Aims   To understand Aristotle’s idea about efficient   cause and final cause   To understand how this was developed by Aq...
Recap – essay questions AO2           A02 – critical argument & justification of an opinioncomment on, consider, how farA0...
AO2 Homework Exam question“ Humans are, by nature, selfish. Their moral actions are driven by selfish   desires.”  Evalua...
Background Natural law theory has it’s roots in the work of  Aristotle who wrote in the fourth century BCE. Natural law ...
Card Sort AnswersJ   Aristotle was the first person to think of the natural     law approachD     He lived in the fourth...
Card Sort AnswersF    An efficient cause is what gets things done,       a final cause is the end product.E    Here is a...
Card Sort AnswersO       .. but the “final cause” is the adult into which the         child is growing    C      A second...
Card Sort AnswersP   To summarise Aristotle     – everything (object and action) has some       final meaning and purpose...
Card sort answersB   Aquinas further developed all these ideas             that Aristotle first thought about.G    Aquina...
Card Sort answersL    Humans have reason and freedom so they can      rationally understand God’s final purposeTeleologyD...
Heterosexual Intercourse                                    C                                                            A...
Absolutism & Natural Law Natural Law gives the possibility of producing a clearly  defined rule which can be then applied...
Purpose - Odd One Out ??
What is Natural - Today?? As science changes our views of what is natural or meant to  be so our views of human purpose i...
StarterAre we Naturally Good / Bad ? Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) in his book Leviathan – life of man is “ solitary, poor, n...
Thomas Aquinas - Laws Today :• Know and understand what Aquinas believed was the  purpose and necessity of politics• To u...
Reflections Thinking about the news you may have heard / watched in the last few weeks :Are humans more Hobbes (bad) than...
St. Thomas Aquinas Four Levels of Law      Natural Law     4 Levels of Law
Human Nature and the Common Good andthe Necessity of Government The political condition is a natural condition of  human ...
Human Nature and the Common Good and theNecessity of Government - Continued Aquinas’ reflections on human mutual  depende...
Human Nature and the Common Good and theNecessity of Government - Continued Aquinas argues humans must achieve the  human...
Why else do we need to be ruled over ??? Humans require political rule for social survival. Humans should be put under t...
Question for ReflectionDo you agree that there is an internal compulsion that generally inclines human society to a politi...
Who should Rule us ?           Who should make decisions ? Ordering of the social whole implies a directing authority. T...
Who should Rule ? Political authority is derived from God.    The best rulers follow both natural reason but also the   ...
Types of Laws Political rulership must be carried out under law  and the ruler should keep the laws he makes for  others....
The Four Levels of Law Eternal Law – Divine reason and wisdom comprise an eternal law – a  law governing the whole creati...
Each level of law depends on the levelsabove it, but eternal law does notdepend on anything because Godexists necessarily ...
Rulership and the Natural Law Natural law should be discovered by the ruler’s reason  and applied. Synderesis is the nat...
Rulership and the Natural Law Human law is just and reasonable only if it meets these five criteria:DISCUSS in pairs – wh...
Rulership and the Natural Law Rulers are their subjects servants. The best regime for Aquinas is monarchy though  he is ...
“Natural Law and Justice,”                   From the Summa TheologicaI answer that, Laws framed by man are either just or...
Questions for ReflectionMartin Luther King Jr. stated:How does one determine when a law is just or unjust? A just law is a...
Aquinas and ReasonStarter“Law is nothing else than an ordination of reason for the  common good promulgated by the one wh...
Aims To recap Aquinas’ theory on Natural Law and test what  we know from last lesson To discuss the four level model sho...
Write Aquinas‟ adviceto a group of ASstudents living in acountry where theleader has brought ina law forbiddingpeople with...
Things you could have said… The ruler is a great soul – magnanimous. A magnanimous works for the people. The ruler who ...
Watch Pol Pot – made everyone work on the land Religious leaders have created religious communities Golding “Lord of th...
Aquinas - Rulership and the Natural Law Human law is just and reasonable only if it meets these five  criteria:    It mu...
Can you follow Natural Law without followingChristianity ??                       Yes !                       Every person...
Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica“This is the first precept of law, that„good is to be done and pursued, and evilis to be ...
Watch         Real Good ??We think something is good but it isn‟t really . . . .This is only apparent goodWatch the exampl...
Self Study – if I have given you some“Self Study” work then please complete allthe questions from the sheets on your ownne...
StarterExplain these terms and then think of an examplefor each :•real good•apparent good•common good•magnanimous
Today‟s aims :•To understand why Aquinas thought we all  need 5 primary precepts to flourish•To consider how these primary...
Natural Law : 5 Primary PreceptsThese are : 1. Self-preservation/preservation of the innocent 2. Continuation of the speci...
These 5 primary precepts lead to secondary precepts .These are rules for modern society.
Virtue Ethics & Natural Law TheoryVirtue – an aspect of good characterVirtuous person – a person who has many virtuesNatur...
Aims Today :•To understand what a virtue is and   how they can be developed•To understand what Plato and  Aristotle said a...
Basic Framework of Virtue Ethics: Premise 1: An action is right if it is what a virtuous agent would do in the circumstanc...
Rather than focusing on what we ought to do, Virtue  ethics offers a distinctive approach whereby we focus  on human chara...
Overview of Ethical Systems: Plato (427-347 B.C.)   Plato believed our natural desires are greedy and depraved. Thus, they...
Plato : 3 parts to a person The soul is divided into three parts: appetite,  spirit, and reason. Each part helps us to fu...
Appetite  Appetite: In cases where appetite rules (oligarchic and tyrannical   characters fit here) individuals are at th...
Spirit   Spirit: The emotional, passionate side of our character is    centered on the idea of status on a social level. ...
Reason Reason: The intellectual, thinking part of the soul that must  weigh options, decide between alternatives, and "su...
Know Thyself: Plato contends that each one of us performs/does one  thing best. We each have one best skill and it is the...
What is Virtue Ethics?   Virtue Ethics emphasizes the development of character as its   central theme rather than trying t...
What is Virtue Ethics?    “We are what we repeatedly do.   Excellence, then, is not an act, but a                  habit.”...
Closer Look at Virtue: “A virtue such as honesty or generosity is not just a tendency to  do what is honest or generous, ...
