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PECB Webinar: Occupational Health and Safety application in the Oil & Gas sector

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The webinar covers:
• Definition of the source or situation that presents potential harm;
• Undesired event increasing numbers of deaths, ill health, injury, damage or loss;
• Auditing systematic examination to determine whether activities and related results conform to planned arrangements.

Presenter:
This webinar was presented by Tawfik Soukieh, Managing Director of Global Experience Consulting Company and PECB Certified Trainer.

Link of the recorded session published on YouTube: https://youtu.be/Kadi8nX31kM

Published in: Education
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PECB Webinar: Occupational Health and Safety application in the Oil & Gas sector

  1. 1. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 1 of 7008 Dec 201508 Dec 2015
  2. 2. OHSAS 18001:OHSAS 18001: 20072007 Occupational Health and SafetyOccupational Health and Safety Management Systems Application inManagement Systems Application in the Oil & Gas sectorthe Oil & Gas sector Presented To:Presented To: PECB AudiencePECB Audience Presented by :Presented by : Mohammed Tawfik Soukieh L.A.Mohammed Tawfik Soukieh L.A. Global Experience Consulting CompanyGlobal Experience Consulting Company
  3. 3. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 3 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 ObjectivesObjectives  To ensure participants know:To ensure participants know:  Hazard : Source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the workplace environment, or a combination of these.  Accident : Undesired event giving rise to death, ill health, injury, damage or loss.  Audit : Systematic examination to determine whether activities and related results conform to planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are  implemented effectively and are suitable for achieving the organization’s policy and objectives  Continual Improvement : Process of enhancing the OH&S Management System, to achieve improvements in overall occupational health and safety performances, in line with the organization’s OH&S policy in the Oil & Gas Sector.
  4. 4. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 4 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 InstructorInstructor Self-IntroductionSelf-Introduction
  5. 5. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 5 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Webinar Purpose:Webinar Purpose: To identify and discuss the need for, and benefits of, implementing an internationally-recognized OH&S Management System in the Oil & Gas sector.
  6. 6. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 6 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 “The first duty of business is to survive, and the guiding principle of business economics is not the maximisation of profit - it is the Peter Drucker
  7. 7. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 7 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Costs of AccidentCosts of Accident Accidents have cost someAccidents have cost some organizations as much as 37% oforganizations as much as 37% of their annual profit and 5% of thetheir annual profit and 5% of the running cost.running cost. Institution of Occupation Safety & Health (UK)Institution of Occupation Safety & Health (UK)
  8. 8. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 8 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Major DisastersMajor Disasters  Bhopal, India (1984)Bhopal, India (1984)  Seveso, Italy (1976)Seveso, Italy (1976)  Spyros, Singapore (1978)Spyros, Singapore (1978) • Piper Alpha, England (1988)Piper Alpha, England (1988)  Flixborough, England (1974)Flixborough, England (1974)  Texas City, United States (1947)Texas City, United States (1947)
  9. 9. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 9 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 How did OH&S MS EvolveHow did OH&S MS Evolve  OH&S management was originally driven by injury history.OH&S management was originally driven by injury history.  Workers and Labor Organizations lobbied for legislation toWorkers and Labor Organizations lobbied for legislation to protect workersprotect workers  Progressive Companies lobbied for legislation to protectProgressive Companies lobbied for legislation to protect workers and to keep a “level playing field.”workers and to keep a “level playing field.”  Legislation imposing compensation costs on employers inLegislation imposing compensation costs on employers in the early 1900’s put the necessary financial drivers inthe early 1900’s put the necessary financial drivers in place.place.
  10. 10. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 10 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 BackgroundBackground  A 1969 study of occupational accidents by theA 1969 study of occupational accidents by the Insurance Company of North America, led byInsurance Company of North America, led by Frank E. Bird Jr., Director of EngineeringFrank E. Bird Jr., Director of Engineering Services:Services: – Studied 1,753, 498 accidents at 297 organizations,Studied 1,753, 498 accidents at 297 organizations, all in different types of occupational establishments;all in different types of occupational establishments; – Covered 1,750,000 employees working more than 3Covered 1,750,000 employees working more than 3 billion hours over the period; andbillion hours over the period; and – Resulted in the widely known 1-10-30-600 accidentResulted in the widely known 1-10-30-600 accident ratio study.ratio study.
  11. 11. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 11 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Background – Accident Ratio StudyBackground – Accident Ratio Study 1 10 30 600 SERIOUS OR MAJOR INJURY - including disabling and serious injuries MINOR INJURY - any reported injury less than serious PROPERTY DAMAGE ACCIDENTS - all types INCIDENTS WITH NO VISIBLE INJURY OR DAMAGE - near accidents or close calls
  12. 12. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 12 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Major AccidentMajor Accident  Major Accidents not only cost youMajor Accidents not only cost you millions of dollars, delay in production butmillions of dollars, delay in production but also loss of reputation and affect the moralealso loss of reputation and affect the morale of the workforce.of the workforce.  Such accidents can be prevented orSuch accidents can be prevented or minimized with commitment andminimized with commitment and implementation of a management system.implementation of a management system.
