) Drei internat. Zeitschriften, Jg. 2008, 2009, 2010 -  Computer & Education -  The Internet and Higher Education -  Future Internet (Open Access Journal) Digital Library der “Association for Computing as a Science and Profession” (ACM) 2008, 2009, 2010 Zwei Tagungsbände: GMW 2009, DeLFI 2009 11 Keywords:„social software“, „Web 2.0“, „wiki“, „blog“, „microblog“, „eportfolio“, „collaborative learning“, „blogging“, „peer feedback“ or „learning communities“ 105 Texte Drei Kriterien Empirische Basis (Fallstudie, Evaluation etc.) Im Rahmen von Hochschule Verbunden mit einer Lehrveranstaltung 16 Texte
  32. 32. Blogs Anderson & Lin (2009) Bonk et al. (2009) Cole (2009) Ebner et al. (2010) Ebner & Maurer (2009) Ehlers, Adelsberger & Teschler (2009) Halic et al. (2010) Hermann & Janzen (2009) Meyer (2010) Öner (2009) Requena-Carrión et al. (2009) Safran (2008) Sarkar (2009) Wheeler (2009) Xiao & Lucking (2008) Xie, Ke & Sharma (2008) Microblogs Wikis
  33. 33. Anderson & Lin (2009) Bonk et al. (2009) Cole (2009) Ebner et al. (2010) Ebner & Maurer (2009) [3] Cole M. (2009). Using Wiki technology to support student engagement: Lessons from the trenches. Computers & Education. 52(1), 141-146. Ehlers, Adelsberger & Teschler (2009) Halic et al. (2010) Hermann & Janzen (2009) Meyer (2010) Öner (2009) Requena-Carrión et al. (2009) Safran (2008) Sarkar (2009) Wheeler (2009) Xiao & Lucking (2008) Xie, Ke & Sharma (2008) [16] Xie, Y., Ke, F., & Sharma, P. (2008) The effect of peer feedback for blogging on college students' reflective learning processes. The Internet and Higher Education. 11(1), 18-25.
  34. 34. Bild: Flickr by crankypressman
  35. 35. Xiao, Y., & Lucking R. (2008). The impact of two types of peer assessment on students’ performance and satisfaction within a Wiki environment. The Internet and Higher Education. 11(3-4), 186-193. Sarkar, S. (2009). Wiki-enhanced social scribing of lectures: a case study in an undergraduate course. In Proceedings of the 39th IEEE international Conference on Frontiers in Education Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1408-1413.
  36. 36. I „Although the volume of posts increased due to the obligatory use of the application, students appeared to be ‘playing the game’ rather than using the tool for their own purposes” (Ebner et al. 2010: 97) “In effect, transformation at the highest level, wherein students become a collaborative community generating and evaluating each other's ideas and altering their own perspectives or viewpoints, typically did not occur.” (Bonk et al. 2009: 132) Bonk, C. J, Lee, M. M., Kim, N., & Lin, M.-F. G. (2009). The tensions of transformation in three crossinstitutional wikibook projects. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(3-4), 126-135. Ebner, M., Lienhardt, C., Rohs, M., & Meyer, I. (2010) Microblogs in Higher Education - A chance to facilitate informal and process-oriented learning?. Computers & Education. 55(1), 92-100. Bild: Flickr by hurstville1
  37. 37. Partizipation ist mehr als Aktivieren oder Aufgaben erfüllen Partizipation setzt ein Interesse an Partizipation voraus Hochgesteckte Partizipationserwartungen – Mikrokosmos Hochschullehre
  38. 38. „Gemeinschaft“ der Lehrenden und Lernenden? Informationen austauschen, neu mischen und weitergeben Zusammen an etwas arbeiten (Text, digitales Objekt, Dokumentation) Beziehungen/Netzwerke knüpfen und pflegen
  39. 39. Fazit Wir können die widersprüchlichen Anforderungen und Erwartungen im Hochschulkontext nicht „didaktisch auflösen“. –  Institutionelle Rahmung (Funktionalisierung) –  Wissenschaft versus PraxisHandlungskonzept-Erwartungen –  Zweckoptimiertes Prüfung-Bestehen vs. Erkenntnisgewinn –  Kollaboration vs. Individuelle Leistungsbewertung
  40. 40. Fazit Digitale Bildungsräume in der Hochschule können einige grundlegende didaktische Probleme transparenter/sichtbarer machen. Realitätsangemessene Konzepte für Bildungsräume (und begleitende Fallstudien),für Räume, die Bildung ermöglichen wollen. Ausbalancieren der Interessen der Studierenden und der Lehrenden aus der Fachdisziplin heraus.