Home Study The results of the experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram in the 1960s and Philip G. Zimbardo in 1971 were s...
VIRTUES – pop quiz             – party time !!1)   What is a virtue ?2)   What is meant by virtuous ?3)   Plato said there...
Aims Today To understand what is meant by cardinal virtues To know the four cardinal virtues and the seven capital  vice...
Cardinal Virtues Cardinal means “hinge” Imagine a box with four hinges. The box is moral  goodness, which the natural la...
Which is which ?Justice       Temperance   Prudence   Fortitude          A          B          C            D
Answers A = fortitude B = prudence C = temperance D = justice
Virtues : Foundation of Natural Morality Plato first discussed the cardinal virtues in the  Republic, and they entered in...
PRUDENCE St. Thomas Aquinas ranked prudence as the first cardinal  virtue, because it is concerned with the intellect. Ar...
PRUDENCE in our Life So how do we know when were exercising prudence and  when were simply giving in to our own desires?...
JUSTICE Justice, according to Saint Thomas, is the second cardinal  virtue, because it is concerned with the will.In the ...
JUSTICE in our life Justice, then, respects the rights of others, whether those rights  are natural (the right to life an...
FORTITUDE The third cardinal virtue, according to St. Thomas Aquinas, is  fortitude. While this virtue is commonly called...
FORTITUDE in our life Sometimes, however, the ultimate sacrifice is necessary, in order to  stand up for what is right an...
TEMPERANCE Temperance, Saint Thomas declared, is the fourth and final  cardinal virtue. While fortitude is concerned with...
TEMPERANCE in our life When we practice the virtue of temperance, we call it by  different names, both gluttony and drunk...
Seven Capital Vices The 7 Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or  Cardinal Sins, is a classification of objectio...
Lust or Lechery Thoughts or desires of a sexual nature
Gluttony From the latin gluttire (gulp down or swallow) Over indulgence – excessive desire for food   Praepropere - eat...
Greed Greed (as seen by the church) is applied to a very  excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of wealth,  status, a...
Sloth the failure to utilize ones talents and gifts The modern view goes further, regarding laziness and  indifference a...
Wrath Wrath (Latin, ira), also known as "rage", may be described  as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and  ...
Envy Like greed, Envy (Latin, invidia) may be characterized by  an insatiable desire; they differ, however, for two main ...
Pride“Pride comes before a fall” In almost every list pride (Latin, superbia), or  hubris, is considered the original and...
Applied Ethics Project After each topic this year we will apply the ethics  studied to the issues of sexual ethics. In y...
Natural Law Applied        by many Catholics Natural Law Theory is followed by most catholic Christians so maybe start lo...
Natural Law Applied - Bible Find Bible passages and remember that followers of Natural Law Theory believe that human law ...
Natural Law Applied – Final End              ALSO – followers of Natural              Law Theory believe that we         ...
Natural Law Applied : Virtuous ALSO – think about “good must be pursued and evil  avoided” Aquinas You could also mentio...
Applied Ethics : Natural Law         We are going to apply aspects of Natural            Law to various issues of sexual ...
Modern Natural Law Theory STARTER Is there anything within the whole of natural law theory that would appeal to an athei...
Natural Law in Secular Society* The idea of an unknown law somewhere out there.* Using reason to decide what is good and r...
Natural Law in Secular Society• Some actions, because they are contrary to the 5  primary precepts will always be morally ...
Virtues are Accepted in Secular Society Seven Virtues – theological and Aquinas’ virtues Watch the video clip and note d...
Virtues in Secular Society Think of other movies which reflect virtues What about songs ? What about rules in school / ...
Home Study Find out about the ideas of more modern philosophers linked who wrote about Natural Law in the 1960s. John Fi...
John Finnis Lists basic goods (rather than one Form of the Good or God) :• Does not base principles on a divine being• Al...
John Finnis           (continued) Finnis says that of the seven "basic goods," three are  substantive (existing prior to ...
Germain Grisez People have freedom of choice and conscience However, can we choose correctly ? The ancient philosopher ...
Natural Law Theory MOCK EXAM First timed assessment (mock exam) Monday November 14th   Weds 2nd Nov and Monday 7th Nov   ...
Strengths of Natural Law 1) Universal ApplicationA) Recap     – how does this Natural Law theory apply to everyone ?This ...
Strengths of Natural Law 2) Values (what is important )Society has cohesion because of common values such as  preservatio...
Strengths of Natural Law 3) Human Life has a positive goalA telos (end) which is not hedonistic in character.Some Natural...
Strengths of Natural Law 4) Emphasis on the Sanctity of Human LifeThis is important in our society and other parts of the...
Strengths of Natural Law 5) Emphasis on right characterF) Explain how a person’s character can  have an important affect ...
Strengths of Natural Law 6) Emphasis on social harmonyAll individuals need to work in harmony with each  other.Aquinas ha...
Strengths ofNatural Law Theory 7) Casuistry – means case based reasoningCasuistry from Latin meaning “case”.Natural Law T...
EXAM QUESTION A02 “Natural Law is a good approach to morality.” Discuss. AO2 Examination Question Marking 11 – 15 marks  ...
Weaknesses of Natural law Theory In modern forms Natural Law does not allow for negotiation because the Church has made t...
Weaknesses of Natural Law It could be argued that we have gained our natural instincts through evolution, not through God...
Weaknesses of Natural Law We can observe differences between cultures, which rejects the notion of a single natural purpo...
Weaknesses of Natural Law Natural Law could even be seen as a relativist theory - because the secondary precepts might ch...
Weaknesses of Natural Law Vardy and Grosch in The Puzzle of Ethics said that Aquinas gives too simple a view of human sex...
Revision VideosNatural Law Theory in 6 minutes - WatchIntroducing Virtue EthicsAquinas’ Four Cardinal Virtues RapStrengths...
Natural law theory (kpearson v1)
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Natural law theory (kpearson v1)

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AS level Religious Studies powerpoint. Various lessons on Natural Law Theory. Originally for WJEC examination board.

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Natural law theory (kpearson v1)

  1. 1. Aims To understand Aristotle’s idea about efficient cause and final cause To understand how this was developed by AquinasStarterYou are created for a purpose.If you fulfil your purpose then you are “good”.What would you want to ask about this theory ??Do you agree with this ?
