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FOCUS ON GENDER – What gambling
research could learn from gender
studies?
International Gambling Conference 2016, Auckland...
Introduction
• Gambling is usually represented as a male activity – women’s
absence from the gambling scene has been expla...
• The study of gender has expanded: nowadays it includes both
women’s and men’s issues (Connell, Hearn & Kimmel 2005;
Järv...
Content of presentation
Introduction
1.Gender in gambling studies: Concepts and conceptions
2.Stories of life: How to disc...
1. Gender in gambling studies
• Gender differences: men and women play different games;
men are action gamblers and women ...
• Gender blind gambling research (Svensson 2013): “A gender
analysis of gambling sensitizes us to the specifically
gendere...
2. Stories of life
• Qualitative studies use interviews, diaries and other narratives
to examine gambling practices and pr...
”Gambling addiction is my main issue, because I am a single
mother and our household depends on my income. I have other
pr...
• ”I have been playing on slot machines since high school. I
have spent so much money in gambling. (…) I have tried
differ...
• ”Every autobiographer discusses and reproduces her or his
self in relation to others; the important point is how the oth...
3. Gendered challenges
• Multiple masculinities: “How we understand men and gender,
what we believe about masculinity, wha...
• Sociocultural pathways to gambling:
a) “Of particular concern was the normalisation and intergenerational
transference o...
4. Preventive measures
• Equality on legislative level: Women and men should be treated
equally without any kind of positi...
• Responsibility: Gambling policies and public health measures
should be responsible. Good causes cannot justify gambling
...
Conclusion
• Gambling studies could include different standpoints and methods from
gender studies
• Research on gendered r...
THANK YOU!
12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 16
References
Beadle, C.F. (2009) Gender-Swapping in Online Gaming Situations. In Phillips, D.K. & Wilson, V.A. (Eds.) Gambli...
• Lesieur, H.R. & Blume,S. (1991) When Lady Luck Loses: Women and Compulsive Gambling. In Van Den Bergh,
N. (Ed.) Feminist...
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FOCUS ON GENDER – What gambling research could learn from gender studies

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Presented at the 6th International Gambling Conference in February 2016.

Presented by Johanna Järvinen Tassopoulos

Published in: Education
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FOCUS ON GENDER – What gambling research could learn from gender studies

