'Tendències Enotur', issue 3-4, the newsletter on wine tourism
MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4CONTENTS A new communication model in wine tourism2 Competing wine tourism destinations: Côtes du Rhône According to the association Great Wine Capitals, a change in the communications model has taken place, replacing monologue with a dialogue between industry stakeholders. The way that this model has been applied in the wine tourism4 Quality in wine tourism is as follows: until now, wineries have primarily targeted advertising and publicity at distributors, retailers, and only later the end customer. This system did not allow wineries to get feedback from the messages’ recipients. However, in recent years, wineries have established a dialogue, multidirectional communication, not only with customers, but also with other industry stakeholders, creating a network which offers a way for them to exchange6 information and receive feedback. Social networks have also played an DO Conca de Barberà important role in building this network of industry players. According to Great Wine Capitals, wine tourism destinations in the new world are making the most use of these systems, while European cities tend to use more traditional means of communication and promotion which do not offer the same kind of interaction between stakeholders such as attending trade fairs, publishing8 Differences in wine brochures, and using internet 1.0. Despite this general trend, more and more tourist profiles by European destinations are starting to take advantage of social networks. country For example, if we compare different old and new world wineries’ activities on social networks, wineries in Spain, Italy and France are on par with American wineries and ahead of the Argentinean ones, according to a Great Wine Capitals10 internet impact study for the wine sector. Comparison of wine In future issues we will examine the differences in the communication systems of tourism management new and old world destinations in greater detail. by country HIGHLIGHTS Wine tourism in Côtes du Rhône: many Similarities and differences in the PUBLISHED BY: denominations spread across three regions profile of Spanish, Italian, French, (p. 2) Canadian and Arizonan wine tourists (p. 8) Different systems for measuring the quality of wine tourism products and services Planning strategies and management offered (p. 4) of wine tourism by country (p. 10) Differentiating characteristics of DO Conca European Day of Wine Tourism: de Barberà: Trepat, the wine cathedrals, participants, activities and scope of and complementary services (p. 6) action (p. 12)
MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 2COMPETING WINETOURISMDESTINATIONS Côtes du Rhône This French wine appellation is one of seven found in the Rhône Valley. The following is an examination of the most distinctive elements of this wine regionMAP 1: Location of Côtes du Rhône. Côtes du Rhône is a French study of wine tourism in the Rhône- Appellation dOrigine Contrôlée (AOC), Alpes region2. These four departments the equivalent of a Spanish are home to 280 wineries which are Denominación de Origen, or open for visits. Although Rhône is the Designation of Origin. It is spread out department with the largest number across the two sides of the Rhône of visitable wineries, in terms of the River, occupying about 60,000 percentage of wineries open to the hectares1 in 6 different French public, Loire is ahead of Rhône (TABLE departments between Avignon and 1). According to Inter Rhône, an Vienne (MAP 1). This scattered north association of professional wine to south distribution has significant growers from 7 AOCs in the Rhône differences in climate, which has led Valley, five wine routes pass through to the use of different grape varieties Côtes du Rhône on which visitors will in the northern (from Vienne to find wineries, accommodations, res- Valence) and southern areas (from taurants and other leisure services. Of Montélimar to Avignon). The wine special interest is the recently Wine tourism routes tourism region is somewhat complex inaugurated Côtes du Rhône wine Area of Côtes du Rhône in terms of its spatial distribution and interpretive centre Maison des Vins inSource: Compiled by author. the fact that it is shared between Drôme, an Inter Rhône project. three different regions: Rhône-Alpes, Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence- Profile of the wine tourist Alpes-Côte dAzur. In addition to these, there are four subdivisions: The Inter-Rhône3 study examines the Côtes du Rhône: the general differentiating characteristics of wine appellation, with the largest tourists in the Rhône Valley, which is surface area, occupying 6 shared by seven different AOCs departments and 171 communes (including Côtes du Rhône). Of the (municipalities). tourists to the valley, 69.0% are men, Côtes du Rhône Village: this covers slightly higher than the average for 4 departments and has 95 wine tourists in France (60.0%). As far TABLE 1: Winery services in the four appellations. as age is concerned, tourists