  13. 13. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 13 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Development of OHSDevelopment of OHS ManagementManagement  Only a physical problemOnly a physical problem  Staff functionStaff function  Responsibility of safety professionalsResponsibility of safety professionals  Safety is “no accidents”Safety is “no accidents”  Prevention of human sufferingPrevention of human suffering From ...
  14. 14. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 14 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 1993 BSI started developing BS 87501993 BSI started developing BS 8750 SpecificationSpecification 1996 BS 8800 Guidelines published1996 BS 8800 Guidelines published 1996 ISO OH&S MS Workshop1996 ISO OH&S MS Workshop 1997 AENOR proposal to CEN - Not1997 AENOR proposal to CEN - Not approvedapproved 1997 NNI NPR 5001 Guidelines published1997 NNI NPR 5001 Guidelines published 1999 ISO/TMB decision on OH&S MS work1999 ISO/TMB decision on OH&S MS work Background to OH&S SystemBackground to OH&S System StandardisationStandardisation
  15. 15. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 15 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015  SGS Yarsley InternationalSGS Yarsley International Certification ServicesCertification Services  NSAI - IrelandNSAI - Ireland  SABS - South AfricaSABS - South Africa  BSI - UKBSI - UK  AENOR - SpainAENOR - Spain  SIRM QAS - MalaysiaSIRM QAS - Malaysia  SFS Certification - FinlandSFS Certification - Finland  Lloyds Register QualityLloyds Register Quality AssuranceAssurance OHSAS 18001 ParticipantsOHSAS 18001 Participants  National Quality AssuranceNational Quality Assurance  International SafetyInternational Safety Management Organisation LtdManagement Organisation Ltd  International CertificationInternational Certification ServicesServices  Bureau Veritas QualityBureau Veritas Quality InternationalInternational  Det Norske VeritasDet Norske Veritas
  16. 16. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 16 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Fatalities and Major AccidentsFatalities and Major Accidents Group Major Accidents Fatalities Employee Sector 28,207 206 Self Employed 801 55 Public at or near work 27,790 395* TOTAL 56,798 656 *377 of these were in the service sector Home & Leisure Fatalities (for the UK) 3,945 (at work 679) ROAD 3,740 (plus 69 from other transport
  17. 17. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 17 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 OHS ManagementOHS Management SystemsSystems  Statistics (ROSPA - UK)Statistics (ROSPA - UK) – 1.6 million workplace injuries pa; 2.2 million cases of ill1.6 million workplace injuries pa; 2.2 million cases of ill health caused or made worse by work; 30 million workinghealth caused or made worse by work; 30 million working days a year are lost.days a year are lost. – 70 per cent of workplace accidents preventable if70 per cent of workplace accidents preventable if employers put proper safety control measures in place.employers put proper safety control measures in place. – only 40% of major workplace accidents reported.only 40% of major workplace accidents reported. – maximum penalties for breaching OHS legislation aremaximum penalties for breaching OHS legislation are unlimited fines and up to two years in prison.unlimited fines and up to two years in prison. StatisticsStatistics (ROSPA - UK)(ROSPA - UK) – the rate of fatal and major injuries in firms employing fewerthe rate of fatal and major injuries in firms employing fewer than 50 employees is over twice the rate in firmsthan 50 employees is over twice the rate in firms employing more than 1000 people.employing more than 1000 people. – car and van drivers who cover 25,000 miles a year as partcar and van drivers who cover 25,000 miles a year as part of their job have the same risk of being killed at work asof their job have the same risk of being killed at work as coal miners.coal miners.
  18. 18. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 18 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 1.1. ScopeScope 2.2. Reference publicationsReference publications 3.3. Terms and definitionsTerms and definitions 4.4. OH&S managementOH&S management system elementssystem elements 4.14.1 General requirementsGeneral requirements 4.24.2 OH&S policyOH&S policy 4.34.3 PlanningPlanning 4.44.4 Implementation and operationImplementation and operation 4.54.5 Checking and correctiveChecking and corrective actionaction 4.64.6 Management reviewManagement review OHSAS 18001 -OHSAS 18001 - Main clause titlesMain clause titles
  19. 19. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 19 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 11ScopeScope Applicable to organisations that wish to:Applicable to organisations that wish to: -- establish an OH&S MS to eliminate or minimise risk the employeesestablish an OH&S MS to eliminate or minimise risk the employees exposed to risk;exposed to risk; - implement, maintain and continually improve OH&S MS;- implement, maintain and continually improve OH&S MS; - assure itself of its conformance with its stated OH&S policy;- assure itself of its conformance with its stated OH&S policy; - demonstrate such conformance to others;- demonstrate such conformance to others; - seek certification/registration of its OH&S MS by an external- seek certification/registration of its OH&S MS by an external organisation.organisation. 2.2. Reference publicationsReference publications 3.3. Terms and definitionsTerms and definitions
  20. 20. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 20 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 The OHSAS 18001The OHSAS 18001 Specification is intended to:Specification is intended to: Address occupational health and safetyAddress occupational health and safety rather than product and service safetyrather than product and service safety
  21. 21. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 21 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 4.3.1 Planning for hazard Identification,4.3.1 Planning for hazard Identification, risk assessment & risk controlrisk assessment & risk control Procedure for identification of hazards,Procedure for identification of hazards, risk assessment & risk control forrisk assessment & risk control for routine & non-routine activities, allroutine & non-routine activities, all personnel having access to workplacepersonnel having access to workplace and all facilities at workplace.and all facilities at workplace. Results used for setting objectives,Results used for setting objectives, risk control measures, inputs torisk control measures, inputs to training and monitoring.training and monitoring.
