Sec3 chapter2 introduction to governance_slideshare
Chapter 2GovernanceHow government governs
Let’s Think! Turn to Pg.24 of TB & read the cartoon. Do you agree with the way the chocolates are distributed? How did Siti distribute the sweets? How did Naidu distribute the sweets?
Reflection What were the reasons behind the method you have selected to distribute the prize? - Distribute equally - Fairness - More to monitor & teacher – Meritocracy. Governments have to make similar choices Government decisions affect the lives of citizens. Their decisions need to be based on a set of principles.
What we will learn today… Content Section: What is Governance? The Structure of Government in Singapore The role of the public in decision-making
NE Message We must uphold meritocracy (reward according to effort) & incorruptibility (not being corrupted). No one owes Singapore a living. We have confidence in ourselves.
What is Governance? Government providing services to the citizens of a country. Government manages resources to carry out its functions. Governance = how government manages the country’s resources to carry out its functions.
Functions of Government Government meets challenges faced by country. Government functions include: Ensuring stability in government. Meeting people’s needs. Building a nation. Maintaining sovereignty.
How is Government Organized? There are 3 branches of government in Singapore: The Legislature – consists of the Parliament The Executive – consists of the Cabinet & PM The Judiciary – consists of Courts of Law
Activity 1 – Locating Points Look at TB from Pg. 29 to 32. Discuss with your partner what are the key functions of the branches of government You have 5 mins!
The Legislature The Legislature makes the laws. The legislature is composed of members of parliament. The laws help keep order in the society. The laws give the ministries the right to carry out their functions.
The Executive Make government policies. Ministers & senior civil servants together develop policies. Civil servants turn policies into draft laws. Laws are presented to Legislature for approval. Administers and carries out the laws approved by Parliament.
The Judiciary Made up of 3 types of courts: Subordinate Courts – minor offences High court – capital crimes Court of Appeal – decides on appeals to decisions made at other courts. Decides whether people are guilty of offences. Judiciary makes judgements independently Not influenced by political parties, legislature or executive.
What is the role of citizens? Power to choose leaders for the legislature and executive. Participate in voting. Critically analyze government policies. Contribute to decision making through feedback channels: Letters to Forum Page Dialogue sessions/ MPS Facebook/Twitter/other social media platforms
Principles of Governance A Stake for Leadership Everyone, is key opportunities (important) for all Anticipate Reward change for work and stay & work for relevant reward
Principles of Governance Leadership is key. Must have the integrity to do what is right rather than what is popular. Leaders must be selected and groomed. Leaders must have good character Moral courage Incorruptible Honesty
Principles of Governance Anticipate change & stay relevant Decisions taken need to be forward-looking. Take into account future challenges. Solutions must be relevant to changing times Singapore must be open to new ideas and its citizens must be willing to upgrade themselves to stay employable.
Principles of Governance Reward for work & work for reward. Meritocracy is a system that rewards hard work and talent. People are rewarded on their abilities and hard work. Meritocracy helps give everybody in society an equal opportunity to achieve their best. Regardless of race, religion and socio- economic background.
Principles of Governance A stake for everyone, opportunities for all Citizens have a say in decision-making. This gives a sense of belonging to the nation. Policy decisions taken will take into account views of the citizens
Buzz Break!!! List the 3 branches of the Singapore government? List down the 4 roles of the public in decision-making
Traffic Flow Management A Case Study in governance
The Problem with Traffic… Singapore is a small country so the use of land requires proper planning. Turn to page 39 of the Textbook. What can you tell about how the government makes use of land in Singapore?
Land is Scarce As Singapore’s population continues to grow, there will be an increase in the demand for land especially for: Housing Factories/ Industrial Development Transport infrastructure and roads. Military and other uses
The Traffic Build-up The growth of the car population was slow till just before WWII. Expensive to own a car. Not many were able to operate a car. After the war, car population grew. Traffic flow into town or Central Business District (CBD) was high. Traffic jams were frequent and caused delays. Goods & workers could not reach factories on time. Productivity was low.
Government Measures Measure 1: Area Licensing Scheme: Motorists had to pay to use certain roads coming in to CBD. Purchase a RZ label. Roads were bounded within areas known as Restricted Zones. Gantries manned by CISCO guards were set up to monitor vehicles coming in to RZs. Motorists without valid label would be fined and were not allowed to enter.
In Support of ALS At the same time, Government also discouraged people from driving into town: Improving bus services: With improvements, people could take a bus to work. It was not an ordeal. Increasing the cost of parking: Cost to park vehicles in town went up. Discouraged spending too much time in town
Government Measures Measure 2: Park & Ride Scheme: Motorists could park their cars outside CBD Then take special shuttle services into CBD Not successful. Motorists decided to either take the bus all the way or drive in before ALS started. Park & Ride scheme officially discontinued. However some motorists are still using it on their own.