are departments of Côtes du Rhône. Côtes du Rhône with name of distributed through all segments. The wineries municipality: a group of 18 number of tourists in the over-55 visitable open to % appellations. segment is noteworthy, considerably wineries the visitable public Côtes du Rhône Cru: a combination above the average for France (36.6% Ardèche 59 131 45.0 of 15 appellations. in this region, compared with 30.4% Drôme 73 131 55.7 for France). As with the figure for the Loire 46 69 66.7 Wine tourism services and whole country, wine tourists with a products high level of professional qualification Rhône 102 611 16.7 have a very notable presence, which 4 Departments 280 942 29.7 Counting the number of wineries translates to greater purchasingSource: Wine tourism study of the Rhône- which can be visited in the AOC is power and expenditures. Thus, theAlpes regions2. quite difficult. However, the wineries average expenditure of wine tourists of 4 of the 6 departments in the region in the Rhône Valley is higher than the have been identified thanks to a average for France (€104.20). Sources: 1 Inter-Rhône, Vins dAOC Côtes du Rhône et de la Vallée du Rhône. 2 Rhône-Alps Tourisme (2011). Tourisme et Vin. Les clientèles de Rhône-Alpes, Synthèse. 3 Inter-Rhône (2009). Etude des clientèles & Offre Vitivinicole en Vallée du Rhône.
COMPETING WINE SEGON I TERCER QUADRIMESTRE 2012 Nº3 I 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 3TOURISMDESTINATIONS As has been the general trend, most (accounting for 65.4%), the tourists tend to come from the same department of Rhône in the north has TABLE 2: Accommodations by type and country as the destination they are 39.7% of hotel capacity (TABLE 2). department. visiting. Here, this group makes up 60% of wine tourists visiting the Product management Hotel Campground accommodations accommodations destination. Visitors generally come Ardèche 2,574 21,934 from the surrounding areas, the In the region of Rhône-Alpes wine Drôme 4,142 9,429 region Rhône-Alpes itself or tourism is linked to the terroir, wine as Gard 4,898 19,644 Languedoc-Roussillon, and the Paris a local product, so it is often wine- region. Of the 40% of visitors who growing organisations or chambers of Loire 3,051 2,220 come from abroad, most are from agriculture which take the lead in wine Rhône 14,281 2,285 Belgium, Luxembourg, the UK, the tourism initiatives4. Contrary to what Vaucluse 7,054 8,048 USA and the Netherlands. Hotels, is happening in Aquitaine and Total AOC Côtes du 36,000 63,560 family residences and staying with Burgundy where there is a clear Rhône friends are the most common form of commitment to wine tourism, theSource: Compiled from data provided by the French accommodation. However, regional tourism organisation isNational Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies(Institut National de la Statistique et des Études campgrounds provide another committed to tourism related to waterÉconomiques - INSEE). alternative which accounts for 20.7% resources as a product, linking it toNote: Hotel accommodation data is for January 2012. of the total, a significant figure when well-being and spas4. In fact, a look atCampground data is for January 2011. compared to the French average of governmental websites for the tourist 13.5%. Tourists cite their motivations destination shows that only the for coming to the destination as department of Vaucluse, and specifi- discovering new wines, the reputation cally the city of Avignon, have a focus of the region, the climate, and the on wine tourism. Avignon is promoted cuisine. Among the main reasons for as the Capital of Côtes de Rhône. ForTABLE 3: Comparison of wine tourism visiting are buying and tasting wines, the country as a whole, however, thesector for AOC Côtes du Rhône and thecounties of Tarragona. which are well above the average for region participates in the wine tourism this category. initiatives promoted by ATOUT France, AOC Côtes du Province of Rhône Tarragona such as le Club Tourisme Vitivinicole 3 regions, 6 Côtes du Rhône’s tourists also tend to and Destination Vignobles. Territory 8 counties travel within the destination. Sixty-six departments Area (ha) 60,000 25,277 percent visit between one and three So, it is wine businesses which are 2 territorial different locations during their stay, taking the lead in promoting wine 4 specific wine which is usually 7 days (for 52% of tourism brands: tourism products and services, Tourism Costa tourists). Word of mouth and having zones brands: Daurada sometimes representing a single general, Crûs, visited the destination in the past are sector, as in the case of Inter Rhône, and Terres Village, etc. de lEbre most common ways the tourists come and on other occasions collaborating 5 DOs, and part of DO to know about the destination. This is with tourism organisations such as Sub- Over 100 very different from the situation for categories denominations Penedès the regional wine tourism committee, and DO the whole of France where online Cava which is comprised of 9 wine information and tourist information