  22. 22. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 22 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 4.3.1 Planning for Hazard Identification, Risk4.3.1 Planning for Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk ControlAssessment and Risk Control  The organizationThe organization shallshall establish andestablish and maintain procedures formaintain procedures for – thethe ongoingongoing identification of hazards,identification of hazards, – the assessment of risks, andthe assessment of risks, and – the implementation of necessary controls.the implementation of necessary controls. Elements of OHSAS 18001Elements of OHSAS 18001
  23. 23. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 23 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015  These shall include:These shall include: – routine and non-routine activities;routine and non-routine activities; – activities of all personnel having access to theactivities of all personnel having access to the workplace (including subcontractors and visitors);workplace (including subcontractors and visitors); – facilitiesfacilities at the workplace, whether provided by theat the workplace, whether provided by the organization or others.organization or others. NoteNote: The Funk and Wagnalls Dictionaries defines: The Funk and Wagnalls Dictionaries defines “facility” as “something that makes an action or“facility” as “something that makes an action or operation easier.”operation easier.” (i.e. from hand tools to rented scissor lifts)(i.e. from hand tools to rented scissor lifts) Elements of OHSAS 18001Elements of OHSAS 18001 (4.3.1)(4.3.1)
  24. 24. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 24 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015  The organization's methodology for hazard identificationThe organization's methodology for hazard identification and risk assessment shall:and risk assessment shall: – be defined with respect to its scope, nature andbe defined with respect to its scope, nature and timing to ensure it istiming to ensure it is proactiveproactive rather thanrather than reactivereactive;; – Provide for the classification of risks andProvide for the classification of risks and identification of those that are to beidentification of those that are to be eliminatedeliminated oror controlledcontrolled by measures as defined in 4.3.3 & 4.3.4;by measures as defined in 4.3.3 & 4.3.4; – be consistent with operating experience and thebe consistent with operating experience and the capabilities of risk control measures employed;capabilities of risk control measures employed; Elements of OHSAS 18001Elements of OHSAS 18001 (4.3.1)(4.3.1)
  25. 25. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 25 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015  ... shall provide input into:... shall provide input into: – the determination of facility requirements,the determination of facility requirements, – the identification of training needs and/orthe identification of training needs and/or – the development of operational controls;the development of operational controls;  ... shall:... shall: – provide for the monitoring of required actions andprovide for the monitoring of required actions and ensure the effectiveness and timeliness of theirensure the effectiveness and timeliness of their implementation.implementation.  The organization shall keep this information up-to-date.The organization shall keep this information up-to-date. Elements of OHSAS 18001Elements of OHSAS 18001 (4.3.1)(4.3.1)
  26. 26. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 26 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 4.3.1 Planning for hazard identification,4.3.1 Planning for hazard identification, risk assessment & risk controlrisk assessment & risk control Intent:Intent:  The basis of the entire OH&S management system.The basis of the entire OH&S management system.  Address normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions.Address normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions. Typical input:Typical input:  OH&S policy, legal & other, accident & incident records,OH&S policy, legal & other, accident & incident records, NCR’s, audit results, employee & other communication;NCR’s, audit results, employee & other communication; activities, facilities, industry best practices, etc…activities, facilities, industry best practices, etc… Typical output:Typical output:  Hazard & risk “registry,” JSA’s, checklists, trainedHazard & risk “registry,” JSA’s, checklists, trained workers, and other hazard & risk I.D. tools; requirementsworkers, and other hazard & risk I.D. tools; requirements for training and competency, control, monitoring,for training and competency, control, monitoring, records; OH&S objectives for risk reduction.records; OH&S objectives for risk reduction.