Government Measures Measure 3: Electronic Road Pricing: ALS coupon system not the most efficient. ALS was labour-intensive and inconvenient. With new technology, Government could monitor traffic more effectively. ERP replaced ALS in 1998.
Government Measures Measure 4: Vehicle Quota System A sharp increase in car ownership in 1990s. Under VQS, LTA determined the number of new vehicles allowed for registration. LTA would determine a quota of cars allowed to be registered.
Government Measures Measure 4: Vehicle Quota System Car buyers must bid for the COE before buying their car. LTA sets the quota for the month and the quota premium based on the bids received. Successful bidders are those whose bids match or are closest to the quota premium established.
Graphic Organizer Area Licensing Scheme Park and Ride Scheme Traffic Flow in SingaporeElectronic Road Pricing Vehicle Quota System
What Principle of Governance does this example show? The policies to control traffic affected many citizens. Not everyone supported the measures. Groups voiced objections: motorists, CBD retailers, parents sending children to school Government acted even though not popular. Controlling traffic raises productivity. Good for S’pore. Leaders must make decisions that are good and sound (properly decided on) Principle of: ___________________________
Lesson Check What is governance? Why are there 3 branches of government? List any 2 principles of governance
Source-Based Questions This is the compulsory section of the exam paper. Students are to read or view sources of information and interpret them. What is a source?
Source-based Questions Types of sources: Oral sources from transcript (primary) Written or published sources (secondary) Pictorial sources includes: Photographs Political cartoons Pictures Graphs and charts
Source-Based Questions Parts of a source Provenance = Heading, provides details about the source Content of source = The picture, the cartoon, the statement, excerpt (short section of a passage) etc. (See the sample attached)
Source-Based Questions The SBQs tests students on the following skills: Inference (with or with out purpose) Comparison Reliability Validity
Source-Based Questions – Inference Qns To infer : To deduce or conclude (something) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements Should not simply re-state (repeat) what they have read or see in the source in their answer. Ready to try out your inference skills? Lets see how many inferences pick out?
Organize your inferences What inferences relate to what happened? What inferences relate to where it happened? Inference on when… Inference on how… Inference on who was involved?
Answering an Inference Qn. Steps to answering inference Qns (after you have read the question): Step 1: Look for all possible clues and information you can gather from the source… Step 2: Organize the inferences into categories…take out categories not relevant to question. Step 3: Write-up your inferences into an answer (to be covered next lesson)
Ok…but how do I make an inference? You do not have to be creative or good with language to pick-up inferences… Just pick up on what the sources are telling/showing you – then explain how this is relevant to the question Let’s try making inferences with something interesting…a pop song!
In-Class Practice 1 – Lessons from Pricetag (Jessie J)Now lets see if we can try to makeinferences from this and answer a question!
In-Class Practice 2 – Understanding Pie-Charts Look at the pie chart coming up in the next slide and apply the steps you have learnt: Step 1: Read the question and mark out what they are looking for (issue). Step 2: Study the source (then check back to the question to guide your inference) Step 3: Support your inferences and make explanations
In-Class Practice 2 – Lets apply to Exam Questions Let’s look at the worksheet given to you last week… Infer Support Explain
Question Based on the information in the pie-chart what can you infer about the use of land in Singapore? Inference 1: Land use is already quite used up (saturated) Support: Land available for other uses is capped at 37% Explanation: This shows that government needs to use land carefully.
In-Class Practice 3 – Written Source Look at the worksheet you were given last week and read the source! Let’s see if we can work out the answer together.
Interpreting Pictorial Sources Step 1: Identify the content of the cartoon Step 2: Identify the action areas in the cartoon. Step 3: Divide the source into action segments Step 4: Analyse the action in each segment. Step 5: Write out the answer.
Step One Relevant details from the provenance: - Incident of Bobby Sands hunger strike. - 24 April 1981 (more than a month of strike) - Leader of IRA terrorist group. - Hunger strike to recognise political status
Step Four Describe what you see in segment A - Who is lying on the bed? - Who are the people surrounding the bed? - Who are they doing? - What is the event taking place at the time?
Step Four Look at what you see in segment B - Who is the man standing there? - What do you observe about him? - Who do you think he represents?
Step Four Look at the Caption of the cartoon at C - Who does the caption refer to? - What is the caption trying to say?
Suggested Answer Many innocent lives were lost/maimed during the acts of terror conducted by the IRA. Victims are represented by the one-legged man on a crutch. The “victim” points out the irony that there are more people concerned with the health of a terrorist than with the victims of terrorism. The cartoonist is critical of people who are concerned by Bobby Sand’s tactic to gain public sympathy and he feels that more sympathy should be for the victims of the conflict.
Key Points from Inference Questions What are the steps to answering Inference Questions? What are the steps to writing an answer? I S E