associations, Rhône-Alpes Tourism Total wineries 942 296 offices play key roles. and 6 departmental tourism Visitable 29.7 28.0 wineries (%) committees. However, no specific No. hotel places 36,000 60,250 Visitor capacity wine tourism management entity for (2012) AOC Côtes du Rhône has been * No. Given the importance of staying at established. campground 63,560 76,533 campgrounds, the third most common places type of accommodation according to Once again, we find a leading wine Source: Compiled by author using INSEE and Catalan the Inter Rhône study, two types of tourism region without its own Tourism Observatory data. Inter Rhône, INCAVI. *Note: Data for camping places in France are for 2011, accommodations were counted in the management and promotional for Catalonia they are for 2012. 6 departments of the AOC. While structure, as we also discovered camping accommodations are previously with the Chianti region in concentrated in the south of the AOC Italy in a previous issue. Sources: 4 Comité de pilotage vitivinicole Rhône-Alpes (2007). Etat des lieux de l’offre et de la demande oenotouristique en Rhóne-Alpes et premières pistes de stratégie de communication suite aux ateliers.
4 MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 4 MERCATSGOODPRACTICES Quality in wine tourism Each destination establishes its own mechanisms to certify the quality of its wine tourism services. Which entities promote the service or product and the purpose of the brand are some of the aspects considered“Vignobles& Quality is one of the competitive Brands which certify the quality of the aspects of the tourism system. Each wine tourism destinations come underDécouvertes is a country has its own certification the second of the two. This is what thebrand which system, the Q in Spain, Qualité French tourist entity ATOUT has done Tourisme in France and New with the support of the Superior Wineverifies that Zealand’s Qualmark. These systems Council. Vignobles&Découvertes is a serve a dual purpose, they increase brand which verifies that touristtourist service the competitiveness of the product or service providers of a destination areproviders of a service in terms of demand, and they committed to wine tourism. This brand provide a differentiating factor for the has established regulations for use fordestination are selection of a tourist service. each wine tourism product or service.committed to wine Of interest here is the broad scope of Taking advantage of the recent the quality brand which includes othertourism” creation of the Q specifically for the elements such as museums, tourist tourism industry for the primary wine information centres and tourist tourism service, i.e. winery visits, a reception services in addition to the study was conducted on the different more traditional wine tourism wine tourism quality symbols used in products and services. competing countries, which take the Analysis of the French wine tourism form of labels, brands or specific quality system has revealed product clubs. The study examines similarities with the Spanish Tourist differences in the services and/or Destination Quality System (Sistema products certified, the degree of detail de Calidad Turística en Destino – of the requirements, their purpose, SICTED), although in the latter case and the certifying agent or entity. certification is provided for the entire In some cases the object of tourist destination, while the French“While the certification is the primary wine system provides an example of tourism product itself, i.e. wine tourism specialisation. The level ofArgentine system cellars, in others, it is granted to an implementation in the French system entire wine tourism destination. Our is quite high (24 destinations haveestablishes first case focuses on Argentine been certified).general quality wineries, using the document The demands placed on those who Directives for the Management of seek certification, and therequirements, the Tourism in Wineries (Directrices de specifications of requirements are Gestión Turística para Bodegas) also of interest, while the ArgentineFrench requirements which wineries must system establishes generalrequirements are meet were determined in order to requirements, the French system is develop a comprehensive wine quite different. Although it providesmuch more tourism model. Another example is brand certification for wine tourismdetailed for the that of Spain, which recently destinations, the requirements are implemented the Q symbol much more detailed for the membersmembers of the specifically for quality in the tourism of the destination. Wineries, for industry, which includes wineries. It example, are required to remain opendestination” remains to be seen if different on Saturdays or Sundays, to provide requirements will be established services in one foreign language (other based on the type of company seeking than French), to offer services certification or, alternatively, a specifically for families and groups, general set of criteria is established. and to provide information for the region as a whole.
MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 5GOODPRACTICES If the purpose of the brand is association Città del Vino developed analysed, clear objectives can be its own certificate for the clear established: quality as a promoter of purpose of promoting and facilitating “If the purpose of competitiveness, and as a marketing of Italian wine tourism promotional and sales tool. The products and services. the brand is Argentinean and Spanish brands are analysed, clear clearly meant to increase This quality certification trend is competitiveness in the sector, relatively new. Some wine tourism objectives can be although indirectly they may also have destinations such as Chile and New promotion as an objective. These Zealand have no specific certificates. established: quality systems also take variables related to They use other mechanisms to assess as a promoter of strategic planning and management quality. This is the case with the into consideration. On the other hand, Spanish brand Wine Routes of Spain, competitiveness, we have the Italian initiative Quality promoted by the Spanish Association and as a Time, Club of Excellence, which is of Wine Cities, ACEVIN. Today the backed by the national association brand has 17 certified routes, promotional and Città del Vino and includes tourist including two in Catalonia. Another products and services which are formula used is product clubs, in sales tool” believed to have values of excellence. France we find the Club Tourisme Club members offer discounts and Vitivinicole, while in Spain we find this promotions to users of the Quality on the regional level with the Castile- Time card. This initiative is clearly a La Mancha Wine Tourism Quality Club marketing strategy. Criteria for joining and the Catalan Tourism Agencys the club are set by the Italian Wine and Gastronomy Club. Sommelier Association without a formal document which objectively On the local level we find the Penedès establishes requirements for each Wine Tourism Club which is supported type of member by type. by the Alt Penedès Consortium for the Promotion of Tourism and includes Significant differences were also products and services offered in Alt found among the different certifying Penedès, Baix Penedès and Garraf. bodies. The most common form of The purpose of these clubs is to initiative found among those analysed promote wine tourism services were joint initiatives with the body through press trips, meetings with responsible for tourism in a country tour operators, domestic and foreign and other wine tourism entities. For promotional campaigns, and otherFurther information: example, the French association similar activities. Of special interest ATOUT created its brand following the here is Castille-La Mancha, where Argentina: Directrices de recommendations of the French members have agreed on quality Gestión Turística de Bodegas. Superior Wine Council. The standards and annual audits aimed at France: Label Argentinean system is the result of a promoting quality rather than the Vignobles&Découvertes. joint project between the National marketing typical of a product club. Italy: Quality Time, Club of Institute of Tourism Promotion, the Excellence. Federal Investment Council and the So there are a variety of quality association Bodegas Argentinas. certificates. The importance of the Although the Institute for Spanish system lies, more than in the system Tourism Quality (Instituto para la itself, in its recognition of the tourism Calidad Turística Española – ICTE) market, making the brand an added developed the Spanish system, it value to the services and the wine received the support of the regional tourism destination. government of La Rioja. Italy is the exception, the wine tourism
MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 6OUR TOURISTDESTINATIONS DO Conca de Barberà Initiatives launched in recent years by wine tourism industry stakeholders, as well as the county’s features make the outlook for potential growth in wine tourism this DO rosyMAP 1: Location of Do Conca de DO Conca de Barberà is one of six DOs prior reservation. Most of the wineriesBarberà. are small family-run businesses, in the counties of Tarragona. It occupies an area of 6,000 hectares in some specialise in organic wines, and the county of Conca de Barberà, some are wine cooperatives. In fact, including 14 municipalities, and is the town of Conca de Barbera is home home to 81.0% of the population (MAP to Spain’s first cooperative winery. The 1). This wine tourism region has two key region is also home to wineries differentiating elements, the first of belonging to some of the largerSource: Compiled by author. these are the Catedrals del Vi brands. Although wine tourism is still (Cathedrals of Wine)1, and the second is in its early stages of development, a grape variety that is almost singular according to the regulatory board, to the area, Trepat. These two elements 95.5% of the wineries