  27. 27. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 27 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazard CategoriesHazard Categories  Hazards may be classified into theseHazards may be classified into these categories:categories: – Physical Hazards;Physical Hazards; – Chemical Hazards;Chemical Hazards; – Biological and Botanical Hazards;Biological and Botanical Hazards; – Ergonomic Hazards;Ergonomic Hazards; – Psychological; andPsychological; and – Psychosocial Hazards;Psychosocial Hazards;
  28. 28. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 28 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazard (3.4 OHSAS 18001)- definitionHazard (3.4 OHSAS 18001)- definition  Source or situation with a potential for harm…;Source or situation with a potential for harm…; Potential Harm / Impacts of Hazards:Potential Harm / Impacts of Hazards:  InjuryInjury – Temporary or permanent physical damage;Temporary or permanent physical damage; – Critical injuries;Critical injuries; – Death;Death;  Ill healthIll health – Diseases, disorders, death;Diseases, disorders, death;
  29. 29. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 29 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Potential Harm / Impacts of HazardsPotential Harm / Impacts of Hazards (cont’d):(cont’d):  Damage to property such as:Damage to property such as: – Fires, explosions;Fires, explosions; – Contamination & damage from spills;Contamination & damage from spills;  Damage to workplace environment such as:Damage to workplace environment such as: – Poor air quality;Poor air quality; – High noise levels;High noise levels; – Vibration;Vibration;
  30. 30. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 30 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Physical HazardsPhysical Hazards
  31. 31. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 31 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Physical Hazards:Physical Hazards:  Generally sources of electrical, mechanical, light, or heatGenerally sources of electrical, mechanical, light, or heat energy;energy;  Can cause injury, damage to nerves, blood vessels, andCan cause injury, damage to nerves, blood vessels, and other physiological functionsother physiological functions  Can cause deathCan cause death  Refer to Module 5A for detailsRefer to Module 5A for details
  32. 32. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 32 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Chemical HazardsChemical Hazards
  33. 33. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 33 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Chemical Hazards:Chemical Hazards:  Solids, liquids, gases, dusts, fibres, fumes, (vapour)Solids, liquids, gases, dusts, fibres, fumes, (vapour) aerosols, which may be:aerosols, which may be: – Corrosive, Flammable, Oxidizing, Toxic, Reactive /Corrosive, Flammable, Oxidizing, Toxic, Reactive / Explosive;Explosive;  May be “designated substances” such as:May be “designated substances” such as: – Asbestos, benzene, isocyanates, etc…Asbestos, benzene, isocyanates, etc…  Chemical Allergies may occur such as:Chemical Allergies may occur such as: – Sensitizing (e.g. penicillin allergies, latex allergies);Sensitizing (e.g. penicillin allergies, latex allergies);
  34. 34. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 34 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Chemical Hazards:Chemical Hazards:  Other toxic effects may occur such as:Other toxic effects may occur such as: – Carcinogenic – causes cancer;Carcinogenic – causes cancer; – Synergistic – causes the effects of other chemicals toSynergistic – causes the effects of other chemicals to increase;increase; – Embyotoxic, Fetotoxic, Teratogenic – harms an unbornEmbyotoxic, Fetotoxic, Teratogenic – harms an unborn baby;baby; – Mutagenic – damages genetic information in DNAMutagenic – damages genetic information in DNA molecules;molecules; – Hepatotoxic – causes liver damage;Hepatotoxic – causes liver damage; – Narcosis – Narcotic effects / drunken effectsNarcosis – Narcotic effects / drunken effects
  35. 35. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 35 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Chemical Hazards:Chemical Hazards:  Refer to Module 5A for details about:Refer to Module 5A for details about: – ““Endocrine Disruptors.Endocrine Disruptors.”” – ““Occupational irritant contact dermatitis.Occupational irritant contact dermatitis.”” – ““Chronic obstructive pulmonary (or lung)Chronic obstructive pulmonary (or lung) diseasesdiseases”” – ““Alzheimer's diseaseAlzheimer's disease”” – ““Occupational acneOccupational acne””
  36. 36. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 36 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Biological HazardsBiological Hazards
  37. 37. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 37 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Biological Hazards (sources & examples):Biological Hazards (sources & examples):  Humans, animals, rodents, birds, snakes, spiders,Humans, animals, rodents, birds, snakes, spiders, insects, and parasites may carry “insects, and parasites may carry “blood borneblood borne pathogenspathogens” (viruses or bacteria) or other microbes and” (viruses or bacteria) or other microbes and germs.germs.  Refer to Module 5A for details about:Refer to Module 5A for details about: – ““AIDS virus,” “Hepatitis A, B, and C viruses,AIDS virus,” “Hepatitis A, B, and C viruses,”” – ““Hantavirus,Hantavirus,”” – ““Borrelia burgdorferiBorrelia burgdorferi” (causes Lyme disease);” (causes Lyme disease); – ““Chlamydia psittaci,Chlamydia psittaci,” (causes flu-like symptoms)” (causes flu-like symptoms)
  38. 38. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 38 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Ergonomic HazardsErgonomic Hazards
  39. 39. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 39 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Ergonomic Hazards;Ergonomic Hazards;  The interaction between workers & job demands, (i.eThe interaction between workers & job demands, (i.e workplace conditions) that pose the risk of injury to theworkplace conditions) that pose the risk of injury to the musculoskeletal system of the worker;musculoskeletal system of the worker;  These injuries are known as:These injuries are known as: ““Work-related musculoskeletal disordersWork-related musculoskeletal disorders”” (WMSDs);(WMSDs);  Common underlying factors include:Common underlying factors include: – compression of nerves and blood vessels by tensedcompression of nerves and blood vessels by tensed muscles over long periods;muscles over long periods; – Overstretched and damaged muscles, tendons andOverstretched and damaged muscles, tendons and ligaments.ligaments.
