Bmc social studies_chapter2b_governance in singapore(poppolicies)
PopulationPolicies Part 1: Babies and more babies
Changing Times &Needs Watch the video. With a partner, jot down and describe what you see. What can you infer from the video about the living conditions in Singapore at that time?
Buzz Break 1 e… lik li fe as t w h a Whttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cymVNcpnXTY&feature=fvsr
Today’s Lesson You will learn: The negative effects of population growth. The measures government took to reduce these effects. The effects of government measures and its impact on Singapore society Approach to SBQs – Inference Skill
Singapore’s populationboom (1950s to 1960s) After the war there was a period of stability and peace. People had more children during this period as they were: More confident about the future. Life was hard but at least health conditions and nutrition was improving.
Measures to control population growth – 1960s The government launched three 5-year Plans to control population growth between 1966 to 1981 (F). First 5 year plan (1966-1971) Plan emphasised need for smaller families, created awareness of the negative effects of pop. growth. Second 5 year plan (1971-1976) Encouraged married couples to stop at two. This measure was to reduce the size of the replacement rate.
Measures to control population growth measures Measures from the 3rd Five-Year Plan The third plan aimed to maintain the replacement level of the population at 2.1 What is replacement level? – Mothers having just enough children to replace the population that is growing older or dying
Measures to control population growth – 1960s Measures from third plan (1976-1981) No paid maternity leave to be given to the third and subsequent children. No priority given to large families in the allocation of government flats No income tax relief to be given for the fourth and subsequent children Delivery charges in hospitals to be increased with each additional child.
What was the effect ofthis? u? yo tell h gr ap th is o es td W ha
Effects of population control measures The three five year plans very effective in controlling population: Replacement level dropped and less problems of population growth. Resources and infrastructure were now adequate to support smaller population… …but a new problem arose.
Buzz Break 2 Discuss with your partner what do you think was the new problem that emerged after the success of the population control measures?
Effects of population control measures 1980s – Declining birth rate Due to success of population control measures Increased cost of living Increased cost of medical care High cost of raising children – FDWs, Tuition fees etc. Later marriages and more Singaporeans remaining unmarried – believe that children may lead to them having less money for themselves. Lack of child-care arrangements.
Effects of population control policies Declining birth rate - 80s had negative effects. Need to promote population growth because: Larger workforce - to sustain economic growth Small labor market – difficult/expensive for MNCs to set-up factories here. (Why?) Country faced with ageing population- less young people looking after older people Fewer men to enlist in National Service (NS) – what about Singapore’s sovereignty and security?
Effects of declining population Economic Effects Unattractive to multi-national companies With a small population Singapore would not be able to produce enough talented people. MNCs would find it more expensive to recruit talented workers compared to other countries like China and India. Smaller market for goods and services produced by MNCs. This would lead them to relocate to other areas.
Effects of declining population Social Effects Ageing population Fewer babies ea. year = fewer young people in the population. The numbers of older people would be proportionately larger. Younger people would need to shoulder more of the burden of looking after older citizens. Also…more resources needed to look after elderly (This is covered in the next lecture)
Effects of Declining Population Social Effects Defence Fewer babies born each year = less men to enlist for National Service (military training) This shortage could weaken Singapore’s defence in the long run. Make Singapore more vulnerable to attack from external forces. More resources needed to improve our military advantage – reliance on high tech equipment
Measures to promote population growth – 1980s Graduate Mothers Scheme (1984) Encouraged marriages among graduates and to have more children. (F) Create a more educated workforce. This would mean less need for a large population. (El + Ex) Scheme withdrawn in 85’ because of negative response from all sections of population. (L) Non-graduates - discriminatory and graduates felt this government should not be involved in this area. (L)
Measures to promotepopulation growth – 80s &90’s “Have-more-children-if-you-can” policy Parents encouraged to have 3 or more if they could afford it. Government encouraged this, by having measures to relieve financial burden of having more children. e.g. able to use MediSave to pay for delivery charges for first three children. Did not lead to large increases in population. S’poreans believed having children was not affordable.
Measures to promote population growth – 2000s Pro-Family Measures – 2004 In 80s & 90s – population still not growing. Replacement level still below 2.1. Negative effect on economy. Government intro’ measures to encourage growth: Five-day work week for the civil service Grandparent care-giver relief (income tax) Extended maternity leave (from 8 to 12 weeks) Despite these measures, replacement rate still low and dropping.
Measures to promote population growth – present Policy to attract foreign talent: Govt. still promoting population increase - worried that economy will be effected by low birth rate. Encouraged global talents to come to Singapore to work & build economy - enhance S’pore’s competitiveness. Relaxed immigration policy from 1989 Subsidized housing Attractive education packages for children of new citizens Policy needed but not welcomed by S’poreans – many feel foreigners taking opportunities away from them.
Lesson Recap List the measures that government put in place to control population. List one effect of large population List one effect of declining population. What are the parts of a SBQ question? What are the steps to an SBQ question?