offer guided combined with the wineries, the area’s tours. However, there is a notable lack cultural resources such as Cistercian of information about the Route, the Poblet Monastery (declared characteristics of the guided tours, a World Heritage Site), and its natural both on the wineries’ websites and on attractions, are the key assets of the the website of the regulatory board region. itself, which demonstrates that the product is still in an early stage of Visitor capacity development. Although the wine tourism services offered in the The DO has 1,386 accommodation wineries are conventional (wine places, representing 52.5% of the tasting, tours of the facilities, etc.), CHART 1: Comparison of the distribution of hotel accommodations places in the county. A single some packages are available which by category in the county of Conca de campground accounts for 46.1% of all combine accommodations, dining in Barberà and in the area of the Conca accommodation offered in the DO. local restaurants, and winery tours3. de Barberà DO. The region also has a network of Hotels are the second most prevalent 55.8 type of accommodation and are routes linking major wineries and the primarily in the one- and two-star cultural resources of the 34.3 33.0 category, with the average for the municipalities. In addition to the county slightly higher (2 and 3 stars, Modernist Cellars Route, the DO has 21.0 12.2 10.1 17.3 see CHART 1)2. Rural bed and five routes which pass through the 10.3 5.9 0.0 breakfasts are the third most common different towns and wineries and type of accommodation and account provide an interesting and different % places country % places DO for 15.1 % of accommodations in the 14 way to get to know the territory. pensions hotel 1* hotel 2* hotel 3* hotel 4* towns in the DO). Source: Compiled by author using Catalan Tourism Complementary services Observatory data. Data is for 2012. Wine tourism structure The star tourism product of the county is the Cistercian Route, one of the Of the 22 wineries registered with the most well-founded cultural tourism regulatory board, visits can be arranged products in Catalonia. The route in 20, including three modernist passes through the Cistercian wineries which have received the monasteries of the counties of Conca Cathedral of Wine certification. The de Barberà (the Poblet Monastery), Alt majority of wine tours are free of Camp (the Santes Creus Monastery) charge (16 of 20 wineries) and require and Urgell (the Vallbona de les Monges Monastery). Sources: 1 The Catedrals del Vi, or Cathedrals of Wine, are cooperative wineries constructed in the modernist style between 1910 and 1920. 2 Catalan Tourism Observatory. 3 Information compiled from the website of the DO Conca de Barberà regulatory board.
PRIMER QUADRIMESTRE 2012 Nº2 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 7 7 LES NOSTRESLES NOSTRESOUR TOURIST DESTINACIONSDESTINACIONSDESTINATIONS The three monasteries received tourism in the area. So the approach 195,000 visitors in 20114. The Poblet to wine tourism adopted by theTABLE 1: Summary of DO Conca de monastery received 50% of the visits regulatory board on its website isBarberà wine tourism data. to the three religious centres, relevant. Moreover, in 2008 the according to official figures, nearly creation of the Paisatges del Vi Number of municipalities 14 98,000 visits, illustrating the Project, or Wine Country Project, was Number of inhabitants (2011) 17,248 importance of tourism to the area. announced under the aegis of the Population density 40.3 inter-territorial Leader Project which (inhab./km2) 2 The county also offers other cultural combines the efforts of the regions of km 428.5 tourism activities such as medieval Priorat, Conca de Barberà and Terra Wineries registered with the regulatory board (2012) 22 Montblanc, the Cave Art Alta to promote economic Wineries offering guided Interpretation Centre in Montblanc, development through the creation of a 20 tours (2012) and the Alabastre de Sarral Museum. self-guided trail which can be No. of accommodations 1,386 Espluga of Francolí is home to a wine downloaded on MP3 or CD from the (2012) No. hotel accommodations 506 museum, the Museum of Rural Life project site. (places) No. of visits to tourist offices and Fassina of Balanyà (an aiguardent 112,002* (2011) distillery). Nature and active tourism Other initiatives have been launched Number of tourist offices (2011) 4 could also be a valuable complement in the region as well. One of these is to wine tourism, taking advantage of the Viver de Celleristes, or winemakingSource: DO Conca de Barberà regulatory board,Conca de Barberà County Council, Idescat and the the Poblet National Park, the Prades incubator. This innovative project is aCatalan Tourism Observatory. Mountains, the Cave Museum, and the business incubator for winemakers.