  41. 41. p.grell@apaed.tu-darmstadt.de Bild: Flickr by crystaljingsr
  42. 42. Literatur Anderson, N., & Lin, C., (2009). Exploring technologies for building collaborative learning communities among diverse student populations. In Proceedings of the 14th Annual ACM SIGCSE Conference on innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education. NY: ACM, 243-247. Bonk, C. J, Lee, M. M., Kim, N., & Lin, M.-F. G. (2009). The tensions of transformation in three cross-institutional wikibook projects. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(3-4), 126-135. Cole M. (2009). Using Wiki technology to support student engagement: Lessons from the trenches. Computers & Education. 52(1), 141-146. Ebner M., & Maurer H. (2009). Can Weblogs and Microblogs Change Traditional Scientific Writing?. Future Internet. 1(1), 47-58. Ebner, M., Lienhardt, C., Rohs, M., & Meyer, I. (2010) Microblogs in Higher Education - A chance to facilitate informal and processoriented learning?. Computers & Education. 55(1), 92-100. Ehlers, U.-D., Adelsberger, H.H., & Teschler, S. (2009). Reflexion im Netz: Auf dem Weg zur Employability im Studium. In N. Apostolopoulos, H. Hoffmann, V. Mansmann & A. Schwill (Hrsg.), ELearning 2009. Lernen im digitalen Zeitalter. Münster: Waxmann Verlag, 15-29. Grell, P., Rau, F. (2010). Participation under compulsion. In: International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (i-JET) Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 26-30. [Online zugänglich: http://online-journals.org/i-jet/article/view/1458] Grell, P., Rau, F. (2011). Partizipationslücken. Social Software in der Hochschullehre. In: MedienPädagogik. Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung. Themenheft 21. Halic, O., Lee, D., Paulus T., & Spence Marsha (2010). To blog or not to blog: Student perceptions of blog effectiveness for learning in a college-level course. The Internet and Higher Education, In Press, ISSN 1096-7516, DOI: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.04.001. Hermann, C. & Janzen, A. (2009). Electures-Wiki – Aktive Nutzung von Vorlesungsaufzeichnungen. In A. Schwill & N. Apostolopoulos (Hrsg.), Lernen im Digitalen Zeitalter. DeLFI 2009 – Die 7. ELearning Fachtagung Informatik. Bonn: Köllen Druck+Verlag GmbH, 127-138. [JIM 2011] Medienpädagogischer Forschungsverbund Südwest (2011): Jugend, Information, (Multi-)Media. Basisstudie zur Medienumgang 12- bis 19J-ähriger in Deutschland. Stuttgart. Meyer, K.A. (2010). A comparison of Web 2.0 tools in a doctoral course. The Internet and Higher Education, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 11 February 2010, ISSN 1096-7516, DOI: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.02.002. Öner, D. (2009). Pre-service teachers' experiences with Wiki: challenges of asynchronous collaboration. In Proceedings of the 5th international Symposium on Wikis and Open. WikiSym ‘09. New York, NY: ACM, 1-2. Requena-Carrión, J., Rodríguez-González, A. B., Marques, A. G., and Gutiérrez-Pérez, D. (2009). Work in progress - implantation of a collaborative student-centered learning environment in a wireless technology course. In Proceedings of the 39th IEEE international Conference on Frontiers in Education Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 918-919. Safran, C. (2008). Blogging in higher education programming lectures: an empirical study. In Proceedings of the 12th international Conference on Entertainment and Media in the Ubiquitous. New York, NY: ACM, 131-135. Sarkar, S. (2009). Wiki-enhanced social scribing of lectures: a case study in an undergraduate course. In Proceedings of the 39th IEEE international Conference on Frontiers in Education Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1408-1413. Wheeler S (2009). Learning Space Mashups: Combining Web 2.0 Tools to Create Collaborative and Reflective Learning Spaces. Future Internet. 