  40. 40. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 40 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Ergonomic Hazards (cont’d):Ergonomic Hazards (cont’d):  Ergonomic hazards that cause WMSD injuriesErgonomic hazards that cause WMSD injuries include:include: – Continual repetition of movements;Continual repetition of movements; – Force concentrated on small parts of the body,Force concentrated on small parts of the body, such as the hand or wrist;such as the hand or wrist; – A pace of work that does not allow sufficientA pace of work that does not allow sufficient recovery between movements;recovery between movements; – Awkward postures from improper workplaceAwkward postures from improper workplace design;design; – Fixed or constrained body positions;Fixed or constrained body positions;
  41. 41. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 41 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Ergonomic Hazards (cont’d):Ergonomic Hazards (cont’d):  These hazards may be associated with:These hazards may be associated with: – Improper hand tools, workstations, and equipment;Improper hand tools, workstations, and equipment; – Working in a sitting or standing position for longWorking in a sitting or standing position for long periods;periods; – Computer data entry;Computer data entry; – Assembly line work;Assembly line work; – Packaging and material handling work;Packaging and material handling work; – Office environments;Office environments; – Landscaping and many others;Landscaping and many others;
  42. 42. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 42 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Impacts of Ergonomic Hazards (cont’d):Impacts of Ergonomic Hazards (cont’d):  ““WMSD” include:WMSD” include: – ““Tennis elbowTennis elbow” (inflamed tendons in the elbow);” (inflamed tendons in the elbow); – ““Carpal tunnel syndromeCarpal tunnel syndrome” affecting the hand and” affecting the hand and wrist;wrist; – ““TendonitisTendonitis,” “,” “thoracic outlet syndrome,thoracic outlet syndrome,” and “” and “tensiontension neck syndromeneck syndrome;”;” – ““Raynaud's phenomenonRaynaud's phenomenon,” (a disorder of blood,” (a disorder of blood circulation in the fingers, which is aggravated by heatcirculation in the fingers, which is aggravated by heat and cold).and cold).
  43. 43. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 43 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Impacts of Ergonomic HazardsImpacts of Ergonomic Hazards (cont’d):(cont’d):  Other effects of an improperly designedOther effects of an improperly designed workplace may include:workplace may include: – ““Eye discomfortEye discomfort” from poor lighting and extended” from poor lighting and extended eyestrain such as computer work or intricateeyestrain such as computer work or intricate work;work; – Discomfort from poor indoor air qualityDiscomfort from poor indoor air quality (temperature extremes and high humidex);(temperature extremes and high humidex);
  44. 44. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 44 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Psychological & Psychosocial HazardsPsychological & Psychosocial Hazards
  45. 45. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 45 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Psychological Hazards:Psychological Hazards:  Physical threat:Physical threat: – Verbal statement, body language such as “shaking aVerbal statement, body language such as “shaking a fist;”fist;” – Confined Space, Police & Security work, Firefighters;Confined Space, Police & Security work, Firefighters;  Violence:Violence: – Direct attacks or indirect throwing objects in badDirect attacks or indirect throwing objects in bad temper;temper;  Harassment:Harassment: – Verbal or physical intimidation.Verbal or physical intimidation.
  46. 46. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 46 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Psychological Hazards:Psychological Hazards:  Shift work:Shift work: – Sleep pattern disruption;Sleep pattern disruption; – Stress of managing personal life;Stress of managing personal life;  Pace of work:Pace of work: – Boring – monitoring of automated systems;Boring – monitoring of automated systems; – Stressful – machine paced work too fast;Stressful – machine paced work too fast;  There is an element of stress in virtually all of theseThere is an element of stress in virtually all of these examples;examples;
  47. 47. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 47 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories Psychosocial Hazards:Psychosocial Hazards:  Environmental tobacco smoke:Environmental tobacco smoke: – Also fits into the Chemical Hazard category;Also fits into the Chemical Hazard category;  Smells:Smells: – Perfumes, body odours, workplaces;Perfumes, body odours, workplaces;  Substance abuse:Substance abuse: – Alcoholism;Alcoholism; – Drugs.Drugs.
