Sec4 express chapter1(managing peace and security)_transnational_terrorism


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Sec4 express chapter1(managing peace and security)_transnational_terrorism

  1. 1. Managing Peace And Security: Regional &International Conflict Transnational Terrorism
  2. 2.  Gulf War (Iraq-Kuwait War) is an example of a conflict that can be resolved quickly because: ◦ Aggressor (the country who initiated armed conflict) known ◦ Diplomatic efforts could be directed towards this state ◦ If war resulted…then there was a target for the forces New challenge facing international stability – transnational terrorismManaging Peace and Security:Regional & International Conflict
  3. 3.  Terrorism: The use of violence and armed conflict to strike fear in the people of a nation to achieve political goals and weaken the government. Not a new idea… ◦ E.g. LTTE and IRA activities to de-stabilise the governments of Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland. ◦ Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) used terrorism to force Israel to grant independence to a separate Palestinian State.Managing Peace and Security:Regional & International Conflict
  4. 4.  What is transnational terrorism? ◦ “…involves the unlawful use of force or indiscriminate (lacking in careful choice) violence by internationally-linked groups against persons and properties in many different parts of the world…” (Txt: p29)Managing Peace and Security:Regional & International Conflict
  5. 5.  The Sept 11th 2001 terrorist act, also known as “9-11” showed that: ◦ Transnational terrorists could carry out simultaneous mass attacks, which were well planned in advance. They also had good training before they carried out their violence. ◦ Transnational terrorists were willing to die for their cause. Not opposed to killing many innocent people for their cause. (Adapted from Retnasamy. A, Perfect Guide: Social Studies Secondary 4&5, Marshall Cavendish, Singapore: 2011., pManaging Peace and Security:Regional & International Conflict
  6. 6.  “9-11” attacks brought the entire USA to a standstill and this had a great economic and psychological impact on the world. ◦ Created fear in the hearts of everyone…anyone could be a target. ◦ Business costs have gone up due to a lot more money has to be spent on securityManaging Peace and Security:Regional & International Conflict
  7. 7.  What is Al-Qaeda? ◦ Al-Qaeda (or The Base) was created in 1989 by Osama Bin Laden. Formed from a network of Arab volunteers who fought against Soviets in Afghanistan in 1980s.* ◦ Osama’s offer to form a force to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi forces rejected by Saudi royal family… ◦ Unhappy with Western forces stationed on Arab soil ◦ Goals:  To rid Muslim countries of Western influence  Establish a global Islamic caliphate based on extreme interpretations of Islamic concepts ◦ Achieve these goals – through terrorism against US and its allies.Managing Peace and Security:Regional & International Conflict
  8. 8.  Why is it so significant? ◦ Planned & executed many attacks since “9-11”. ◦ Multinational membership – groups or cells operating in many countries. No single HQ ◦ Makes use of globalisation – Internet & international banking to plan attacks ◦ Resilient: Uses internet/social media to spread deviant Islamic concepts rapidly and “taps” on unhappiness of followers towards Western influence and the negative effects of globalisationManaging Peace and Security:Regional & International Conflict
  9. 9.  Impacts of Trans-terrorism - Economic ◦ (See quote on p.35) ◦ Economic Impact  US economy – the loss of life & property cost insurers $US40billion.  Airline industry lost a lot of business people afraid to fly  Governments had to provide economic help to the airline industry to prevent airlines from closing down.  After Bali attacks – Tourism affected.  Governments – increased spending on security of airports and transportation servicesImpacts of Trans-Terrorism
  10. 10.  Impact of Trans-Terrorism – Social ◦ Acts of terrorism - create tensions bet. religious groups and ethnic groups esp. if terrorists are “home-grown” (fellow citizens) ◦ Forced governments not to take racial/religious harmony for granted. ◦ Many countries including Singapore developing programmes to engage citizens to build social cohesion and harmony. ◦ Purpose: To build & strengthen communal bonds so that these bonds will ease tensions in the aftermath of a crisis…such as a terrorist attack – should one occurImpacts of Trans-Terrorism
  11. 11.  Impact of Terrorism - Political ◦ Government has an additional responsibility to keep their citizens safe from terrorism ◦ Stepped up border controls/security ◦ Greater checks on travellers identities & belongings ◦ Introduce laws that give governments greater powers to investigate and prosecute suspected terrorists.  Singapore has legislation for detention without trial (e.g. Internal Security Act – ISA) to counter acts of terrorismImpact of Trans-Terrorism
  12. 12.  Regional response – ASEAN’s efforts ◦ ASEAN leaders view terrorism as a major threat ◦ Determination to cooperate against transnational terrorists through joint police & intelligence measures  Information & intelligence exchange between security forces  Used the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) to discuss transnational terrorism issues.  2007 some measures that committed their national security and law enforcement agencies to work together.Can Trans-Terrorism be managed?
  13. 13.  International response – UN’s efforts ◦ The scale of “9-11” attacks mobilised the international community. Passed resolutions to:  freeze financial assets of terrorists and their supporters  Deny travel and safe haven  Prevent recruitment, weapons supply  Cooperate with member countries in info sharing and prosecution ◦ UN set up Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC)  Provides technical assistance to countries to help them carry out anti-terrorism resolutions.Can Trans-Terrorism be managed?
  14. 14.  Have the Regional & International measures been effective? ◦ To some extent…but the trans-national terrorist groups are still able to operate:  Terrorists have been able to evade security restrictions  Terrorists continue to be able to recruit and influence people to their cause.  They make use of the Internet and social media to spread their false ideologiesCan Trans-Terrorism be managed?
  15. 15.  Individual level – creating environments that stop false ideologies ◦ All citizens have a role to play in countering terrorism ◦ No ambiguity (no clear position, no wavering) in our stand against such false ideas ◦ Actively reject these ideas, by rationally explaining and persuading others why these ideas are false and potentially dangerous.Can Trans-Terrorism be managed?
  16. 16.  What is transnational terrorism? What is the difference between conventional terrorism and transnational terrorism? What are the impacts of transnational terrorism?Key points