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Bildung für Alle? OER und MOOC Initiativen im internationalen Vergleich.

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Keynote auf dem Fachforum E-Learning: Bildung für Alle? Offene Lernressourcen an Hochschulen.
Darmstadt 19.03.2013

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Bildung für Alle? OER und MOOC Initiativen im internationalen Vergleich.

  1. 1. 19.03.2014 | Fachbereich Humanwissenschaften | Allgemeine Pädagogik und Medienpädagogik | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 1 OER und MOOC-Initiativen im internationalen Vergleich Keynote auf dem Fachforum E-Learning: Bildung für Alle? Offene Lernressourcen an Hochschulen. Darmstadt 19.03.2013 FotoStuttgarterStadtbibliothekFlickrCC-by-nc-saSchub@
  2. 2. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 2 OER and their impact … „The potential for open educational resources (OER) to transform the global educational landscape is immense. OER have emerged as one of the most powerful resources to transverse the global education landscape (along with the World Wide Web and the Internet) in the past century.“ (Olcott 2012, p. 283) Don Olcott Jr. (2012) OER perspectives: emerging issues for universities, Distance Education, 33:2, 283-290, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2012.700561; OER Global Logo CC by Jonathas Mello
  3. 3. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 3 OER Aktivitäten – OECD Country Questionnaire „Thus, only one country out of 28 does not expect OER issues to be a policy priority in the near future.“ (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 9) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  4. 4. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 4 OER Aktivitäten – OECD Country Questionnaire „Germany has raised a number of fundamental objections to the idea of OER.“ „Germany was the only country who responded that the OER issue is not expected to become a policy priority in the near future. (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 7 & p.9) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  5. 5. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 5 OER – Opportunities (OECD Country Questionnaire 2012) „There are technological, economic, social, and legal drivers behind the expansion of the OER movement. (...) But, most importantly, there is a strong sense in different parts of the educational community that OER offers a major opportunity to promote the notion of sharing knowledge as a public good.“ (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 18) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  6. 6. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 6 OER Benefits – OECD Country Questionnaire 2012 (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 12f.) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en •  Open and flexible learning opportunities •  Increased efficiency and quality of learning resources •  Cost-efficiency of OER •  The innovative potential of OER •  Systemic transformative capacity (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 18f.) „Countries attach a high importance to the cited benefits of OER. OER offers open and flexible learning opportunities. Almost equally appreciated is the cost efficiency of OER as well as the possibility of increased quality in learning resources and the increased flexibility that OER can offer.“ (Hylén et al 2012, p. 16)
  7. 7. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 7 OER Benefits – OECD Country Questionnaire 2012 •  Open and flexible learning opportunities •  Increased efficiency and quality of learning resources •  Cost-efficiency of OER •  The innovative potential of OER •  Systemic transformative capacity (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 18f.) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en o  Offenheit und flexible Lernmöglichkeiten o  Verbesserte Effizienz und Qualität der Lernressourcen o  Kosteneinsparung o  Innovatives Potenzial o  Transformative Kraft
  8. 8. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 8 OER Benefits – OECD Country Questionnaire 2012 •  Open and flexible learning opportunities •  Increased efficiency and quality of learning resources •  Cost-efficiency of OER •  The innovative potential of OER •  Systemic transformative capacity (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 18f.) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en o  Offenheit und flexible Lernmöglichkeiten o  Verbesserte Effizienz und Qualität der Lernressourcen o  Kosteneinsparung o  Innovatives Potenzial o  Transformative Kraft 1990 ... E-Learning Versprechungen: „Jederzeit und überall lernen!“ „E-Learning spart Zeit und Geld!“ „E-Learning ermöglicht effizientes Lernen“ „E-Learning steigert den Lernerfolg!“