  48. 48. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 48 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Common HazardsCommon Hazards Hazards within the Hazard CategoriesHazards within the Hazard Categories  Some situations may have multiple hazards – for example anSome situations may have multiple hazards – for example an emergency may have:emergency may have: – Physical Hazards (burns, mechanical impacts, explosions,Physical Hazards (burns, mechanical impacts, explosions, etc.);etc.); – Chemical Hazards (spills, vapours, fumes, smoke)Chemical Hazards (spills, vapours, fumes, smoke) – Biological Hazards (exposure during response);Biological Hazards (exposure during response); – Ergonomic Hazards (awkward positions, excess strain,Ergonomic Hazards (awkward positions, excess strain, etc.);etc.); – Psychological (fear, horror, excess hours, other stress);Psychological (fear, horror, excess hours, other stress); andand – Psychosocial Hazards (pace of work, smells, poorPsychosocial Hazards (pace of work, smells, poor
  49. 49. Hazard Identification
  50. 50. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 50 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Hazard IdentificationHazard Identification Hazard IdentificationHazard Identification  Includes numerous techniques or “tools” that look at a situation withIncludes numerous techniques or “tools” that look at a situation with varying levels of detail such as:varying levels of detail such as: – General walk about by supervisors or safety specialistsGeneral walk about by supervisors or safety specialists (to capture the main priorities for that point in time)(to capture the main priorities for that point in time) – PHA (Preliminary Hazard Assessment) a more organized look (toPHA (Preliminary Hazard Assessment) a more organized look (to capture the main priorities for the overall operation)capture the main priorities for the overall operation) – Checklists / Job Planners (to capture the majority of the seriousChecklists / Job Planners (to capture the majority of the serious concerns for a specific activity)concerns for a specific activity) – JHA (Job Hazard Analysis) or JSA (Job Safety Analysis)JHA (Job Hazard Analysis) or JSA (Job Safety Analysis) (to capture all the of the concerns for a specific activity)(to capture all the of the concerns for a specific activity)
  51. 51. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 51 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Hazard IdentificationHazard Identification Hazard IdentificationHazard Identification  A Job Hazard Analysis is done to identify every possibleA Job Hazard Analysis is done to identify every possible hazard (and to evaluate the risk). The Steps include:hazard (and to evaluate the risk). The Steps include: – Prioritize the jobs to be analyzed based on accident /Prioritize the jobs to be analyzed based on accident / injury history, H&S knowledge, industry experience,injury history, H&S knowledge, industry experience, etc.;etc.; – Carefully study and record each step of a job;Carefully study and record each step of a job; – Identify existing or potential safety and healthIdentify existing or potential safety and health hazards;hazards; – Consider injury & accident reports, close calls, nearConsider injury & accident reports, close calls, near misses, workplace inspections and audit results,misses, workplace inspections and audit results, JH&S Committee minutes, employee feedback, etc.JH&S Committee minutes, employee feedback, etc.
  52. 52. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 52 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Hazard IdentificationHazard Identification  A Job Hazard Analysis ... The Steps include (cont’d):A Job Hazard Analysis ... The Steps include (cont’d): – Involve workers who perform the job in every step ofInvolve workers who perform the job in every step of the analysis;the analysis; – Consider taking photographs or videos for reference;Consider taking photographs or videos for reference; – Break the job down into job tasks or job steps;Break the job down into job tasks or job steps; – Use a checklist of possible hazard categories andUse a checklist of possible hazard categories and hazards;hazards; – Consider routine and non-routine activities / tasks /Consider routine and non-routine activities / tasks / steps;steps;
  53. 53. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 53 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Group ExerciseGroup Exercise Chemical PackagingChemical Packaging OperationOperation As a Large Group:As a Large Group: (the instructor will(the instructor will scribe on the flipscribe on the flip chart.)chart.) - select an activity- select an activity - identify a related- identify a related hazard categoryhazard category - identify and- identify and describe a relateddescribe a related hazard in enoughhazard in enough detail to understanddetail to understand the riskthe risk - describe the- describe the “maximum“maximum reasonable risk”reasonable risk”
  54. 54. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 54 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment
  55. 55. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 55 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Risk Assessment / Risk AnalysisRisk Assessment / Risk Analysis  These terms are often used interchangeably, but theyThese terms are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same;are not the same;  Risk AnalysisRisk Analysis is the process ofis the process of quantifyingquantifying the risk.the risk. – The results of Risk Analysis may be used as an inputThe results of Risk Analysis may be used as an input to the Risk Assessment process.to the Risk Assessment process.  Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment refers to the process of making anrefers to the process of making an evaluation, based on specified criteria, on theevaluation, based on specified criteria, on the effectiveness of the control measures in place;effectiveness of the control measures in place;  OHSAS 18001 defines Risk Assessment as:OHSAS 18001 defines Risk Assessment as: – Overall process of estimating the magnitude of riskOverall process of estimating the magnitude of risk andand deciding whether or not the risk is tolerable.deciding whether or not the risk is tolerable.
  56. 56. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 56 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Risk Assessment /Risk Assessment / Risk Analysis / Risk ManagementRisk Analysis / Risk Management  Risk ManagementRisk Management - the process of eliminating /- the process of eliminating / substituting, reducing, and controlling the hazards (andsubstituting, reducing, and controlling the hazards (and associated risks) such that they are tolerable /associated risks) such that they are tolerable / acceptable.acceptable.  Controls might include:Controls might include: – Engineering ControlsEngineering Controls - at- at sourcesource - process changes, exhausts- process changes, exhausts - along- along pathwayspathways – enclosures, guards– enclosures, guards - at- at recipientrecipient - automation- automation – Administrative ControlsAdministrative Controls - job rotation, warning labels, warning signs, training- job rotation, warning labels, warning signs, training – Personal Protective EquipmentPersonal Protective Equipment
  57. 57. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 57 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment Risk Analysis ModelsRisk Analysis Models Numerous Models & Documents exist:Numerous Models & Documents exist:  Dependability management, CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 300-3-Dependability management, CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 300-3- 9-979-97 (was CAN/CSA-Q634-M91 Risk Analysis Requirements(was CAN/CSA-Q634-M91 Risk Analysis Requirements and Guidelines) discusses:and Guidelines) discusses: – Event Tree Analysis;Event Tree Analysis; – Fault / Failure Modes and Effects Analysis;Fault / Failure Modes and Effects Analysis; – Fault / Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis;Fault / Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis; – Fault Tree Analysis;Fault Tree Analysis; – Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP);Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP);
  58. 58. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 58 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment Risk Analysis Models (cont’d)Risk Analysis Models (cont’d)  Risk Management includesRisk Management includes risk analysisrisk analysis and goesand goes one step further to planone step further to plan risk reductionrisk reduction andand riskrisk controlcontrol throughthrough hazard elimination, substitution, andhazard elimination, substitution, and reductionreduction and hazardand hazard containment and controlcontainment and control..  Successful Risk Management focuses onSuccessful Risk Management focuses on eliminating, reducing, and controlling theeliminating, reducing, and controlling the 3 Key3 Key FactorsFactors:: – TheThe frequencyfrequency of the activity / event occurring;of the activity / event occurring; – TheThe probabilityprobability of harm if it occurs; andof harm if it occurs; and – TheThe severityseverity of the consequences.of the consequences.
