GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY HYPERPHYSICS How Newtonian Mechanics is Incorrectly being Applied to Explain the Laws of Electricity and Magnetism
HOW NEWTONIAN MECHANICS
IS INCORRECTLY BEING APPLIED
TO EXPLAIN THE LAWS OF
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
“Nothing is too wonderful to be true” ~ Michael Faraday
This document will use Georgia State University’s Hyperphysics to explain how Newtonian Mechanics was incorrectly applied in a mistaken attempt to understand and explain the Laws of Electricity and Magnetism for the past 200 years or so.
In 1687 Isaac Newton proposes Newton’s Three Universal Laws of Motion and they set the foundation for classical mechanics. In 1831 Michael Faraday proposes Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction. In 1833 Heinrich Lenz proposes Lenz’s Law to incorrectly explain how electric generators, motors and transformers (and all electromagnetic circuits) conform to Newton’s Third Law.
The primary error made in the 1800’s by early scientists was the creation of a persistent myth and a non holistic application of all the relevant laws of physics that assumed that electricity generation and electric current flow in a wire was analogous to mechanical pumping action and current flow of water in a pipe. This faulty albeit persistent myth is currently held to be true even today and is still being used in the inside the box thinking and education of electricity and magnetism.
BECAUSE THE TRUTH IS THE EXACT OPPOSITE IS TRUE...
The 1st understandably albeit glaringly obvious omission made by early scientists of the time was in equating electricity to mechanics and when water current flows down a pipe it does not give rise to the creation of a magnetic field around the pipe and inside the pump as is the case with electric current flow in a wire.
Nor does this magnetic field do work inside the mechanical pump by creating a torque (counter-electromotive-torque) as is the case with electric generation and electric current flow in a wire.
The 2nd glaringly obvious fault pertains to how resistance in the pipe or wire / electric - water analogy has a mechanically related impact on the input energy required create the current flow in both cases equally.
The mechanical water analogy (on the following pages) shows correctly that as the resistance in the pipe increases, current flow decreases and increased input energy is required to keep the pump pumping until water current flow ceases with infinite pipe resistance and mechanical pumping requires maximum energy. And it incorrectly implies that this also holds true in the electrical current flow scenario in a wire when wire or load resistance increases and current flow decreases...
3. In an electrical system as wire resistance increases and electrical current flow decreases the mechanical input energy required to be supplied by the prime mover to the generator also decreases and when the wire or load resistance is infinite the minimum amount of input mechanical energy is required.
When the wire or load resistance is zero and maximum current flows in the wire the maximum amount of mechanical input power is required to be supplied to the generator or the kinetic energy of the generator will be reduced according to the Work Energy Principle.
On the surface this would seem to conform completely to Newton’s Third Law and it is easy to see why early scientist readily accepted this... the problem is;
THIS THEORY FAILS TO CONFORM TO NEWTON’S FIRST LAW AND NEWTONS THIRD LAW
Because the magnetic field around the current bearing wire and the forces they generate inside the generator are not externally applied resistive forces but rather are internally created forces and these forces do work changing the kinetic energy of both the generator and the prime mover turning the generator.
These internally created electromagnetic forces don’t even conform to Newton’s Third Law unless it is applied very loosely and incorrectly because of a generator coil inductor Time Constant which prohibits simultaneous exertion of equal and opposite forces in the same time domain.
An illustration of Newton's third law in which two skaters push against each other. The first skater on the left exerts a normal force N12 on the second skater directed towards the right, and the second skater exerts a normal force N21 on the first skater directed towards the left.
The magnitude of both forces are simultaneous and equal, but they have opposite directions, as dictated by Newton's third law.
The third law states that all forces exist in pairs: if one object A exerts a force FA on a second object B, then B simultaneously exerts a force FB on A, and the two forces are equal and opposite: FA = −FB. The third law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies, and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law, with FA called the "action" and FB the "reaction". The action and the reaction are simultaneous, and it does not matter which is called the action and which is called reaction; both forces are part of a single interaction, and neither force exists without the other – except where coil Time Constants are correctly taken into consideration because the Lenz’s Law reaction force is always delayed by 5 time constants and is never simultaneous or instantaneous.
4. Time Constant LR Reaction Rise Time in an Inductor
Newton’s Third Law insists and only applies IF the externally applied action reaction paradigm occur simultaneously at time T = 0 however when we consider the LR time constant of a generator coil we can see that there is a 5 time constants delay in the reaction which occurs only fully at T = 5 and not at t = 0. Therefore generator coil performance has never conformed to Newton’s Third Law.
Hyperphysics Water Circuit Current Flow to Electrical Current Flow Analogy
For this diagram to be even remotely accurate the pump would have to be replaced with a water tower or even better yet, replace the battery with an electric generator and prime mover...