  9. 9. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 9 Gesellschaft für Medien in der Wissenschaft(GMW)(D-A-CH) 2010 – GMW signs Cape Town Open Education Declaration 2008 – GMW signs Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities Publishing hybrid: Books are sold, Online (pdf) open/gratis
  10. 10. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 10 Debate on OER – “Sorry, you do not have access to this article.“
  11. 11. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 11 „Authors are responsible for making or arranging the payment themselves but they can rely on institutions and funders who take on the fees in various ways: ...“ http://www.springer.com/open+access/open+access+funding?SGWID=0-1759613-0-0-0
  12. 12. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 12 Eine Recherche im internationalen Kontext Search Everything: “OER” AND “higher education” >> 593 Results Publication Date: From: Jan/2012 To: Dez/2013 >> 44 Results
  13. 13. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 13 Uptake and reuse in formal contexts „However, despite the rhetoric about new social and participatory media generally and OER specifically, the reality is that their uptake and reuse in formal educational contexts has been disappointing. “ (Conole 2012, p. 131) Gráinne Conole (2012) Fostering social inclusion through open educational resources (OER), Distance Education, 33:2, 131-134, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2012.700563
  14. 14. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 14 Wer profitiert? „Furthermore, the ever increasing technologically rich learning environment in which today’s learners and teachers are immersed is raising issues in terms of social exclusion; the technological divide might be narrower but it is deeper – those not connected or not using these new technologies are being left behind at an alarming rate.“ (Conole 2012, p. 131) Gráinne Conole (2012) Fostering social inclusion through open educational resources (OER), Distance Education, 33:2, 131-134, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2012.700563
  15. 15. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 15 Bereitstellen digitaler Inhalte „Germany has raised a number of fundamental objections to the idea of OER. They question whether a lack of digital content prevents learning, particularly in the case of people with low qualifications, and whether well- educated people will benefit the most from OER.“ (Hylén et al. 2012, p. 7) Hylén, J. et al. (2012), “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k990rjhvtlv-en
  16. 16. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 16 Bildungsschere „As with participation in adult learning more generally, educational Internet use was structured by age, occupational class and educational engagement.” (Patrick White & Neil Selwyn 2012) Patrick White & Neil Selwyn (2012) Learning online? Educational Internet use and participation in adult learning, 2002 to 2010, Educational Review, 64:4, 451-469
  17. 17. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 17 Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) https://moocfellowship.org „Nothing has more potential to lift more people out of poverty (...). Nothing has more potential to unlock a billion more brains to solve the world’s biggest problems. And nothing has more potential to enable us to reimagine higher education than the massive open online course, or MOOC, platforms“ (Thomas Friedman, New York Times, Jan 26, 2013)
  18. 18. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 18 http://de.slideshare.net/SHofhues/viel-spuk-um-moocs http://de.slideshare.net/jrobes/moocs-in-der- hochschullehre-hintergrnde-klrungen-und-ausblicke-auf- einen-neuen-elearning-trend
  19. 19. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 19 Schulmeister 2012, 2013 Schulmeister, R. (Hrsg.): MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses. Offene Bildung oder Geschäftsmodell? Münster 2013. Online: http://www.waxmann.com/fileadmin/media/zusatztexte/2960Volltext.pdf
  20. 20. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 20 Schulmeister 2012, 2013 Schulmeister, R. (Hrsg.): MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses. Offene Bildung oder Geschäftsmodell? Münster 2013. Online: http://www.waxmann.com/fileadmin/media/zusatztexte/2960Volltext.pdf „Nach den ständigen Klagen über die Massenvorlesungen in den Universitäten sind die MOOCs eine freche Kampfansage an die Hochschullehre“ (S. 10)