*Note: Number of visits to the Montblanc, Esplugade Francolí and Poblet tourist offices. town fountain of Francolí Espluga, or The project is backed by the Barberà the vast network of GR routes (Gran de la Conca town council with the Recorregut, or long-distance) and PR support of the Alt Camp, Conca de (Petit Recorregut, or short-distance) Barberà and Anoia Development for hikers and mountain bikers. Consortium. The incubator provides entrepreneurs with equipment needed Planning and wine tourism to make wine, eliminating the need for each member to make the significant initiatives investment required to set up a winery Wine tourism products have gained individually. The space is currently prominence in local tourism home to five businesses. In 2009 the management. Although currently the county council and the regulatory county tourism website gives this no board signed an agreement to special importance, the county promote wine tourism, anotherTABLE 2: Characteristics of Conca government intends to promote wine example of increasing collaborationde Barberà tourists (2011). tourism, as is evident in its 2012 between different entitites6. Other action plan. In 2005 as part of the local initiatives include Conca 5.1, a Origin of tourists: 44.7% Catalan, 29.0% foreign and Cistercian Route, a strategy for the privately funded project to promote 22.7% from the rest of Spain. development of wine tourism was set local economic development through out based on a document drafted by wine tourism. Lastly, we should note Catalan tourists come primarily the use of client loyalty programmes from the city of Barcelona and Rovira and Virgil University’s Research its counties (65.0%) and the Group on Territorial Analysis and and the promotion of tourist products province of Tarragona (22.0%). Tourism Studies (GRATET). In 2007 a and services by local management second document5 was drafted which bodies, such as Carnet 6T, whichSource: Conca de Barberà County Council7. defined wine tourism as accounting promotes tourism assets related to for only a small part of total tourism in the Cistercian Route, and the Conca the area, and supported a Card, an initiative of the Conca de commitment from the wineries and Barberà tourism body, which offers the regulatory board to develop wine two discount cards to participating establishments. Sources: 4 Cistercian Route website news, 18 January 2012. 5 CERES. Investigació Sociològica i de Mercats (2007). Procés de reflexió i revisió de lactual pla de foment de dinamització turística de la Conca de Barberà, en el marc de la Ruta del Cister, per part del propi sector turístic.Tarragona. 6 Punt Avui news article, 22 December 2009. 7 Conca de Barberà County Council (2011). Report on visitors to Conca de Barberà tourism offices.
MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 8STATISTICSAND MARKETS Differences between wine tourist profiles by country Male, middle-aged, and from the same country as the destination are some of the characteristics of the typical wine tourist in the countries analysed “Wine tourists In order to gain a better understanding of the profile of the TABLE 1: Ranking of wine tourist motivations by visiting Italy and typical wine tourist and find out if country. ARIZONA SPAIN ITALY FRANCE France placed the there are significant differences from (USA) quality of discovering one country to the next, a comparison 1 winery the the wine highest value on of different variables was conducted visits region region tasting cultural using existing studies for Spain1, Italy2, spending discovering and the France3, Canada4 and the U.S. state of 2 heritage wine cuisine and restaurants family visits the day outdoors quality quality of the Arizona5. The following describes the activities with variables which were compared. 3 dining events nature family & region. However, in friends 4 - wine territory relaxing Spain and the U.S. Motivation Source: Compiled by author based on reports 1, 2, 3 and 5. tourists give Length of stay Wine tourists visiting Italy and France greater emphasis placed the highest value on Most tourists who travel for the purpose discovering and the quality of the to material region. This group has a systemic of wine tourism take day trips and don’t perspective; the landscape acts as a spend the night. The importance of local elements directly tourists in wine tourism explains the single entity encompassing elements linked to the such as nature, culture and cuisine. predominance of people who take day This is so much so that for Italy the trips. The highest percentage of people culture of wine” first element to appear which is who take day trips is found in Arizona directly related to the world of wine is (61.2%), where 59.1% are local tourists in fourth place. For France this feeling from Arizona, while the lowest is found in (which the French call terroir) is even Spain (33% do not spend the night). In stronger. fact, Spain has the highest percentage of tourists who spend 4 or 5 days at the However, in Spain and the U.S. destination (TABLE 