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Thinking like a hacker - Introducing Hacker Vision

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This webinar will explain how to improve Security by adopting the mindset of your opponent, and 'seeing like a hacker'!

Main points covered:

• Introducing ways in which you can think like a hacker, and get into your attacker's mindset so that you can better identify and assess threats.
• How to use this thinking to improve your security controls - how effective are they? And how can you better test them for readiness?
• Visual examples to really lift the lid on what your attackers see, as 'hacker vision' gets you thinking in the mindset of a hacker.
• Examples covered will include physical security, Network security, as well as IoT security.

Presenter:

Our exclusive presenter, Mark Carney is a former pen tester and now a professional security researcher for Security Research Labs in Berlin, specializing in embedded systems and IoT. His background spans compliance testing, Red Teaming, full stack pen testing, and social engineering & physical access engagements.

Link to the recorded webinar: https://youtu.be/Fx2Ha8kIqgE

Published in: Technology
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Thinking like a hacker - Introducing Hacker Vision

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Summary 2  Security faults are common across different technologies  To preempt these common issues, it is most effective to view systems from an attacker’s point of view  An attacker’s view point leads to better informed security decisions than a checklist approach since knowing about common hacking methods prunes the design space to the most effective security controls  Developing an attacker’s perspective involves threat modeling and keeping up-to-date with hacking knowledge  This presentation provides both a framework for reasoning about effective security and plenty of hacking examples of everyday technology
  3. 3. Agenda and overview 3 1. Introduction 2. ‘Hacker Vision’: Seeing like your potential attacker 3. Examples – visual intuition pumps − Physical examples − Network examples − IoT examples 4. Conclusions
  4. 4. The ‘OODA’ Loop 4  Situational Awareness generated from sensor data  Analysis of inputs such as: – Endpoint detection – Log analysis – Previous actions  What is the best action to execute? – Do you apply restrictions? – Maybe you monitor further? – Perhaps begin deep analysis?  How is this best done?  Analyze the input data and apply filters to go from data to knowledge  Produce action plans  Order these by effectiveness  Decide on success/fail criteria – how will you measure this?  Execute the action  Take note of outcome: – Success/Fail?  Output of actions to be input for next loop The OODA loop is a model for decision making that originated from within the USAF for training fighter pilots. Its relevance to security is well known, and we will begin by summarizing it here:
  5. 5. Common approaches to security (High Level) 5  Do not read their pentest reports Security Assessment Risk Management Security Awareness Things people do right What people get wrong  ‘Ostrich’ approach to Assessment Outcomes – Missing Patches – Ignoring configuration advice – Assessments do not translate to meaningful action  ‘Fortress Mentality’ – ‘Building higher walls is the best’ – No thought towards ‘detection in depth’ to complement ‘defense in depth’  Lack of incident support – Blaming users over seeing an opportunity to improve procedures – Not taking the opportunities to empower users to help and act  Read their pentest reports  Regular assessments – Penetration tests – Code reviews – Readiness assessments  Consider their Threat model – Risk assessment – Attack surface identification and threat management – The ‘OODA Loop’  Good security awareness – Developer awareness – NoC/SoC readiness – End-User awareness – CSIRT/CERT with adequate powers and procedures Pentest Reports
  6. 6. Agenda 1. Introduction 2. ‘Hacker Vision’ 3. Examples 4. Conclusions 6
  7. 7. Overview of de Bono’s ‘Six Thinking Hats’ describing six modalities used in critical thinking 7 Red Hat - Emotions  Intuitive or instinctive ‘gut reactions’  Statements of emotional feeling White Hat - Information  What are the facts?  Considering purely what information is available Yellow Hat - Optimism  Logic applied to identifying benefits & seeking harmony  Sees the bright/sunny side of a situation Green Hat - Creativity  Statements of provocation and investigation  Following instinct on an idea  Creative, ‘out of the box’ thinking Black Hat - Discernment  Logic applied to identifying reasons to be cautious and conservative  Practical, realistic approach Blue Hat – Managing  What is the subject?  What are we thinking about?  What is the goal?  Look at the big picture Security design should optimally adopt adversarial thinking. A useful framework for such critical thinking is de Bono’s Thinking Hats method:
  8. 8. Introducing ‘Hacker Vision’ – developing the idea of a ‘Security Hat’ 8 ‘Features’ as tools  Determine what features are of interest to an attacker, e.g. – User functionality e.g. search – Admin functionality – Developer functionality  As questions around this – E.g. can a ‘password reset’ functionality be abused arbitrarily? Repurposing technology  Can your product’s purpose be changed?  Can the product be maliciously monetized?  Ask questions relating to the shift of your products to some other use, e.g. – Can a product be used as a Bitcoin miner? How about a Botnet node? – Can an API function be used to abuse integrity, confidentiality or availability? Control Bypass  Identify potential opportunities for control bypass  Ask questions relating to the readiness of such controls, e.g. – How hard is that padlock to lockpick? – How secure are your users’ passwords? – Are we doing 2FA correctly? – How do you define and enforce trust? Monitoring and Notification  In addition to assessing the coverage of your protection, assess how well your notification works  Question more about time-to-notice an attack, e.g. – If someone disabled a door lock, how long would it take for you to notice? – What if someone added a DA acct? Core Idea – Pursuing the adversarial view involves asking a number of questions:
