Sec4 chapter2 what is globalization


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Sec4 chapter2 what is globalization

  1. 1. WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION? WHAT ARE ITS DRIVING FORCES? Globalization – Something old and something new…
  2. 2. LESSON AGENDA  By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:  Identify what is globalization?  Examine what are the driving forces of globalization
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION – WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?  Definition:  Globalization is the process by which people, ideas and activities in different parts of the world become interconnected and integrated  Globalization would not have been possible without:  improvements in transportation and communications technology.  Transnational Corporations (TNCs) have also played an important role in spreading globalization
  4. 4. DRIVING FORCES (CAUSES) OF GLOBALIZATION  Transportation:  Transportation refers to the means by which people, materials and products are moved from one place to another.  Technological developments in transportation have shortened significantly the time taken to travel from one place to another.  Just as the steam engine revolutionized travel in the 19th Century, the jet engine revolutionized travel in the 20th Century.
  5. 5. DRIVING FORCES (CAUSES) OF GLOBALIZATION  Transportation (Con’td)  The developments of jet aircraft, large ocean-going vessels and containerization resulted in great increases in movement of people and goods.  The movement of goods over long distances saw a great reduction of time and cost with the development of containerization. The ability to directly transfer the containers from ocean-going vessels to trucks also reduced costs and time significantly.
  6. 6. DRIVING FORCES (CAUSES) OF GLOBALIZATION  Transportation(Con’td)  Link: Countries around the world improved infrastructure such as airports , seaports, railways and highways to make it possible to easily move people and goods from one place to another.
  7. 7. DRIVING FORCES (CAUSES) OF GLOBALIZATION  Communications  Communication refers to the movement of information(ideas, instructions and images) from one place to another.  There have been great developments in communication tools such as telephones, e-mails, fax and video-conferencing.  Technological advancements have made it possible for people who are in different parts of the world to communicate with one another efficiently and without any inconveniences.  Satellite technology has made it possible for messages to be sent and received at the same time.
  8. 8. DRIVING FORCES (CAUSESE) OF GLOBALIZATION  Communications (con’td)  Optical fibre systems enable high volumes of information and data to be sent at very high speeds.  Link: The Internet has made it possible for consumers to get information of new products and places very conveniently and efficiently. The Internet has transformed the way people correspond, carry out business, get information and buy goods and services.
  9. 9. DRIVING FORCES (CAUSES) OF GLOBALIZATION  Transnational Corporations  TNCs are corporations that are registered and operating in more than one country at a time. TNCs have their headquarters in one country and operate companies in one or more other countries.  Companies get their instructions & report to Central HQ.  TNCs operate in different countries to lower the costs of production and get new markets for goods/services.
  10. 10. DRIVING FORCES (CAUSES) OF GLOBALIZATION  Transnational Corporations (TNCs)  TNCs obtain raw materials from different parts of the globe and put them together into the final product in another country. This has made the economies of the world more integrated.  Advances in technology and communications have enabled TNCs to function globally more efficiently and easily.
  11. 11. WHICH IS THE MOST IMPORTANT DRIVING FORCE?  To answer this question, students would need to:  Weigh all three factors and decide on the relative importance of each.  Students may use the following criteria for analyzing the importance of each factor:  Long term vs. short term outcomes/effects  Greater impacts vs. lesser impacts