  2. 2. Recap – essay questions AO2 A02 – critical argument & justification of an opinioncomment on, consider, how farA02 –pos & negs / when does this theory work / no to what extent, why, assessA02 – when does this theory work and when does it stop working ? reasons / assess = for and againstdiscuss, consider critically, evaluate A02 – for and against / advantages and weaknesses draw to a conclusioninterpret, justifyA02 how would this be used in life or situations ? justify = argue & give reasons for this working
  3. 3. AO2 Homework Exam question“ Humans are, by nature, selfish. Their moral actions are driven by selfish desires.” Evaluate this claim (15 marks) AO2 MarkingLow level answers give information rather than reasoned argument, and often contain assertions that are not supported by evidence and/or reasoning.Middle level marks go to candidates who do try to address the question set and to present an orderly argument with justifying support. It is often superficiality of understanding or the inability to see more than one point of view that lets them down.The top levels go to answers that are well-informed, well-reasoned and that show the ability to think critically about more than one point of view and form a sensible judgement.
  4. 4. Background Natural law theory has it’s roots in the work of Aristotle who wrote in the fourth century BCE. Natural law theory was developed by Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century. Natural law became a central feature of catholic moral thinking.
  5. 5. Card Sort AnswersJ Aristotle was the first person to think of the natural law approachD He lived in the fourth century BCE and was a Greek philosopher.Q Aristotle began thinking of his theory by distinguishing between “efficient causes” and “final causes”.
  6. 6. Card Sort AnswersF An efficient cause is what gets things done, a final cause is the end product.E Here is a first example, a child grows up to be an adult. K Aristotle would say that an “efficient cause” of the child’s growth is food and drink.
  7. 7. Card Sort AnswersO .. but the “final cause” is the adult into which the child is growing C A second example would be if I take a piece of wood…H … and carve it into a statueM The efficient cause is the knife I use.I .. but the final cause is the image that I want to create – the end statue.
  8. 8. Card Sort AnswersP To summarise Aristotle – everything (object and action) has some final meaning and purpose – it’s final cause – and this is what determines it’s “good”. N Therefore, if we understand what that final cause is, we will know what we need to do in order to achieve it.
  9. 9. Card sort answersB Aquinas further developed all these ideas that Aristotle first thought about.G Aquinas argued that the world was created by God.A .. and that everything should therefore have God’s ultimate purpose as it’s final “end” or “good”.
  10. 10. Card Sort answersL Humans have reason and freedom so they can rationally understand God’s final purposeTeleologyDesigned for or directed towards a final endEudaimoniaGreek for happiness, flourishing or a state of contentment – the final end when a thing achieves it’s purpose
  11. 11. Heterosexual Intercourse C A T H O Efficient cause of heterosexual intercourse is….? L I Final cause of heterosexual intercourse is…? C If it is the final cause which determines the right and T wrong, then strictly speaking, in terms of sex : H O *homosexual intercourse …… U G *under age intercourse…… H * masturbation……. T *preventing conception (contraception) is ………
  12. 12. Absolutism & Natural Law Natural Law gives the possibility of producing a clearly defined rule which can be then applied universally. An action is right or wrong in itself, without reference to all it’s possible consequences. A purpose is given by God. The natural law theory has a commander – God. God is absolute.
  13. 13. Purpose - Odd One Out ??
  14. 14. What is Natural - Today?? As science changes our views of what is natural or meant to be so our views of human purpose is open to modification and change. Natural Law is about what life should be like , given a rational and purposeful creation, but that may not be what life is actually like. examples – it is natural for someone to be seriously ill and die… - in the natural world animals breed with many and fight off the weaker…….
  15. 15. StarterAre we Naturally Good / Bad ? Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) in his book Leviathan – life of man is “ solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.” Jean Jacques Rousseau ( 1712-1778) people are born essentially good. If conditions are right people will flourish and be morally good. Which is right ??? Why ??
  16. 16. Thomas Aquinas - Laws Today :• Know and understand what Aquinas believed was the purpose and necessity of politics• To understand Aquinas’ four levels of law
  17. 17. Reflections Thinking about the news you may have heard / watched in the last few weeks :Are humans more Hobbes (bad) than Rousseau ?Should society have more rules or fewer ?Should morality be left to conscience orimposed by society ?Aristotle saw reason as the distinctivehuman quality. Was he right ?
  18. 18. St. Thomas Aquinas Four Levels of Law Natural Law 4 Levels of Law
  19. 19. Human Nature and the Common Good andthe Necessity of Government The political condition is a natural condition of human beings as part of creation.  Aquinas states:  Thus the goodness which in God is simple and unique is found in countless and differentiated creatures. Consequently it is the entire universe which shares perfectly the goodness of God and represents it more than one creature by itself. Human beings are partners with God and politics is necessary even if there was no fall from the Garden of Eden. What is meant by politics ???
  20. 20. Human Nature and the Common Good and theNecessity of Government - Continued Aquinas’ reflections on human mutual dependence:  Nonhuman animals have specific natural defenses (such as claws), whereas humans must rely on reason  Human co-creation requires human cooperation and cannot be done by single individuals with their limited talents.  The power of speech show that solitary existence is inappropriate
  21. 21. Human Nature and the Common Good and theNecessity of Government - Continued Aquinas argues humans must achieve the humanization of the world and eternal salvation and this entails a principle of government within society.  If it is natural for human beings to live in society, then it follows that there must be regulation of society. For not human group can long endure if each person sought only his individual ends. One of them would have to provide for the common interest, just as an organism would break apart unless it had some controlling power in it which worked for the good of all bodily parts….
  22. 22. Why else do we need to be ruled over ??? Humans require political rule for social survival. Humans should be put under the rule of those providing for the common interest or common good. The king or government exists to prevent chaos. Original sin leaves humans wounded, fallible, and frail though not vitiated or corrupted. Political institutions foster knowledge, culture, and virtue and permit humans to pursue their ultimate end, which is the enjoyment of God.
  23. 23. Question for ReflectionDo you agree that there is an internal compulsion that generally inclines human society to a political unity and consequently forms and organizes the individual parts into a social whole?