  9. 9. Relevance of Hacker Vision in multiple fields of security within an organization 9 Attack Surface Threat Modelling Assessments Maintenance Greater visibility of a defender’s security posture by adopting a more pointed adversarial assessment view  Exposes data about weaknesses in an attack surface  Demonstrates to a defender how effective currently active controls are  Shows a defender how to better rank identified threats  Demonstrates what controls may be more appropriate  Allows better definition of security assessments  Allows a defender to relativize assessment results – Can see what is an immediate vs. longer term concern  Exposes where improvements can be made – In SDLC, patch management, incident response and management, etc. Benefits
  10. 10. Agenda and overview 10 1. Introduction 2. ‘Hacker Vision’: Seeing like your potential attacker 3. Examples – visual intuition pumps − Physical examples − Network examples − IoT Examples 4. Conclusions
  11. 11. Trivial Example 11
  12. 12. Is there anything wrong with this padlock? 12
  13. 13. Padlock Evaluation – How easy is it to pick? In this case, very easy 13 Easily picked  Making use of a simple, custom tool  See YouTube video:
  14. 14. 14 Would you trust this SmartLock?
  15. 15. The Bluetooth SmartLocks are easily reverse engineered and hacked 15 Smarth Locks use a basic BLE management protocol  The communications over BLE between the lock and a smartphone are easily intercepted and reverse engineered  Admin functionality (e.g. changing passcodes) was conducted in the clear  See Anthony Rose and Ben Ramsay‘s DEFCON 24 slides:
  16. 16. What is the issue with this door? 16
  17. 17. Common magnetic lock installation errors 17 Magnetic Lock  On Keypad side of door meaning an attacker has access to the locking mechanism  Can interfere with lock wiring or even removal of the restrictive parts of lock  Disassembly on the left shows the potential for abuse – The central nut can be removed to dislodge the magnetic plate from the mounting bracket – The lower cover can be removed to essentially unscrew the mounting bracket from the door – The wiring can be accessed meaning power can be cut from the electromagnet  Additionally, worn keypads can also be a source of information about a lock – See Bruce Schneier‘s blog:
  18. 18. Agenda and overview 18 1. Introduction 2. ‘Hacker Vision’: Seeing like your potential attacker 3. Examples – visual intuition pumps − Physical examples − Network examples − IoT examples 4. Conclusions
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. Messy wiring and unattended USB ports – would you spot a LANTurtle? 20 Messy wiring  Would you notice a malicious network implant?
  21. 21. Further examples – Malicious USB devices: DigiSpark and BadUSB 21 DigiSpark – a small, inexpensive Arduino-like microcontroller capable of emulating USB devices such as keyboards and mice. Can be used for malicious injection of scripts by posing as a USB keyboard, but capable of typing at great speed. BadUSB - An ingenious attack devised by SRLabs researchers Karsten Nohl and Jakob Lell. The essence of this attack is to repurpose a standard, off-the-shelf USB flash drive to become a malicious network device, hijacking the victim’s network traffic.
  22. 22. Malicious ‘Sub-Domain’ pivot and exploitation methodology via a Pass-the-Hash attack 22 ‘Sub-Domain’ for your attacker  If one client gets compromised, so are all the others – Attackers will use a ‘Pass the Hash’ attack to exploit other clients Common Local Admin (LA) Password  Functionally, LA is no different from Domain Admin or Enterprise Admin  Can do the same actions on client machines; the difference is their scope Attacker C3 C1 C5 C2 C4 Domain Admin logged in on C3 Attacker then compromises C3 to get DA Auth Token (for a token impersonation attack) LA Password 1 LA Password 2
  23. 23. Agenda and overview 23 1. Introduction 2. ‘Hacker Vision’: Seeing like your potential attacker 3. Examples – visual intuition pumps − Physical examples − Network examples − IoT examples 4. Conclusions
  24. 24. 24 Can you trust your IP Cameras?
  25. 25. IP Cameras and IoT devices may pose more of a threat than may first be apparent 25 Small Linux Servers  Tend to run very out of date software  Badly maintained by both device and component (SoC/uC) manufacturers  Cloud services – exposed and vulnerable to various attacks – https://srlabs.de/bites/cloud- cameras/  Mirai – botnet spread by weak telnet credentials  Nov 2016 TR-069 exploit – permitted spread of malware to vulnerable D- Link routers
  26. 26. Agenda 1. Introduction 2. ‘Hacker Vision’ 3. Examples 4. Conclusions 26
  27. 27. Conclusions 27 Better secured productsSeeing through ‘Hacker Vision’  Improve your awareness of gaps in your endpoint protection  Adopt a dynamic adversarial mindset and apply it to your security  Keep up to date with hacking trends, knowledge, and research  Improve your assessment criteria by means of this knowledge  Identify where the ‘low hanging fruit’ is for your threat model  Gives better coverage of your endpoint attack surface  Reveals things that are lax, or not fit for purpose  Shows what fixes will be effective in situ  Can shine a light on what is working well  Better assessment planning and security awareness in a team …but it is no substitute for appropriate, professional security assessments and well thought out security planning!
  28. 28. SRLabs Template v12 ISO 27032 Training Courses  ISO/IEC 27032 Introduction 1 Day Course  ISO/IEC 27032 Foundation 2 Days Course  ISO/IEC 27032 Lead Implementer 5 Days Course  ISO/IEC 27032 Lead Auditor 5 Days Course Exam and certification fees are included in the training price. https://www.pecb.com/iso-iec-27032-training-courses| www.pecb.com/events
  29. 29. SRLabs Template v12 THANK YOU ? mark@srlabs.de https://srlabs.de/ https://www.linkedin.com/in/mark-carney-5849163b/ +44 7906 634725 Questions?

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