  21. 21. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 21 Schulmeister 2012, 2013 Schulmeister, R. (Hrsg.): MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses. Offene Bildung oder Geschäftsmodell? Münster 2013. Online: http://www.waxmann.com/fileadmin/media/zusatztexte/2960Volltext.pdf „MOOCs sind weder moderne Lehre, noch folgen sie einem aktuellen lerntheoretischen Ansatz, sie sind didaktisch antiquiert und sie sind nicht einmal gutes E-Learning. Das technisch-didaktische Modell der MOOCs ist so simpel, dass jeder E-Learning-Profi es als altmodische Massensendung bezeichnen müsste, als Broadcast-Methode, denn im Grunde wird die Entwicklung des Radios oder Fernsehens wiederholt mit der Variation, die durch den computerunterstützten Unterricht eingeführt wurde, angereichert durch das automatische Feedback per Multiple-Choice. “ (S. 37) •  hohe Abbrecherquoten •  keine seriösen Prüfungsmodelle •  Geschäftsmodell
  22. 22. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 22 Teilnehmer/innen Hochqualifizierte Teilnehmende Hohe Abbruchquote Schulmeister, R. (Hrsg.): MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses. Offene Bildung oder Geschäftsmodell? Münster 2013. Online: http://www.waxmann.com/fileadmin/media/zusatztexte/2960Volltext.pdf Belanger, Y. & Thornton, J. (Duke University) (2012): http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/ 10161/6216/Duke_Bioelectricity_MOOC_Fall2012.pdf 0,5% 11.000 1.000 2,4%
  23. 23. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 23 LMU München aktiv auf coursera https://www.coursera.org/lmu
  24. 24. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 24 OpenLearnWare – TU Darmstadt
  25. 25. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 25 OpenLearnWare – TU Darmstadt
  26. 26. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 26 OpenLearnWare – TU Darmstadt
  27. 27. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 27 http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu
  28. 28. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 28 Creating OER – Collaboration of 250 people Martin Ebner & Schön Sandra (2013, Hrsg.). Lehrbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologien. 2. Aufl. Berlin: epubli URL:http://l3t.eu. http://l3t.eu/homepage/das-buch/ebook-2013
  29. 29. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 29 Creating OER – Collaboration of 250 people Martin Ebner & Schön Sandra (2013, Hrsg.). Lehrbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologien. Berlin: epubli URL:http://l3t.eu. Reviewer – Reader/Editor – Illustrator – Art Editor – Co-Worker – Supporter Authors
  30. 30. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 30 TU Graz (Austria) http://oer.tugraz.at/index.php/Hauptseite
  31. 31. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 31 Schoolbook http://www.schulbuch-o-mat.de
  32. 32. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 32 Critiques „The critiques outlined in this paper are motivated by a concern for the ways in which learners are being framed by the promotion of OER.“ (Knox 2013, p. 2) Knox, J. (2013) : Five critiques of the open educational resources movement, In: Teaching in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2013.774354
  33. 33. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 33 Knox’s Critiques on OER 1.  An under-theorisation of the notions of ‘openness’ and ‘freedom’ [Offenheit und Freiheit werden theoriearm gefasst] 2.  The rejection and privileging of institutional structure [Ablehnung und Beibehaltung institutioneller Strukturen] 3.  No place for pedagogy [Pädagogik hat dort nichts zu suchen] 4.  Assumptions of autonomy and self-direction [Annahmen über Autonomie und Selbstbestimmung] 5.  Alignment with the needs of capital (theoretical framework: Foucault’s governmentality) Knox, J. (2013) : Five critiques of the open educational resources movement, In: Teaching in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2013.774354
  34. 34. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 34 So many perspectives … The didactic and instructional questions of OER in the field of Higher Education, based on a growing amount of accessible academic perspectives and instructional material, tend to be neglected. Fotos at the Chinese pavillion at 70th Biennale Venice 2013 Copyright by the artist Keine Bildrechte Keine Bildrechte
  35. 35. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 35 Technik-geprägte Überhöhungen stoßen gelegentlich eingefahrene Debatten über das Lehren und Lernen in Institutionen an. Insofern ... FotoFlickrCC-by-nc-sarandomcuriosity
  36. 36. 19.03.2014 | Faculty of Human Sciences | General Education & Media Education | Prof. Dr. Petra Grell | 36 p.grell@apaed.tu-darmstadt.de

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