  24. 24. Who should Rule us ? Who should make decisions ? Ordering of the social whole implies a directing authority. Those who are superior by intellect are by nature rulers. Others can carry out task under a supervisor and others can only follow. This division of talents makes an ordering function necessary but the ultimate end is beyond the political ruler’s natural capacities. Aquinas views the church as caring for souls but believes the church and state are ultimately complementary. Spiritual goods are preeminent, but can only be realized if the secular goods of peace, order, justice, protection of the family, and the freedom to practice the Catholic faith are secured.
  25. 25. Who should Rule ? Political authority is derived from God.  The best rulers follow both natural reason but also the divine law of love and mercy. A magnanimous (great-souled individual) must be willing to do great things on behalf of mutually dependent people as well as the glorification of God.
  26. 26. Types of Laws Political rulership must be carried out under law and the ruler should keep the laws he makes for others. Aquinas describes the essence of law:  Law is a rule and measure of acts whereby man is induced to act or is restrained from acting: for lex (law) is derived from ligare (to bind), because it binds one to act. Now the rule and measure of human acts, as is evident from what has been stated above, since it belongs to the reason to direct the end, which is the first principle in all matters of action according to the Philosopher (Aristotle).
  27. 27. The Four Levels of Law Eternal Law – Divine reason and wisdom comprise an eternal law – a law governing the whole creation, a law not made but eternally existing and therefore unknowable to humans entirely, yet the source of all true law on earth. Divine Law – The revealed truths such as the ten commandments and the Sermon on the Mounts that supplement and corrects human fallibility and frailty. Natural Law – The practical reflection or sharing in “eternal reason” that provides humans with objective, changeless, universal rules or general principles of action for ethical and political life. Human Law – True law that is derived from natural law. A rule of state that is at odds with natural law is no law at all.
  28. 28. Each level of law depends on the levelsabove it, but eternal law does notdepend on anything because Godexists necessarily :Eternal LawDivine LawNatural LawHuman LawCreate a flowchart to explain how these depend on thelevel above it.
  29. 29. Rulership and the Natural Law Natural law should be discovered by the ruler’s reason and applied. Synderesis is the natural capability of practical reason to discern the natural law and thereby, do good and avoid evil. A ruler needs broad experience and understanding of the political, economic and social context of his or her society to establish just punishments.
  30. 30. Rulership and the Natural Law Human law is just and reasonable only if it meets these five criteria:DISCUSS in pairs – what other things does Aquinas think is important when ruling a society ???  It must be promulgated (or ordained) by a legitimate ruler for the common good – lawmaking must be transparent.  It must not exceed the authorized power of the lawgiver in a particular society.  It must lay only reasonable burdens on subjects according to the equality of proportion (such as a graduated income tax based on the ability to pay).  It must be consistent with the principles of subsidiarity: the lowest unit of society that is capable of accomplishing a needed social function in an adequate manner should be permitted to perform that function (from the family, to the local community, up to the centralized state). This preserves the vitality of the family, private groups, and local communities as well as the centralized state.  It must not be oppose to eternal law.
  31. 31. Rulership and the Natural Law Rulers are their subjects servants. The best regime for Aquinas is monarchy though he is willing to consider other regimes since no particular form of government is ordained by God. Rulers must protect the spiritual equality of humans. Man is bound to obey God and not man in spiritual affairs. Politics cannot produce perfect justice, perfect peace, or salvation.
  32. 32. “Natural Law and Justice,” From the Summa TheologicaI answer that, Laws framed by man are either just or unjust. If they be just, they have the power of binding in conscience, from the eternal law whence they are derived,according to Prov. 8:15 “By Me kings reign, and lawgivers decree just things.”Now laws are said to be just, both from the end, when, to wit, they are ordained to the common good – and from their author, that is to say, when the law that is made does not exceed the power of the lawgiver – and from their form, when, to wit, burdens are laid on the subjects, according to an equality of proportion and with a view to the common good.
  33. 33. Questions for ReflectionMartin Luther King Jr. stated:How does one determine when a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas, an unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. I think that we all have moral obligations to obey just laws. On the other hand, I think that we have moral obligations to disobey unjust laws because noncooperation with evil is just as much moral obligation as cooperation with good.Do you think that all or most human beings are capable of knowing these transcendent moral laws?Is a magnanimous and prudent leader like Dr. King absolutely necessary for principled civil disobedience to take place?
  34. 34. Aquinas and ReasonStarter“Law is nothing else than an ordination of reason for the common good promulgated by the one who is in charge of the community.” AquinasWhat use is Aquinas’ statement for the founder of a new country ?
  35. 35. Aims To recap Aquinas’ theory on Natural Law and test what we know from last lesson To discuss the four level model shown last lesson To consider what is apparent good and real good
  36. 36. Write Aquinas‟ adviceto a group of ASstudents living in acountry where theleader has brought ina law forbiddingpeople with blondehair receiving furthereducation
  37. 37. Things you could have said… The ruler is a great soul – magnanimous. A magnanimous works for the people. The ruler who decides to exclude blondes is not working for the good of blondes who are part of society Blondes are also part of God’s creation and humans not animals If we use reason then obviously blondes are clever – example Mrs Pearson ( who does not dye her hair ).
  38. 38. Watch Pol Pot – made everyone work on the land Religious leaders have created religious communities Golding “Lord of the Flies” = chaos If the world as we know it ended . . . .Brave New World. . .
  39. 39. Aquinas - Rulership and the Natural Law Human law is just and reasonable only if it meets these five criteria:  It must be done by a legitimate ruler for the common good – lawmaking must be transparent.  It must not exceed the authorized power of the lawgiver in a particular society.  It must lay only reasonable burdens on subjects according to the equality of proportion (such as a graduated income tax based on the ability to pay).  It must be consistent with the principles of subsidiarity: a smaller part of society should be allowed to sort out rules and problems (example – the family, or local area).  Human law must not be oppose to eternal law.
  40. 40. Can you follow Natural Law without followingChristianity ?? Yes ! Every person has Natural Law as part of their make –up. God has given this to us to enable us to make moral judgements. You all could talk about what rules you would have for a new society ….