5. The diagrams below clearly show how the electric circuit / water analogy fails to “hold any water” and how neither Newton’s First nor Newton’s Third Laws apply because the action reaction paradigm is reversed and the external force has no bearing in the electrical system.
The only variable that has any relevant significance with regards to the electrical system is the magnetic field that is created internally inside the electric generator.
Correct comparison between a water circuit and electrical circuit
The action – external reaction paradigm that exists in the mechanical system does not exist in the electrical system where an action – internally created self induced 5 time constants delayed reaction exists.
6. The only way for an electric generator to ever be able to conform to Newton’s Third Law would be if the equal and opposite simultaneously occurring action – reaction paradigm could somehow circumvent the generator coil’s inductive time constant which is dictated by the DC resistance of the coil and the varying resistance of the load.
Since the generator coil’s time constant is never zero and is always delayed we can conclude that Newton’s Third Law has never applied in electric circuits.
And since the delayed reaction is induced internally and not externally from the environment we can conclude that Newton’s First Law has never applied in electric circuits.
“Time delays violate Newton's Third Law [and the Law of Conservation of Energy] because even an infinitesimal time without the second force violates the idea of force-pairs and hence of Newton's Third Law."
~ Professor Nathaniel Lasry, Physics John Abbot College
7. THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR FREE WORK-ENERGY MYTH PRINCIPLE
Imagine a 500,000 Watt electric generator idling by a prime mover at 3000 RPM on no- load. Now imagine your job is to decelerate that system down to 1500 RPM without using any energy to do so...
This is an impossible task when we consider the Work-Energy Principle which states that, “changing the kinetic energy of any system by any amount in any direction is equal to the net work done on the object.” And work (torque) requires energy.
Now imagine the same 500,000 Watt generator is placed on load and delivers 250,000 Watts of electricity to the loads and the system speed drops to 1500 RPM while doing so.
The myth currently being purveyed by the scientific comunity is that this generator is converting available driveshaft mechanical input energy into electrical output energy and that’s it.
The system decelerates and the kinetic energy of the system drops but no work is being performed in order to do so and the system is able to somehow violate the Work-Energy Principle. This miricle of science currently applies exclusively to every single electric generator on the planet right now where only free torque can exist without energy in electric generators.
And somehow Newton’s Third Law still applies because the generator has to “push” electrons down the wire against the wire’s resistance like water in a pipe – which we already know is a totally false anaology.
So let’s be honest here, when an electric generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy, another form of energy MUST BE PRESENT somewhere in the system to do the work in order for the kinetic energy of the system to change and drop.
8. This energy is created in the induced magnetic field which surrounds all the current bearing wires in the generator coils and this magnetic field energy does the work that is required to produce the torque required to decelerate the system and allows electric generators to conform to the Work-Energy Principle.
This magnetic field energy allows electric generator to produce a counter-electromotive-torque since torque and work cannot be performed without energy being present in some form or another.
Electric generators do not cornform to Newton’s Laws of Motion and never have nor are they able to produce torque without energy and they don’t have to “push” current down a wire (like water down a pipe) – this is provided by the induced voltage (electromagnetic pressure) from the generator coil’s.
This myth has existed and persisted for so long simply because the torque produced by an electric generator is in the “wrong” direction – as if energy had a “right” direction...
Now if, the absolute values of all the non-directional energies that are present in an electric generator were correctly accounted for rather than half of them being ignored by conventional scientists, i.e the electrical energy present inside the wire and mechanical energy surrounding the wire, changing the kinetic energy of the system – we would have a different energy perspective on this planet.
And scientists would be able to comprehend and accept the Regenerative Acceleration Generator (ReGenX) Innovation which reverses this paradigm: http://www.slideshare.net/PDiCEOThaneHeins3240/regenerative-acceleration-re-genx- generatior-innovation-one-pager
Kind regards Thane
Thane C. Heins President & CEO Potential +/- Difference Inc. R & D "We generate solutions" Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Cell: 613.314.9653 YOUTUBE http://www.youtube.com/user/pdicanada1 Linkedin http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=107557432&trk=tab_pro
9. Regenerative Acceleration Generator employing a generator coil time constant and load current delay sufficient enough to reverse Lenz’s Law:
Regenerative Acceleration Generator Time Constant Analysis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVFXSZzUNmE
ReGenX Performance: How a 70 generator degree load current delay reverses the generator armature reaction paradigm. http://www.youtube.com/user/PDiCanada1
10. Technology Endorsements & Industry Comments "The [Regenerative Acceleration Generator coil current 45 degree]
time delays violate Newton's Third Law [and the Law of Conservation
of Energy] because even an infinitesimal time without the second
force violates the idea of force-pairs and hence of Newton's Third
- Professor Nathaniel Lasry, Physics John Abbot College (2012) "Of course it accelerates when a load is applied...! This represents
several new chapters in physics, that is why we are consulting MIT."