1(1), 3-13. Xiao, Y., & Lucking R. (2008). The impact of two types of peer assessment on students’ performance and satisfaction within a Wiki environment. The Internet and Higher Education. 11(3-4), 186-193. Xie, Y., Ke, F., & Sharma, P. (2008) The effect of peer feedback for blogging on college students' reflective learning processes. The Internet and Higher Education. 11(1), 18-25. Bilder (CC-Lizenzen) „Attention“: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hurstville1/3732218078/ „Kalender“:http://www.flickr.com/photos/crankypressman/ 4013143056/ „Fragezeichen“: http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/ 914729343/
  43. 43. [1] Anderson, N., & Lin, C., (2009). Exploring technologies for building collaborative learning communities among diverse student populations [2] Bonk, C. J, Lee, M. M., Kim, N., & Lin, M.-F. G. (2009). The tensions of transformation in three crossinstitutional wikibook projects. [3] Cole M. (2009). Using Wiki technology to support student engagement: Lessons from the trenches [4] Ebner M., & Maurer H. (2009). Can Weblogs and Microblogs Change Traditional Scientific Writing [5] Ebner, M., Lienhardt, C., Rohs, M., & Meyer, I. (2010) Microblogs in Higher Education - A chance to facilitate informal and process-oriented learning [6] Ehlers, U.-D., Adelsberger, H.H., & Teschler, S. (2009). Reflexion im Netz: Auf dem Weg zur Employability im Studium. [7] Halic, O., Lee, D., Paulus T., & Spence Marsha (2010). To blog or not to blog: Student perceptions of blog effectiveness for learning in a college-level course. [8] Hermann, C. & Janzen, A. (2009). Electures-Wiki – Aktive Nutzung von Vorlesungs-aufzeichnungen [9] Meyer, K.A. (2010). A comparison of Web 2.0 tools in a doctoral course. [10] Öner, D. (2009). Pre-service teachers' experiences with Wiki: challenges of asynchronous collaboration [11] Requena-Carrión, J., Rodríguez-González, A. B., Marques, A. G., and Gutiérrez-Pérez, D. (2009). Work in progress - implantation of a collaborative student-centered learning environment in a wireless technology course [12] Safran, C. (2008). Blogging in higher education programming lectures: an empirical study. [13] Sarkar, S. (2009). Wiki-enhanced social scribing of lectures: a case study in an undergraduate course. [14] Wheeler S (2009). Learning Space Mashups: Combining Web 2.0 Tools to Create Collaborative and Reflective Learning Spaces. [15] Xiao, Y., & Lucking R. (2008). The impact of two types of peer assessment on students’ performance and satisfaction within a Wiki environment. [16] Xie, Y., Ke, F., & Sharma, P. (2008) The effect of peer feedback for blogging on college students' reflective learning processes.
  44. 44. Knox’s Kritik an OER 1.  An under-theorisation of the notions of ‘openness’ and ‘freedom’ 2.  The rejection and privileging of institutional structure 3.  No place for pedagogy 4.  Assumptions of autonomy and self-direction 5.  Alignment with the needs of capital (theoretical framework: Foucault’s governmetality) Knox, J. (2013) : Five critiques of the open educational resources movement, In: Teaching in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2013.774354

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