  41. 41. Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica“This is the first precept of law, that„good is to be done and pursued, and evilis to be avoided.‟ All other precepts ofthe natural law are based upon this.”Think of situations/examples which support thisidea and other situations/examples which wouldlead someone to disagree with Aquinas
  42. 42. Watch Real Good ??We think something is good but it isn‟t really . . . .This is only apparent goodWatch the example of Odessa in the Ukraine.Make a list of examples of “apparent good” (things which are not actually good)•Odessa is an elegant holiday spot•Freedom to do drugs•……•…….What would be “real good” for Odessa ?
  43. 43. Self Study – if I have given you some“Self Study” work then please complete allthe questions from the sheets on your ownnext lesson.DO NOT COME TO CLASS next lesson.If I have not given you those sheets then thismeans that I would like to come to class nextlesson. We will go over exam question markingand look at your last examination question.Anyone is welcome to come and look atexamination marking if they wish.
  44. 44. StarterExplain these terms and then think of an examplefor each :•real good•apparent good•common good•magnanimous
  45. 45. Today‟s aims :•To understand why Aquinas thought we all need 5 primary precepts to flourish•To consider how these primary precepts are showed in secondary precepts•To know examples of secondary precepts (rules / laws) which a society may consider important.
  46. 46. Natural Law : 5 Primary PreceptsThese are : 1. Self-preservation/preservation of the innocent 2. Continuation of the species through reproduction 3. Education of children 4. To live in society 5. To worship God
  47. 47. These 5 primary precepts lead to secondary precepts .These are rules for modern society.
  48. 48. Virtue Ethics & Natural Law TheoryVirtue – an aspect of good characterVirtuous person – a person who has many virtuesNatural Law theory suggests that we can develop asgood people by developing our virtues.STARTER – list some traits of character which weadmire in the modern world
  49. 49. Aims Today :•To understand what a virtue is and how they can be developed•To understand what Plato and Aristotle said about virtues•To relate Greek philosophical thinking to Aquinas’ later thoughts about virtues and natural law
  50. 50. Basic Framework of Virtue Ethics: Premise 1: An action is right if it is what a virtuous agent would do in the circumstances. Premise 1a: A virtuous agent is one who acts virtuously, i.e., one who has and exercises the virtues. Premise 2: A virtue is a character trait a human being needs to flourish or live well.
  51. 51. Rather than focusing on what we ought to do, Virtue ethics offers a distinctive approach whereby we focus on human character asking the question, “What should I be?” Thus, ethical life involves envisioning ideals for human life and embodying those ideals in one’s life. Virtues are ways in which we embody those ideals. Aristotle says there are 2 types of virtue: intellectual virtues: excellences of the mind (e.g., ability to understand, reason, & judge well); moral virtues: learned by repetition (e.g., practicing honesty we become honest. To be virtuous requires knowledge, practice, & consistent effort at character building.Aristotle: “Must have knowledge, second he must choose the acts and choose them for their own sakes, & finally his actions must proceed from a firm character” (1105a).
  52. 52. Overview of Ethical Systems: Plato (427-347 B.C.) Plato believed our natural desires are greedy and depraved. Thus, they must be held in tight check by the powers of reason. He compared the human soul to a city-state made up of ruler-guardians, guardians, and the peasants/artisans.Every reality is an archetype of a corresponding eternal form. The goal of life is to actualize one’s true nature together with one’s many innate potentialities. 4 primary integrated virtues: Wisdom: corresponds to If reason for a moment lets reason; courage: down its guard, then the corresponds to the will: desires will exert their power, seize control, and temperance, corresponds lead the person to to desire: corruption and immorality. justice: links individual to society.
  53. 53. Plato : 3 parts to a person The soul is divided into three parts: appetite, spirit, and reason. Each part helps us to fulfill critical needs, but in Platos view, only the rational part of the soul is fit to rule. In order to live a virtuous life, it is necessary for the individual to cultivate balance in his/her soul. Thus, persons ruled by appetite or spirit (emotion) are "out of balance" and their actions are apt to provoke personal or social disharmony.
  54. 54. Appetite  Appetite: In cases where appetite rules (oligarchic and tyrannical characters fit here) individuals are at the mercy of the their biological or material whims. Alcohol addiction fits this profile. Individuals who are addicted to self-destructive patterns of behavior are apt to feed their appetites at the expense of other life pursuits. People can also be ruled by material greed in much the same way. The key here is that desire is determinative; these are cravings of the highest degree.
  55. 55. Spirit  Spirit: The emotional, passionate side of our character is centered on the idea of status on a social level.  Ambition, desire for honor and glory, moral indignation, and cravings for admiration, all fit under the umbrella of spirit. Love relationships fit into this category as well.  Our interactions with others provide core experiences that influence our emotional development.
  56. 56. Reason Reason: The intellectual, thinking part of the soul that must weigh options, decide between alternatives, and "suppress dangerous urges.“ Plato clearly puts reason in control of the soul because it acts as good counsel seeking understanding and insight before acting. Rational individuals possess a strong contemplative faculty. They think before they act and are unlikely to take rash action in any given situation.
  57. 57. Know Thyself: Plato contends that each one of us performs/does one thing best. We each have one best skill and it is the development of this skill that is of paramount importance in creating a harmonious existence. If we do not have insight into what we do best, the chances of achieving a balanced soul are likely reduced. Hence the Socratic imperative, "know thyself." Just Society: First ask yourself: is it possible to have a just society? What would it look like? How would we direct education, the economy, leisure, and social resources? What is fair? Plato wrestles with the idea of justice in his most famous work entitled, The Republic.
  58. 58. What is Virtue Ethics? Virtue Ethics emphasizes the development of character as its central theme rather than trying to define goodness or rightness.It is a eudaimonistic theory as it holds happiness to be our highest goal.According to Aristotle, we attain happiness by cultivating both intellectual and moral virtue.We become virtuous by habit: we deliberately and consistently choose the mean between excess and deficiency until it becomes second-nature.
  59. 59. What is Virtue Ethics? “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.” ~ Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics
  60. 60. Closer Look at Virtue: “A virtue such as honesty or generosity is not just a tendency to do what is honest or generous, nor is it to be helpfully specified as a "desirable" or "morally valuable" character trait. It is, indeed a character trait — that is, a disposition which is well entrenched in its possessor, something that, as we say "goes all the way down", unlike a habit such as being a tea- drinker It is concerned with many other actions as well, with emotions and emotional reactions, choices, values, desires, perceptions, attitudes, interests, expectations and sensibilities. To possess a virtue is to be a certain sort of person with a certain complex mindset. You cannot attribute a virtue on the basis of a single action ~ Stanford Encyclopedia
  61. 61. Home Study The results of the experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram in the 1960s and Philip G. Zimbardo in 1971 were shocking.Find out about these experiments and write two paragraphs about what these experiments tell you about human character.