  59. 59. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 59 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Examples - Risk Analysis Methods:Examples - Risk Analysis Methods: FMEA & FMECA (Failure Modes & Effects Criticality Analysis):FMEA & FMECA (Failure Modes & Effects Criticality Analysis):  Looks at each component of a system, considers the possibleLooks at each component of a system, considers the possible failures, the effects, the criticality, and action required:failures, the effects, the criticality, and action required: Electric DrillElectric Drill ComponentComponent FailureFailure ModeMode SystemSystem EffectsEffects SeveritySeverity IndexIndex ProbabilitProbabilit y Indexy Index CriticalityCriticality IndexIndex ActionAction Req’dReq’d CommutatorCommutator FunctionalFunctional disabilitydisability Drill disabledDrill disabled 22 22 44 NoneNone Fault toFault to CaseCase Fatality ifFatality if operator isoperator is groundedgrounded 44 44 88 GroundGround case.case. DoubleDouble insulate.insulate. Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment
  60. 60. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 60 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment Consequences / SeverityConsequences / Severity DescriptionDescription FatalityFatality MajorMajor InjuriesInjuries Normally irreversibleNormally irreversible injuries or healthinjuries or health effectseffects MinorMinor InjuriesInjuries Normally reversibleNormally reversible injury or health effectinjury or health effect requiring several daysrequiring several days off workoff work NegligibleNegligible InjuriesInjuries First-aid.First-aid. Likelihood DescriptionLikelihood Description VeryVery LikelyLikely Could happenCould happen frequently (> 1 /frequently (> 1 / month)month) LikelyLikely Could happenCould happen occasionally (> 1/year)occasionally (> 1/year) UnlikelyUnlikely Could happen, but onlyCould happen, but only rarely (< 1/year)rarely (< 1/year) HighlyHighly UnlikelyUnlikely Could happen, butCould happen, but probably never will.probably never will.
  61. 61. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 61 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Picture # 1 Bagged powders (mildly corrosive) are loaded into mixers and hoppers through the sieve openings. Exhaust fans and ducts carry away fugitive emissions. Exercise – Hazard I.D. Risk AssessmentExercise – Hazard I.D. Risk Assessment
  62. 62. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 62 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Job Hazard Analysis / Risk Assessment Matrix – Page 1 of …Job Hazard Analysis / Risk Assessment Matrix – Page 1 of … Activity /Activity / Task /Task / StepStep HazardsHazards RiskRisk Freq.Freq. ofof TaskTask Prob.Prob. ofof HarmHarm Sever-Sever- ityity TotalTotal RiskRisk ScoreScore RecommendedRecommended Engineering &Engineering & Administrative ControlsAdministrative Controls Common /Common / GeneralGeneral CorrosiveCorrosive chemicalchemical Injury fromInjury from Exposure toExposure to leaks or spillsleaks or spills 55 33 44 6060 Chemical resistantChemical resistant clothes, splash goggles,clothes, splash goggles, shower & eye washshower & eye wash DittoDitto DittoDitto PropertyProperty damage fromdamage from spillsspills 55 11 22 1010 Removable plugs forRemovable plugs for drains, Spill kit & trainingdrains, Spill kit & training DittoDitto Hot, HumidHot, Humid WeatherWeather HeatHeat ExhaustionExhaustion 55 22 22 2020 Ventilation, FrequentVentilation, Frequent Breaks, Job RotationBreaks, Job Rotation Lift pailLift pail fromfrom conveyorconveyor 24 kg lift24 kg lift Back /Back / shoulder strainshoulder strain 55 33 33 4545 Adjustable conveyor &Adjustable conveyor & skid heights & locations orskid heights & locations or roboticsrobotics Reach toReach to load skidload skid TrippingTripping hazard (onhazard (on skid)skid) Serious FallingSerious Falling InjuriesInjuries 55 33 33 4545 Adjustable skid location orAdjustable skid location or roboticsrobotics DittoDitto Twist &Twist & Reach withReach with heavy loadheavy load Back /Back / shoulder strainshoulder strain 55 44 44 8080 Change layout toChange layout to eliminate twisting oreliminate twisting or roboticsrobotics
  63. 63. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 63 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Example Risk ScoringExample Risk Scoring MethodMethod Frequency of TaskFrequency of Task Probability of HarmProbability of Harm 11 – Less than Once per year– Less than Once per year 11 – Near Impossible– Near Impossible 22 – Once per Year– Once per Year 22 – Unlikely– Unlikely 33 – Once per Month– Once per Month 33 – Possible– Possible 44 – Once per week– Once per week 44 – Likely– Likely 55 – Continuous– Continuous 55 – Certain– Certain Severity of ConsequencesSeverity of Consequences 11 – Negligible– Negligible 44 – Critical Injury /– Critical Injury / 22 – Minor Reversible Harm– Minor Reversible Harm Irreversible HarmIrreversible Harm 33 – Major Reversible Harm– Major Reversible Harm 55 – Death / Catastrophic– Death / Catastrophic
