Bmc social studies_chapter2b_governance in singapore(poppolicies)


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Bmc social studies_chapter2b_governance in singapore(poppolicies)

  1. 1. PopulationPolicies Part 1: Babies and more babies
  2. 2. Changing Times &Needs Watch the video. With a partner, jot down and describe what you see. What can you infer from the video about the living conditions in Singapore at that time?
  3. 3. Buzz Break 1 e… lik li fe as t w h a W
  4. 4. Today’s Lesson You will learn:  The negative effects of population growth.  The measures government took to reduce these effects.  The effects of government measures and its impact on Singapore society  Approach to SBQs – Inference Skill
  5. 5. Singapore’s populationboom (1950s to 1960s) After the war there was a period of stability and peace. People had more children during this period as they were:  More confident about the future. Life was hard but at least health conditions and nutrition was improving.
  6. 6. Measures to control population growth – 1960s The government launched three 5-year Plans to control population growth between 1966 to 1981 (F).  First 5 year plan (1966-1971)  Plan emphasised need for smaller families, created awareness of the negative effects of pop. growth.  Second 5 year plan (1971-1976)  Encouraged married couples to stop at two. This measure was to reduce the size of the replacement rate.
  7. 7. Measures to control population growth measures Measures from the 3rd Five-Year Plan  The third plan aimed to maintain the replacement level of the population at 2.1  What is replacement level? – Mothers having just enough children to replace the population that is growing older or dying
  8. 8. Measures to control population growth – 1960s Measures from third plan (1976-1981)  No paid maternity leave to be given to the third and subsequent children.  No priority given to large families in the allocation of government flats  No income tax relief to be given for the fourth and subsequent children  Delivery charges in hospitals to be increased with each additional child.
  9. 9. What was the effect ofthis? u? yo tell h gr ap th is o es td W ha
  10. 10. Effects of population control measures The three five year plans very effective in controlling population:  Replacement level dropped and less problems of population growth.  Resources and infrastructure were now adequate to support smaller population…  …but a new problem arose.
  11. 11. Buzz Break 2 Discuss with your partner what do you think was the new problem that emerged after the success of the population control measures?
  12. 12. Effects of population control measures 1980s – Declining birth rate  Due to success of population control measures  Increased cost of living  Increased cost of medical care  High cost of raising children – FDWs, Tuition fees etc.  Later marriages and more Singaporeans remaining unmarried – believe that children may lead to them having less money for themselves.  Lack of child-care arrangements.
  13. 13. Effects of population control policies Declining birth rate - 80s had negative effects.  Need to promote population growth because:  Larger workforce - to sustain economic growth  Small labor market – difficult/expensive for MNCs to set-up factories here. (Why?)  Country faced with ageing population- less young people looking after older people  Fewer men to enlist in National Service (NS) – what about Singapore’s sovereignty and security?
  14. 14. Effects of declining population Economic Effects  Unattractive to multi-national companies  With a small population Singapore would not be able to produce enough talented people.  MNCs would find it more expensive to recruit talented workers compared to other countries like China and India.  Smaller market for goods and services produced by MNCs. This would lead them to relocate to other areas.
  15. 15. Effects of declining population Social Effects  Ageing population  Fewer babies ea. year = fewer young people in the population.  The numbers of older people would be proportionately larger.  Younger people would need to shoulder more of the burden of looking after older citizens.  Also…more resources needed to look after elderly (This is covered in the next lecture)
  16. 16. Effects of Declining Population Social Effects  Defence  Fewer babies born each year = less men to enlist for National Service (military training)  This shortage could weaken Singapore’s defence in the long run.  Make Singapore more vulnerable to attack from external forces.  More resources needed to improve our military advantage – reliance on high tech equipment
  17. 17. Measures to promote population growth – 1980s Graduate Mothers Scheme (1984)  Encouraged marriages among graduates and to have more children. (F)  Create a more educated workforce. This would mean less need for a large population. (El + Ex)  Scheme withdrawn in 85’ because of negative response from all sections of population. (L)  Non-graduates - discriminatory and graduates felt this government should not be involved in this area. (L)
  18. 18. Measures to promotepopulation growth – 80s &90’s “Have-more-children-if-you-can” policy  Parents encouraged to have 3 or more if they could afford it.  Government encouraged this, by having measures to relieve financial burden of having more children.  e.g. able to use MediSave to pay for delivery charges for first three children.  Did not lead to large increases in population. S’poreans believed having children was not affordable.
  19. 19. Measures to promote population growth – 2000s Pro-Family Measures – 2004  In 80s & 90s – population still not growing. Replacement level still below 2.1. Negative effect on economy.  Government intro’ measures to encourage growth:  Five-day work week for the civil service  Grandparent care-giver relief (income tax)  Extended maternity leave (from 8 to 12 weeks)  Despite these measures, replacement rate still low and dropping.
  20. 20. Measures to promote population growth – present Policy to attract foreign talent:  Govt. still promoting population increase - worried that economy will be effected by low birth rate.  Encouraged global talents to come to Singapore to work & build economy - enhance S’pore’s competitiveness.  Relaxed immigration policy from 1989  Subsidized housing  Attractive education packages for children of new citizens  Policy needed but not welcomed by S’poreans – many feel foreigners taking opportunities away from them.
  21. 21. Lesson Recap List the measures that government put in place to control population. List one effect of large population List one effect of declining population. What are the parts of a SBQ question? What are the steps to an SBQ question?