  62. 62. VIRTUES – pop quiz – party time !!1) What is a virtue ?2) What is meant by virtuous ?3) Plato said there are 3 parts to a person : a___________, s_________ and r_________4) If you are ruled by your emotions then the negatives are…..5) If you are ruled by your desires then the negatives are….6) Is the a______ part of a person to do with desire / emotion ?7) Is the s_______ part of a person to do with desire / emotion ?8) What part of a person should rule all ethical decisions ?9) How does someone become a virtuous person ?
  63. 63. Aims Today To understand what is meant by cardinal virtues To know the four cardinal virtues and the seven capital vices and how they relate to the primary precepts of Aquinas To consider how Aquinas’ cardinal virtues can apply to modern ethical decision making
  64. 64. Cardinal Virtues Cardinal means “hinge” Imagine a box with four hinges. The box is moral goodness, which the natural law contains. The four hinges are the four cardinal virtues of : * justice - fairness for you & society * prudence – showing care and thought for future * temperance – moderation or restraint * fortitude – courage in pain or adversity
  65. 65. Which is which ?Justice Temperance Prudence Fortitude A B C D
  66. 66. Answers A = fortitude B = prudence C = temperance D = justice
  67. 67. Virtues : Foundation of Natural Morality Plato first discussed the cardinal virtues in the Republic, and they entered into Christian teaching by way of Platos disciple Aristotle. The theological virtues are the gifts of God through grace – faith hope and charity ( 1 Corinthians 13:13) However the four cardinal virtues of Aquinas can be practiced by anyone; thus, they represent the foundation of Natural Law.
  68. 68. PRUDENCE St. Thomas Aquinas ranked prudence as the first cardinal virtue, because it is concerned with the intellect. Aristotle defined prudence as recta ratio agibilium, "right reason applied to practice." It is the virtue that allows us to judge correctly what is right and what is wrong in any given situation. When we mistake the evil for the good, we are not exercising prudence—in fact, we are showing our lack of it. Because it is so easy to fall into error, prudence requires us to seek the counsel of others, particularly those we know to be sound judges of morality. Disregarding the advice or warnings of others whose judgment does not coincide with ours is a sign of imprudence.
  69. 69. PRUDENCE in our Life So how do we know when were exercising prudence and when were simply giving in to our own desires? A Catholic priest notes three stages of an act of prudence: "to take counsel carefully with oneself and from others"; "to judge correctly on the basis of the evidence at hand"; "to direct the rest of ones activity according to the norms determined after a prudent judgment has been made." Disregarding the advice or warnings of others whose judgment does not coincide with ours is a sign of imprudence. It is possible that we are right and others wrong; but the opposite may be true, especially if we are in the minority.
  70. 70. JUSTICE Justice, according to Saint Thomas, is the second cardinal virtue, because it is concerned with the will.In the Modern Catholic Dictionary, it is "the constant and permanent determination to give everyone his or her rightful due." We say that "justice is blind," because it should not matter what we think of a particular person. If we owe him a debt, we must repay exactly what we owe. Justice is connected to the idea of rights. While we often use justice in a negative sense ("He got what he deserved"), justice in its proper sense is positive. Injustice occurs when we as individuals or by law deprive someone of that which he is owed. Legal rights can never outweigh
  71. 71. JUSTICE in our life Justice, then, respects the rights of others, whether those rights are natural (the right to life and limb, the rights that arise because of our natural obligations to family and kin, the most fundamental property rights, the right to worship God and to do what is necessary to save our souls) or legal (contract rights, constitutional rights, civil rights). Should legal rights ever come into conflict with natural rights, however, the latter take precedence, and justice demands that they be respected. Thus, law cannot take away the right of parents to educate their children in the way that is best for the children. Nor can justice allow the granting of legal rights to one person (such as the "right to an abortion") at the expense of the natural rights of another (in that case, the right to life and limb). To do so is to fail "to give everyone his or her rightful due."
  72. 72. FORTITUDE The third cardinal virtue, according to St. Thomas Aquinas, is fortitude. While this virtue is commonly called courage, it is different from what much of what we think of as courage today. Fortitude allows us to overcome fear and to remain steady in our will in the face of obstacles, but it is always reasoned and reasonable; the person exercising fortitude does not seek danger for dangers sake. Prudence and justice are the virtues through which we decide what needs to be done; fortitude gives us the strength to do it. Fortitude is the only one of the cardinal virtues that is also a gift of the Holy Spirit, allowing us to rise above our natural fears in defense of the Christian faith.
  73. 73. FORTITUDE in our life Sometimes, however, the ultimate sacrifice is necessary, in order to stand up for what is right and to save our souls. Fortitude is the virtue of the martyrs, who are willing to give their lives rather than to renounce their faith. That sacrifice may be passive—Christian martyrs do not actively seek martyrdom—but it is nonetheless determined and resolute. It is in martyrdom that we see the best example of fortitude rising above a mere cardinal virtue (able to be practiced by anyone) into a supernatural gift of the Holy Spirit. But it also shows itself, as the Catholic Encyclopedia notes, "in moral courage against the evil spirit of the times, against improper fashions, against human respect, against the common tendency to seek at least the comfortable, if not the voluptuous." Fortitude, as a gift of the Holy Spirit, also allows us to cope with poverty and loss, and to cultivate the Christian virtues that allow us to rise above the basic requirements of Christianity.
  74. 74. TEMPERANCE Temperance, Saint Thomas declared, is the fourth and final cardinal virtue. While fortitude is concerned with the restraint of fear so that we can act, temperance is the restraint of our desires or passions. Food, drink, and sex are all necessary for our survival, individually and as a species; yet a disordered desire for any of these goods can have disastrous consequences, physical and moral. Temperance is the virtue that attempts to keep us from excess, and, as such, requires the balancing of legitimate goods against our inordinate desire for them. Our legitimate use of such goods may be different at different times; temperance is the "golden mean" that helps us determine how far we can act on our desires.