  64. 64. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 64 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Picture # 2 Horizontal band saw with cutting fluid tray in a maintenance department setting. Used periodically depending on the type of work required each day. Exercise – Hazard I.D. Risk AssessmentExercise – Hazard I.D. Risk Assessment
  65. 65. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 65 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 OH&S 18001OH&S 18001 RequirementsRequirements 4.5 Checking and corrective action4.5 Checking and corrective action 4.5.1 - Performance measurement and monitoring4.5.1 - Performance measurement and monitoring 4.5.2 - Accidents, incidents, non-conformances and4.5.2 - Accidents, incidents, non-conformances and corrective and preventative actioncorrective and preventative action 4.5.3 - Records and records management4.5.3 - Records and records management 4.5.4 - Audit4.5.4 - Audit
  66. 66. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 66 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 4.5.4 Audit4.5.4 Audit  Procedure for periodic audit of the MS toProcedure for periodic audit of the MS to determine if it is properly implemented,determine if it is properly implemented, maintained and effective.maintained and effective.  Audit schedule based on results of riskAudit schedule based on results of risk assessment & previous audit.assessment & previous audit.  Procedure include scope, frequency,Procedure include scope, frequency, method, competencies & responsibilities ofmethod, competencies & responsibilities of auditor, reporting.auditor, reporting.  Auditor to be independent where possible.Auditor to be independent where possible.
  67. 67. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 67 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Continual Improvement OH&S Policy Planning Implementation and OperationChecking and Corrective Action Management Review OH&S ManagementOH&S Management System ElementsSystem Elements Figure 1:Figure 1: Elements ofElements of successfulsuccessful health &health & SafetySafety ManagementManagement
  68. 68. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 68 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 BenefitsBenefits  Internationally adopted safety MS specificationInternationally adopted safety MS specification supported by national standards bodies.supported by national standards bodies.  Registration by Certifying Bodies.Registration by Certifying Bodies.  Must comply with applicable legislation.Must comply with applicable legislation.  Parallels ISO 9001 & ISO 14001 thus permittingParallels ISO 9001 & ISO 14001 thus permitting integration of its MS.integration of its MS.  Must specify OH&S objectives and commit toMust specify OH&S objectives and commit to continual improvement.continual improvement.  Not prescriptive - allows organisation to developNot prescriptive - allows organisation to develop operational controls relevant to its own situation.operational controls relevant to its own situation.  Improved safety culture & manage risk.Improved safety culture & manage risk.
  69. 69. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 69 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Some Companies CertifiedSome Companies Certified  UnileverUnilever  SonySony  SeagateSeagate  Jansen (Johnson & Johnson)Jansen (Johnson & Johnson)  PhilipsPhilips  BKE (Mowlem Group)BKE (Mowlem Group)  Alcan RecyclingAlcan Recycling  Cape IndustrialCape Industrial  Milliken Europe (Ghent)Milliken Europe (Ghent)  BN (Bruges)BN (Bruges)
  70. 70. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 70 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 In ConclusionIn Conclusion -- Do you want to prevent loss and to increase profit?Do you want to prevent loss and to increase profit? -- Do you want to ensure customer satisfaction onDo you want to ensure customer satisfaction on your continual delivery of products?your continual delivery of products? -- Do you want to ensure compliance to OHSDo you want to ensure compliance to OHS legislation?legislation? -- Do you want to continually improve yourDo you want to continually improve your organization OHS performance?organization OHS performance? - Do you want to minimize accident and ensure highDo you want to minimize accident and ensure high employees’ morale?employees’ morale? - Do you want to build a safety culture & manageDo you want to build a safety culture & manage your OH&S risks?your OH&S risks?
  71. 71. Global Experience Consulting Company , Tel: 965-22422123 Slide 71 of 708 Dec 20158 Dec 2015 Be Certified to OHSASBe Certified to OHSAS 1800118001 Come join the 10,000+ organizations thatCome join the 10,000+ organizations that have been certified to OHSAS 18001have been certified to OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health & Safety Specification.Occupational Health & Safety Specification. Contact Your partner in InternationalContact Your partner in International RecognitionRecognition

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