-Dr. Habash, University of Ottawa (2007) "I saw it. It's real. Now I'm just trying to figure it out. To my mind
this is unexpected and new, and it's worth exploring all the possible
advantages once you're convinced it's a real effect."
-Markus Zahn, Ph.D., M.I.T. Professor of Electromagnetics and Electrical Systems (2007) "A number of your experiments are not lying in the field of Maxwellian
electrodynamics? That is fascinating! From the mathematical point of
view what's going on in your experiments is the break of SO3
symmetry in fundamental tensor of Yang Mills equations that makes it
obvious to see the flaws if Maxwell electrodynamics. I will inform you
on any progress that i'll make along with reports." -Dr. Evstigneev N.M., Leading Scientist, Department of Chaotic
Dynamics, Institute for System Analysis, Russian Academy of
Science (2009) "Your claims seem to violate the law of conservation of energy and
Maxwell's equations of electro-magnetics." I will send you a short
proposal, including my plan of work, estimate of cost, etc. Then we
can sign a short agreement and proceed." -Mehrdad (Mark) Ehsani, Ph.D., P.E., F.IEEE, F.SAE, Robert
M.Kennedy Professor & Director, Power Electronics and Motor
Drives Laboratory & Advanced Vehicle Systems Research
Program, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering,
Texas A&M University (2008)
11. "This is absolutely fascinating stuff you are doing!" -Joseph Shin, Electricity and Magnetism Professor, Concordia
University (2011) "If possible would like to meet with you to discuss your approach to
the Association and of course to get a better feel about the physics
behind your invention. I would still like to see what you are doing and
perhaps we can include some of your material on our website
newsletter?" -David Mann, Canadian Association for the Advancement of
Science (2009) "Thane, Your Press Release was most interesting to me as a physicist
and an engineer. The level of technical detail was adequate to tell
me that you probably have made a very significant advance in
applied physics and in safely and successfully handling a new source
of electric power. Congratulations!" -Dr. Stanley Townsend, University of Toronto & Former
Managing Editor of the Canadian Journal of Physics (2006)
"As I'm concerned this is a work of GENIUS (and a rather major one
at that)." - Les Virany BSEE MIT Former USPTO examiner and Registered
Patent Agent "This is the Holy grail for generators." -NRC Scientist Doug Hartwick at Ottawa University (2009) "As a mechanical engineer I'm here to explain how it works and why it
works. And it does work; over a dozen of us were witness to that
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-Mike Brace, Tech Editor EV World (2012) "This is a freakin' game changer!" -Mike Elwood, Chairman Electric Mobility Canada at Ottawa
12. "We are interested in using the ReGenX technology in our LinkVolt
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-Neil Young, LincVolt Project (2011) "The magnetics lab here at Goddard expressed some interest in
having you come down to do a colloquium." -NASA (2008) "We really are more interested in developing its use and application
for military power requirements." -US Air Force (2009) "I have asked Mr. Gilles Brassard, A/Director, Spacecraft Payload
here at the Canadian Space Agency to look at your technologies and
to visit your laboratory." -Canadian Space Agency (2009) "I am writing to ask you to submit what you feel would be an
appropriate document to describe your regenerative acceleration
technology for circulation to our Committee members." -Al Cormier, Executive Director Electric Mobility Canada (2009) "You seem to have made an interesting discovery. Our internal
physics experts review this information and have determined that it is
very interesting work." -Mike Simpson, Transportation Analyst Rocky Mountain
Institute (2009) "Thanks for providing technical information. If the effect of your
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-Nissan Japan (2012) "I would like to know why you are not the toast of the town... this
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-Donald Wallace, Executive Director Ontario Centre for
Engineering and Public Policy (2009) "When we finally understand what Thane Heins has discovered, we
likely will have to rewrite the laws of electromagnetism."
-Mike Brace EV World Tech Editor (2010)
14. 1687 NEWTON’S THREE UNIVERSAL LAWS OF MOTION: The Principia was published on 5 July 1687. In this work, Newton stated the three universal laws of motion. Together, these laws describe the relationship between any object, the forces acting upon it and the resulting motion, laying the foundation for classical mechanics.
First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force. Second law: The vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration vector a of the object: F = ma. Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.
1831 FARADAY’S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION: In 1831, the English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that an electrical current could be induced in a copper wire by a moving magnetic field. This led to two crucial inventions: the dynamo and the electric motor. A dynamo generates an electrical current by the relative motion of coils of copper wire and magnets and is the primary method employed today to generate electricity for domestic and industrial use. The electric motor exploits the same principle: a current flowing in a magnetic field produces movement.
1833 LENZ’S LAW 1833 Lenz's law /ˈlɛntsɨz lɔː/ is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits obey Newton's third law and the conservation of energy. Lenz's law is named after Heinrich Lenz, and it says: An induced electromotive force (emf) always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the original change in magnetic flux