  75. 75. TEMPERANCE in our life When we practice the virtue of temperance, we call it by different names, both gluttony and drunkenness are combated by abstinence, which is temperance applied to our desire for food and drink. Similarly, we receive pleasure from sexual intercourse, but the desire for that pleasure outside of its proper is called lust. The practice of temperance regarding sexual pleasure is called chastity. Temperance is primarily concerned with the control of the desires of the flesh, but when it manifests itself as modesty, it can also restrain the desires of the spirit, such as pride. In all cases, the practice of temperance requires the balancing of legitimate goods against an inordinate desire for them.
  76. 76. Seven Capital Vices The 7 Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, is a classification of objectionable vices that have been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct followers concerning fallen humanitys tendency to sin. The currently recognized version of the sins are usually given as wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony. The Deadly Sins do not belong to an additional category of sin. Rather, they are the sins that are seen as the origin ("capital" comes from the Latin caput, head) of the other sins."they are called capital because they engender other sins, other vices."
  77. 77. Lust or Lechery Thoughts or desires of a sexual nature
  78. 78. Gluttony From the latin gluttire (gulp down or swallow) Over indulgence – excessive desire for food Praepropere - eating too soon. Laute - eating too expensively. Nimis - eating too much. Ardenter - eating too eagerly (burningly). Studiose - eating too daintily (keenly). Forente - eating wildly (boringly).
  79. 79. Greed Greed (as seen by the church) is applied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of wealth, status, and power. St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that greed was "a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things."
  80. 80. Sloth the failure to utilize ones talents and gifts The modern view goes further, regarding laziness and indifference as the sin at the heart of the matter. Since this contrasts with a more willful failure to, for example, love God and his works, sloth is often seen as being considerably less serious than the other sins, more a sin of omission
  81. 81. Wrath Wrath (Latin, ira), also known as "rage", may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. Wrath, in its purest form, presents with self- destructiveness, violence, and hate that may provoke feuds that can go on for centuries. Wrath may persist long after the person who did another a grievous wrong is dead. Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways, including impatience, revenge, and vigilantism. Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest (although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy, closely related to the sin of envy).
  82. 82. Envy Like greed, Envy (Latin, invidia) may be characterized by an insatiable desire; they differ, however, for two main reasons: First, greed is largely associated with material goods, whereas envy may apply more generally. Second, those who commit the sin of envy resent that another person has something they perceive themselves as lacking, and wish the other person to be deprived of it. Dante defined this as "a desire to deprive other men of theirs." Envy can be directly related to the Ten Commandments, specifically "Neither shall you desire... anything that belongs to your neighbour".
  83. 83. Pride“Pride comes before a fall” In almost every list pride (Latin, superbia), or hubris, is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, and the source of the others. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others, failing to acknowledge the good work of others, and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God). Dantes definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for ones neighbour."
  84. 84. Applied Ethics Project After each topic this year we will apply the ethics studied to the issues of sexual ethics. In your group research the given topic and consider what those who follow Natural Law would say about it. ALSO – think about “good must be pursued and evil avoided” Aquinas You could also mention real goods and apparent goods and being virtuous in relation to the topic you have been given.
  85. 85. Natural Law Applied by many Catholics Natural Law Theory is followed by most catholic Christians so maybe start looking for Catholic ideas.
  86. 86. Natural Law Applied - Bible Find Bible passages and remember that followers of Natural Law Theory believe that human law (rules we should follow) comes from natural law (our thoughts and reason ) which comes from divine law (Bible passages – the revealed words of God).
  87. 87. Natural Law Applied – Final End  ALSO – followers of Natural Law Theory believe that we should do what Aristotle said was follow an efficient cause to a final end. Think about the natural end and then the route we should take to get there and then do that.
  88. 88. Natural Law Applied : Virtuous ALSO – think about “good must be pursued and evil avoided” Aquinas You could also mention real goods and apparent goods and being virtuous in relation to the topic you have been given.
  89. 89. Applied Ethics : Natural Law  We are going to apply aspects of Natural Law to various issues of sexual ethics :  A) Homosexuality  B) Marriage – benefits for self and society  C) Sex outside marriage  D) Divorce  E) Contraception  You will be working in groups your teacher has put you in and he/she will give you an issue to present to the group.
  90. 90. Modern Natural Law Theory STARTER Is there anything within the whole of natural law theory that would appeal to an atheist ?? :* The idea of an unknown law somewhere out there.* Using reason to decide what is good and right* Considering the final cause (end) & trying to get there* To follow natural law means to obey certain moral goods :
  91. 91. Natural Law in Secular Society* The idea of an unknown law somewhere out there.* Using reason to decide what is good and right* Considering the final cause (end) & trying to get there* To follow natural law means to obey certain moral goods – the 5 primary precepts: - preserve life - procreate (have kids) - live in harmony - educate the young & pursue knowledge - worship God
  92. 92. Natural Law in Secular Society• Some actions, because they are contrary to the 5 primary precepts will always be morally wrong – even if they are for the greater good – example euthanasia.• Some actions, because of the function or purpose of the act conflicts with the moral end, are morally wrong. Example – a moral end might be get a pupil to behave better in class and work hard – this would be one of the five primary precepts… however.. Think an an inappropriate way of achieving better behaviour….
  93. 93. Virtues are Accepted in Secular Society Seven Virtues – theological and Aquinas’ virtues Watch the video clip and note down ways Aquinas’ virtues are shown in at least one movie watch
  94. 94. Virtues in Secular Society Think of other movies which reflect virtues What about songs ? What about rules in school / elsewhere which reflect the 4 virtues as important ? (inner strength) Justice Temperance Fortitude Prudence (Fairness) (restraint/balance) (judgement)
  95. 95. Home Study Find out about the ideas of more modern philosophers linked who wrote about Natural Law in the 1960s. John Finnis and Germain Grisez Write down 10 of their ideas.
  96. 96. John Finnis Lists basic goods (rather than one Form of the Good or God) :• Does not base principles on a divine being• All rational agents set out to preserve or obtain things they perceive to be good for themselves. Even the most rational actors, however, can be mistaken. We need to exercise practical reason (he takes this term from Aristotle) to obtain that good at any one time.• Finnis will isolate what he calls seven "basic goods" in life, goods that are fundamental, underived from other goods and irreducible to other things, that are the motivation and goal of action (sort of the moral equivalent of chemical elements). He also has nine principles of practical reasonableness that are what we might call "methods of operation" rather than "ends sought."