  1. 1. FOCUS ON GENDER – What gambling research could learn from gender studies? International Gambling Conference 2016, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos
  2. 2. Introduction • Gambling is usually represented as a male activity – women’s absence from the gambling scene has been explained by social and cultural reasons (Holdsworth et al. 2012; Dhillon 2015; Hing & Breen 2001) • The concept of ‘gender differences’ was introduced in gambling studies in the late 1980s – they indicated that men and women play different games, male and female gamblers express different gambling motivations, and the development of gambling problems is a different process for men and women (Custer & Milt 1985; Hraba & Lee 1996) • Since the 1990s, more and more researchers have focused on women’s gambling and problem gambling – female gamblers are not invisible anymore (e.g. Lesieur & Blume 1991; Mark & Lesieur 1992) • The number of studies on counseling and treatment of female problem gamblers is increasing (e.g. Karter 2013) 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 2
  3. 3. • The study of gender has expanded: nowadays it includes both women’s and men’s issues (Connell, Hearn & Kimmel 2005; Järviluoma et al. 2003) • The social constructionist approach defines gender as a social, cultural and political construction (e.g. Svensson 2013) • 1) How the categories of men and women/masculinity and femininity are socially constructed? 2) What are the mechanisms that maintain or challenge prevailing gender system? 3) How is power negotiated in gender constructions? (Järviluoma et al. 2003) • Narratives of problem gamblers can help us to find answers to these questions, but they can also help us to understand the impact of problem gambling on life in general • The more we know about problem gamblers’ lives, the better we can prevent gambling related harms 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 3
  4. 4. Content of presentation Introduction 1.Gender in gambling studies: Concepts and conceptions 2.Stories of life: How to discover gender-related topics from problem gamblers’ narratives? 3.Gendered challenges: Multiple identities and different roles 4.Preventive measures: Is it possible to integrate a gender perspective in prevention? Conclusion References 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 4
  5. 5. 1. Gender in gambling studies • Gender differences: men and women play different games; men are action gamblers and women are escape gamblers; women start gambling later in life than men • Feminist critique of problem gambling research (Mark & Lesieur 1992): most of the research was made on male subjects, gender was not discussed, and gender-related findings were not reported • Feminization of gambling and problem gambling: more women started to gamble and more women suffered from gambling problems; (online) gambling operators are targeting women and women’s gambling participation will increase (Volberg 2003; Griffiths 2011; Karter 2013) 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 5
  6. 6. • Gender blind gambling research (Svensson 2013): “A gender analysis of gambling sensitizes us to the specifically gendered representations and how these are of valued in gambling sites and behaviors. For instance, perhaps some sectors of gambling are masculinized, that is, spaces where ‘masculine’ behavior or men is being promoted, rewarded and which will consequently attract more men than women.” • Gender-neutral forms of online gambling (Griffiths 2011): women prefer to gamble online rather than in a betting shop or casino • Gender-swapping (Beadle 2009): the concept refers to men using a female persona and to women assuming a masculine identity while playing online 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 6
  7. 7. 2. Stories of life • Qualitative studies use interviews, diaries and other narratives to examine gambling practices and problem gambling among men and women • ”A text about life, whether we call it a life story or an autobiography or some other name, always refers to a life lived, to gendered life events and to a gendered bodily subject, producing a narrative of that life.” (Järviluoma et al. 2003, 46) • “Research underpinned by a constructivist epistemology seeks to produce knowledge and understandings on the multifaceted meanings that are constructed around the experiences of, in this case, gamblers (or former gamblers) and their gambling practices.” (Thomas et al. 2011, 6) 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 7
  8. 8. ”Gambling addiction is my main issue, because I am a single mother and our household depends on my income. I have other problems as well, such as compulsions, and I have suffered from depression and overeating. I have overcome drug and alcohol abuse. I was sober for many years, but I have been drinking a little again during the past year. My brother has a severe drinking problem: he has been told that if he doesn’t stop drinking, he will not live for very long. My father drinks, but not as heavily as my brother. My mother tried to commit suicide, because she could not cope with those two anymore. I am tired. I am not totally down and out anymore, because we have a flat, I went to study and now I have a job. I hope that I am ok as a mother.” (E109, Female, age group 31 to 40 years) 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 8
  9. 9. • ”I have been playing on slot machines since high school. I have spent so much money in gambling. (…) I have tried different ways to stop gambling, but after a little while I gamble again. I would like to save money for the future. I live with my girlfriend and I would like to save for an apartment. I have a steady job and I cannot save a penny despite my salary! I am young and I have my whole life ahead of me. (…) When I go to the supermarket or in a café my thoughts turn to the slot machines even though I am with my girlfriend and my friend. I guess that my father has a bigger problem with slot machines, but we have not talked about it. Father does not gamble when he is with me. But I know that he can play large sums of money in the slot machines when it is his payday.” (E6, Male, age group 21 to 30 years) 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 9
  10. 10. • ”Every autobiographer discusses and reproduces her or his self in relation to others; the important point is how the others are represented, what role they play in the narrative and what the nature of the relationships between the narrated self and the represented others is. Gender cannot be considered as a stable and given element of autobiography. It is always produced in the acts of reading and interpreting.” (Järviluoma et al. 2003, 57) 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 10
