Writing a narrative might appear daunting, but can be quite an exciting experience. These slides provide some structure to the narrative writing process and prepares students for the O' Level English paper
Alfred had always been a loner. Many students avoided him and felt that he was strange. Perhaps it was the way he wore his shirt or maybe it was the way he walked. They just laughed at him. Alfred did not like being laughed at and he was determined to “fix” things. He felt the cold metal of the blade under his shirt and thought, “Now I’m going to be famous, nobody is ever going laugh at me again…
Tell me what you think? Was this abstract interesting? Why? How did the author achieve this?
Warm up Activity In a moment I will hand you a worksheet with just a phrase (a part of a sentence)… Your task is to take turns to develop a narrative…together… Once I call out “change” you are to pass your ‘story’ to the next person in line… I will call out end…then read out what we have…let’s get creative
Feedback ew ith What was the most challenging part of amidea? ive this activity? th es Coming up with the story at is rr It to makeg na of the whole!story Joining sentences? Trying ti n sense out ions! ipoints: sit wr Learning Need a om o pthe actions to flow) c create tension between characters Need to plan (for Need to write in lively, interesting manner.
A brief Intro for Text Types O’ Level English Paper 1 will test candidates on their ability to compose and write within the framework of the following text types: Section A Section B Explanation Write a speech Exposition Write a formal letter Factual Recount Write an informal letter Procedure Write a brochure Narrative Personal Recount
Planning before Writing Before putting pen to paper understand: What is the purpose of your writing? Provide information? Entertain? Instruct? Persuade? Who is your audience? Senior managers, Children, Young adults??? Based on your purpose and audience, what should be your style? Formal, Informal, Irreverent?
Now lets look at Narratives… Narrative text-type is by far the most interesting text-type you will encounter. It “builds on” existing ideas for stories and on the structure of stories we have always heard. Not difficult to master! Learn the structure and steps.
How to write a successful narrative?(adapted from the Longman’s Complete Guide to Upper Secondary CompositionsPatricia Irvin (ed.) Third Ed, Singapore:2011. p172)o Steps: o Step 1: Follow the topic (read the question) o Step 2: Plan an original story (see structure of narratives) o Step 3: Choose lively expressions (Grammar, sentence structure etc) o Step 4: Check that your writing is sensitive and mature o Don’t make serious issues too “funny” or humorous (unless irony) o Try to use conclusion to reflect on the event…share what you have learnt
Step 1: Read the Question…. Make a note of what the examiners are expecting E.g. “unexpected visitor” often conveys a negative experience whereas “unexpected visit” may refer to more than one visitor and likely to be a surprise visit…” “A Dream” and “Dreams” – first topic is narrative (past tense used), second topic is factual – need to provide facts about beliefs, superstitions connected with dreams etc.
Step 2: Plan an interesting story!Follow the structure below: Orientation Where is the action happening Who are the characters Hint at what could happen – don’t reveal Problem or complication Something unexpected is going to happen How the characters react Some kind of resolution (although not always) How do the characters react at the end How have their lives changed?
Step 2: SHOW not Tell Telling means: Simply providing a description about the character and what he or she is doing. Showing means: Providing more than basic information, it allows for the reader to be present during the event. Develop the character’s reasons for actions Develop the sequence of events towards a high point (climax) Resolution: They all lived happily ever after…?
In Class Practice 1: A Simple Story Examine the story: The Boy who cried Wolf! Orientation: Where: The hill country, quiet, still, nothing interesting happening Who: The shepherd boy and his father, villagers, the wolf (the villain) Any other details about the orientation: ?
Simple Story Problem or complication: Father told him to look after sheep…but very boring…no excitement. Comes up with a plan to trick villagers to come up the mountain to ‘rescue’ him. Loves to see the reaction Tries two times…he is warned…but can’t resist the temptation Problem: The wolf really comes…calls for help but villagers come…too late. All sheep are killed.
Simple Story Resolution (or closure): Father is very angry and admonishes shepherd boy Punishment – needs to look after the sheep of the other villagers for the rest of the season. Can you think of another conclusion?
In-Class Practice 2: A Narrative Let’s try to identify the parts of the narratives: Read the sample story: “The Climb” Jot down the parts of the story that follow the structure of the narrative.
Step 3: Choose lively expressions Choose appropriate Grammar : Check Tenses – past tense Use of adverbs, adverbial clauses etc to enhance action. (e.g. describe actions in detail) Involves the reader’s senses for descriptive power. Devices Used: Similes Metaphors Personification -
Step 4: Are you sensitive enough? Check whether you are handling the issues and action of the essay properly: Are you making something too funny? (death, injury, etc) Are you making the action to serious? Look at what is the purpose and audience that is required of your essay Children’snarrative? General audiences
Good Narratives Get the reader interested in what you are reading. Help the reader “enter” into the world of the character. Do not allow poor grammar to spoil the story. In other words…they follow the rules of grammar.
Personal Recount or Narrative? Personal Recount Narrative (A day at the zoo) (The zoo…)- A recount tells, describes what - Events are more complicated happened. - Describe problems that have to be- An experience that you have lived resolved through- There are participants and a - Feelings of the characters or background to the recount narrator expressed - Thoughts and reflections also- Events that also link the activities described described in the recount - Sometimes, several short stories (sub-plots) are introduced
Key Points What must you identify before writing? P________ and A______ What are the 4 steps to Narrative writing: Step 1: Read the __________ Step 2: Plan an interesting story (what is the structure) Step 3: Choose _____________ Step 4: Are you __________enough? Does your tone match with the question expectation?