  97. 97. John Finnis (continued) Finnis says that of the seven "basic goods," three are substantive (existing prior to action) and four are reflexive (depending on our choices). The three substantive goods are: 1) human life (health and procreation); 2) knowledge and esthetic appreciation; 3) skilled performance. The four reflexive goods are: 1) self-integration; 2) authenticity/practical reasonableness; 3) justice and friendship; and 4) religion/holiness.
  98. 98. Germain Grisez People have freedom of choice and conscience However, can we choose correctly ? The ancient philosopher and medieval philosopher spent too long constructing ideas about the big picture and the telos or end. People need to know the practical things they need to do to get to the end. Imagine the M1 motorway is your life and each junction is a moral decision on the journey. Aristotle and Aquinas is bothered about the end of the journey, the road surface, the bridges. They are not interested in how you actually get from London to Leeds. Aquinas said we need to develop virtues but Grisez argues you need practical goods (or qualities to help you / stop you from being virtuous – talent or wealth ) and moral goods (virtues). You cannot be generous if you have no money.
  99. 99. Natural Law Theory MOCK EXAM First timed assessment (mock exam) Monday November 14th Weds 2nd Nov and Monday 7th Nov – strengths and weaknesses of natural law theory Weds 9th Nov - in class revision (Friday 4th Nov and Friday 11th November – with Mr Kendrick) Home study – revise all aspects of natural law theory : * Natural law and Aristotle * Natural law and Aquinas * Aquinas 4 levels of law * 5 Primary Precepts * Aquinas and Rulership * Real good and apparent goods * Virtue ethics – Aristotle & Plato * Aquinas and 4 cardinal virtues * Aquinas 7 capital vices * Applied Natural Law – Homosexuality, marriage, sex, divorce, contraception * Strengths and weaknesses of natural law
  100. 100. Strengths of Natural Law 1) Universal ApplicationA) Recap – how does this Natural Law theory apply to everyone ?This theory suggests we can all use reason.Also the theory links the world’s monotheistic religions and there is a common approach to issues such as abortion, euthanasia and marriageAristotle’s understanding of natural law was explored by Aquinas and Muslim medieval writers – point of dialogue between Christians and Muslims
  101. 101. Strengths of Natural Law 2) Values (what is important )Society has cohesion because of common values such as preservation of life, procreation, social harmony, pursuit of knowledge ( 4 of the 5 primary precepts ).Most societies have these values – therefore they must be a strength – they are considered important by many people. B) List a range of activities that violate the purposes of human existence as identified by Aquinas
  102. 102. Strengths of Natural Law 3) Human Life has a positive goalA telos (end) which is not hedonistic in character.Some Natural Law philosophers, including Pope Benedict 16th, argue that the Natural Law theory gives a counterbalance to modern materialistic and hedonistic trends in society.C) List ways our society is hedonistic. D) List ways our society is materialistic.
  103. 103. Strengths of Natural Law 4) Emphasis on the Sanctity of Human LifeThis is important in our society and other parts of the world.The vulnerable has been respected.E) Make a list of ways we preserve / save human life.God created humans and set up a relationship.He made “man in his image” ( just for you Kirk !!)The sanctity of human life is central to the teleology (ending) of Natural Law theory.Human life must be preserved – also part of 5 primary precepts.
  104. 104. Strengths of Natural Law 5) Emphasis on right characterF) Explain how a person’s character can have an important affect on a person through various stages of their life – family, school, relationships, work life, parenthood. North Carolina American website on Character Education Character Education Character Education Suggesting Topics
  105. 105. Strengths of Natural Law 6) Emphasis on social harmonyAll individuals need to work in harmony with each other.Aquinas has clear views about rulership and how this contributes to social harmony. Rulers are their subject’s servants.However, Aquinas does not believe that a ruler should be able to do whatever they want.  It must lay only reasonable burdens on subjects according to the equality of proportion (such as a graduated income tax based on the ability to pay).  It must be consistent with the principles of subsidiarity: a smaller part of society should be allowed to sort out rules and problems (example – the family, or local area).  Human law must not be oppose to eternal law.
  106. 106. Strengths ofNatural Law Theory 7) Casuistry – means case based reasoningCasuistry from Latin meaning “case”.Natural Law Theory means we should look at each case and apply reason within the framework of divine law (if there are Bible laws / revealed laws about an issue).This type of reasoning is used in law cases – ie court.The idea is you take a perfect case and compare other things to it.Aquinas states the world was created as a place where everything has a final cause. Everything can be compared to this final cause or end.
  107. 107. EXAM QUESTION A02 “Natural Law is a good approach to morality.” Discuss. AO2 Examination Question Marking 11 – 15 marks different views strongly supported by evidence 5 - 9 marks little recognition of more than one view some key terms used 1 – 4 marks simple answer with little understanding, analysis or reasoning
  108. 108. Weaknesses of Natural law Theory In modern forms Natural Law does not allow for negotiation because the Church has made the secondary precepts into absolute rules. What are secondary precepts meant to be ?
  109. 109. Weaknesses of Natural Law It could be argued that we have gained our natural instincts through evolution, not through God and so we do not need a God-based theory. Do you need God to make moral decisions ?
  110. 110. Weaknesses of Natural Law We can observe differences between cultures, which rejects the notion of a single natural purpose for all humans.Give examples of social norms which are different in different countries
  111. 111. Weaknesses of Natural Law Natural Law could even be seen as a relativist theory - because the secondary precepts might change as we use our reason differently, perhaps because of the different circumstances we find ourselves in.Explain how this could be seen as an advantage or a disadvantage.Indeed, some say that we should not rely on our reason but on teachings from the Bible, the Church or from Gods revelation.
  112. 112. Weaknesses of Natural Law Vardy and Grosch in The Puzzle of Ethics said that Aquinas gives too simple a view of human sex – is sex just for reproduction ? What is sex for ?
  113. 113. Revision VideosNatural Law Theory in 6 minutes - WatchIntroducing Virtue EthicsAquinas’ Four Cardinal Virtues RapStrengths and Weaknesses of Natural law Theory

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