  11. 11. 3. Gendered challenges • Multiple masculinities: “How we understand men and gender, what we believe about masculinity, what we know (or think we know) about the development of boys, may have large effects – for good or ill – in therapy, education, health services, violence prevention, policing, and social services.” (Connell 2000, 4-5) • Femininities of drinking: “We concentrate on examining femininities of drinking suggesting that the increase of female drinking has diversified the worlds of drinking and intoxication and generated splits within the masculine drinking tradition.” (Simonen et al. 2013, 2) 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 11
  12. 12. • Sociocultural pathways to gambling: a) “Of particular concern was the normalisation and intergenerational transference of gambling evident in the women’s stories, aided by the chances of obtaining much needed money for household and cultural obligations.” (Morrison & Wilson 2015) b) “Most of the participants reported exposure to gambling either during childhood or prior to personal involvement, through observation of their parents (Father, Mother or both) or extended family participating in various forms of gambling.” (Perese & Faleafa 2000) c) “Moreover, little prior experience in participating in legalized, freely available gambling and adjustment difficulties render Chinese migrants more vulnerable to developing gambling problems.” (Wong & Tse 2003) 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 12
  13. 13. 4. Preventive measures • Equality on legislative level: Women and men should be treated equally without any kind of positive or negative form of discrimination • Prevention of intergenerational development of addiction: Families with problems related to substance abuse and/or gambling should be prioritized in health care and social services in order to prevent the development of drinking or gambling problems among boys and girls • Social security: Societies should take care of its members in precarious social and financial situation (e.g. single parenthood, domestic violence, immigration, debts, unemployment). Poverty, poor health and living in underprivileged conditions lead to inequality among men and women 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 13
  14. 14. • Responsibility: Gambling policies and public health measures should be responsible. Good causes cannot justify gambling operation if availability and accessibility of games are not well regulated • Empowerment: Experiences of discrimination and practices of exclusion should be taken seriously: healthy and equal social networks are paramount for individual and communal wellbeing 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 14
  15. 15. Conclusion • Gambling studies could include different standpoints and methods from gender studies • Research on gendered roles and practices and their impact on gambling behavior is still scarce (Casey 2008; Holdsworth et al. 2012; Svensson 2013) • Qualitative studies could examine a) the pathways to gambling and problem gambling as a form cultural socialization, b) the masculine and feminine identities represented by gamblers and problem gamblers, and c) emphasize narratives of life events, situations and experiences • Future research is needed on the diversity of men and masculinities, and gambling-related femininities • Preventive measures do not have to be gender-neutral: prevention should target vulnerable populations (i.e. youth, women, elderly people, minorities), but also those men and women who may suffer from gambling-related difficulties at some point of their life 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 15
  16. 16. THANK YOU! 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 16
  17. 17. References Beadle, C.F. (2009) Gender-Swapping in Online Gaming Situations. In Phillips, D.K. & Wilson, V.A. (Eds.) Gambling and Gender. Men and Women at Play. New York: Peter Lang, 61-68. Casey, E. (2008) Women, Pleasure and the Gambling Experience. Ashgate. Connell, R.W. (2000) The Men and the Boys. Berkeley: University of California Press. Connell, R.W. & Hearn, J. & Kimmel, M.S. (2005) Introduction. In Kimmel, M.S. & Hearn, J. & Connell, R.W. (Eds.) Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: SAGE Publications, 1-12. Custer, R. & Milt, H. (1985) When luck runs out. New York: Facts on Files Publications. Dhillon, J. (2015) Women and gambling. In Bowden-Jones, H. & George, S. (Eds.) A Clinician’s Guide to Working with Problem Gamblers. London & New York: Routledge, 172-181. Griffiths, M. (2011) Technological trends and the psychosocial impact on gambling. Casino & Gaming International, 77-80. Hing, N. & Breen, H. (2001) Profiling lady luck: an empirical study of gambling and problem gambling amongst female club members. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(1), 47-69. Holdsworth, L. & Hing, N. & Breen, H. (2012) Exploring women’s problem gambling: a review of the literature. International Gambling Studies 12(2), 199-213. Hraba & Lee (1996) Gender, gambling and problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies 12, 83-101. Järviluoma, H. & Moisala, P. & Vilkko, A. (2003) Gender and Qualitative Methods. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGE Publications. Karter, L. (2013) Women and Problem Gambling. Therapeutic insights into understanding addiction and treatment. London & New York: Routledge 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 17
  18. 18. • Lesieur, H.R. & Blume,S. (1991) When Lady Luck Loses: Women and Compulsive Gambling. In Van Den Bergh, N. (Ed.) Feminist Perspectives on Addictions. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 181-197. • Mark, M.E. & Lesieur, H. R. (1992) A feminist critique of problem gambling research. British Journal of Addiction 87, 549-565. • Morrison, L. & Wilson, D. (2015) A Family Affair: Indigenous Women’s Gambling Journey. International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction 13, 435-446. • Perese, L. & Faleafa, M. (2000) The Impact of Gamling on Some Samoan Peoples’ Lives. The Compulsive Gambling Society in New Zealand. • Simonen, J. & Törrönen, J. & Tigerstedt, Christoffer (2013) Femininities of drinking among Finnish and Swedish women of different age. Addiction Research and Theory. • Svensson, J. (2013) Gambling and gender: A public health perspective. Doctoral thesis. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. • Thomas, S.L.& Lewis, S. & McLeod, C. & Haycock, J. (2011) ‘They are working every angle’. A qualitative study of Australian adults’ attitudes towards, and interactions with, gambling industry marketing strategies. International Gambling Studies, iFirst article, 1-17. • Volberg, R. (2003) Has there been a “feminization” of gambling and problem gambling in the United States? Journal of Gambling Issues, 8. • Wong, J. & Tse, S. (2003) The face of Chinese migrants’ gambling: A perspective from New Zealand. Journal of Gambling Issues, 9. 12.2.2016 Dr. Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos 18

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