2). If the distance tourists give greater emphasis to between the principal points of origin of material elements directly linked to wine tourists is accounted for in Spain the culture of wine, such as visiting (Catalonia and Valencia, 19.4%; and wineries in Spain, or wine tasting in Madrid, 12.2%)1 and the location of the “Most tourists who Arizona. In Arizona values associated most visited routes (Marco de Jerez, with the countryside or location are Cadiz and Penedes, Barcelona)6, it travel for the less prevalent. The possibility of becomes clear why there is a high purpose of wine visiting a rural area comes fifth in the percentage of stays between 4 and 5 prioritisation of motivations, and days, especially for tourists from tourism take day other motivations related to the Valencia and Madrid. Considering the region are altogether absent (TABLE distance of between tourists’ residences trips and don’t and the wine tourism resources, we also 1). spend the night" see a greater percentage of trips which last longer than a week (8.0% for wine tourists in Spain), much higher than in Italy (1.2%). Sources: 1 ACEVIN, Dinamiza Asesores & Consultur (First section 2010). Analysis of Wine Route Demand . Madrid 2 Città del Vino i Osservatorio sui Turismo del Vino (2011). I Nuovo Dinamismi di un Turismo di Tendenza, IX Rapporto annuale. Rome. 3 Lettre de Vitisphère (2007). LOenotourisme: Une Valorisation de Produïts et du Patrimoine Vitivinicoles . Paris. 4 Tourism British Columbia (2009). Wine Tourism Product . Building Tourism with Insight. Canada. 5 Office of Tourism of Arizona (2011). The Arizona Wine Tourism Industry . Arizona. 6 ACEVIN (2011). Report of visitors to wineries associated with wine routers in Spain . Spain. Madrid
MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 9STATISTICS INNOVACIÓAND MARKETS TABLE 2: Length of stay of wine tourists by country. Other variables The gender and origin of wine tourists SPAIN ITALY ARIZONA were two variables which showed no 1 day (no overnight “There are a stay) 33.0% 56.7% 61.2% significant differences, regardless of 2-3 days 30.0% 26.5% the destination. The percentage of significant number men was higher than the percentage 4-5 days 24.0% 9.6% of women, with higher figures in Italy of pensioners, 38.8% (62.0% men), while Spain (55.0%) and 1 week 5.0% 6.0% which is related to More than a week 8.0% 1.2% Canada (50.3%) were more balanced. the more mature Source: Compiled by author based on reports 1, 2, and 5. As for the other aspect of wine age segment of wine tourists, their origin, most, a very high Age segment percentage, are from the same tourists” country as the destination. For the The 46-60 age group represents the Rutas del Vino 80% of the market is majority of wine tourism lovers, with domestic, while in Arizona this the highest percentages in Spain and represented 98% of the total. France, Arizona, 33.0% and 34.8%, however, broke with general trend. It respectively. This segment also has a significant number of foreign represents a majority in Italy. wine tourists, only 67.0% of which were French. These tourists come The younger 26-35 segment is also primarily from nearby countries such prevalent, particularly in the U.S., with as Belgium (27.0%), the United 13% of the total, the highest Kingdom (21.0%) and Germany percentage of all the segregated data (15.0%). The Germans and the British FIGURE 1: Distribution of wine (FIGURE 1). are in first and the fourth position in tourists in Arizona by age segment. terms of volume of visitors for wine TABLE 3: Age distribution of wine tourists, by tourism in Spain, while foreign ≥76 ≤20 segment and country. 71-75 2% 2% 0% tourists made up 20.0%, in France 66-70 21-25 this figure is 33.0%. 2% 6% SPAIN ITALY FRANCE ARIZONA 61 a 65 10% 26 -30 26-35 20.0% 23.0% 56-62 13% 12% 31-35 36-45 25.0% 19.0% Conclusions 10% 46-60 33.0% 67.0% 34.8% majority Wine tourists in all countries analysed 51-55 61-65 10.3% appear to have similar characteristics. 11% 36-40 12% They are older, they come from the 46-50 Source: Compiled by author based on reports 1, 2, 3 and 5. 12% 41-45 same country as the destination they 8% A correlation was found when age travel to, which means that many only Source: Compiled by author based on data from the segments were compared with go for the day, and they are primarily report on Arizona1. profession. Although the studies used men. Significant differences were different approaches, they revealed a identified in the wine tourism significant percentage of pensioners, motivations and values. Tourists in which is due to the fact that wine Italy and France had a more global tourists tend to be older. In Italy, 40% outlook of wine tourism as part of the of wine tourists were found to be countryside, while in Spain and pensioners. Also, in Spain this Arizona they saw more tangible and segment represented 14.0% of the concrete relationship with the wine. total, and in France, 18.0%.
MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 10POLICY ANDGOVERNANCE Comparison of wine tourism management by country According to the analysis, there does not seem to be a common pattern for the planning and management of wine tourism, significant differences between countries were found“Australia stood out This section examines wine tourism By country planning and leading stakeholders infor its new different countries across the globe. The model for recreation and The first part compares the types of education, Australia2, in addition toapproaches geared actions proposed in the strategic focusing on planning, education,towards innovation, plans of wineries. Afterwards we promoting tourism and networked examine who is driving the sector in working methods, stood out for newthe study of new the four countries analysed. For the approaches geared towardstrends, creating analysis of action plans, three innovation, the study of new trends, countries representing three creating specific products and makingspecific products different wine tourism models were the most of the relationship between chosen: France, representing the business and universities.and making the wine tourism model based onmost of the heritage; Australia, as the leader in A different approach has been used in recreation and education; and Argentina3, where most activitiesrelationship Argentina, as a wine tourism focus on structuring the wine tourism destination which has followed a product. The approach calls for thebetween business model developed by industry creation of a network of wine tourismand universities” leaders1. To make the comparison, interpretation centres, increasing the the actions in the different studies supply of quality accommodations, were standardised and divided into and improving accessibility (air two different groups, actions that connections and signposting) and allow an initial structuring of actions in the area of branding. products, and actions that help to bolster and improve existing In the middle ground we find France4, products. where the actions are distributed evenly between product structure and The goal was to find a relationship consolidation of existing products. between the type of actions Actions in their initial phases include a proposed and the degree to which proposal to create a Wine and the destination had been developed. Vineyard Museum in Paris, calls for As expected, more developed wine the need for networked work methods tourism destinations also had a and improving quality. Proposals in greater number of actions aimed at the later phases include one for the Further information: improving the product. In contrast, establishment of an annual event to Terroir tourism: wine tourism destinations which promote terroir tourism, and one in a type of tourism with a global were newer had more proposals the area of tourism research, which view of a region including its designed to structure the product. would take the form of the creation of social, economic, and a wine tourism observatory. environmental aspects, originally 4 from Corbières, 1996 Sources: 1 SALVAT. Jaume i BLAY, Jordi. (2008-2009). Summary of New trends in wine tourism and territorial development. Rovira i Virgil University’s Research Group on Territorial Analysis and Tourism Studies. Tarragona. 2 Winemakers Federation of Australia . Harnessing the tourism potential of wine and food in Australia. 2020. Australia. 3 Consultur & Bodegas de Argentina (BA). Strategic planning in wine tourism in Argentina. Argentina. 4 Grup ACC0RD (2007). L’oenotourisme: une valorisation des produits et du patrimoine vitivinicole. Paris.
MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 11ESTADÍSTIQUESPOLICY ANDGOVERNANCE Stakeholders and mechanisms In Argentina, wine tourism is being promoted by the business community In the two southern hemisphere by Bodegas Argentinas (Argentinean tourist destinations, Australia and wineries), a business association Argentina, the private sector, which includes most of the wineries in specifically the winemaking private the country, about 240. Although the sector, promotes wine tourism, while association for wine growers is the in France and Spain the parties Argentine Winemakers Corporation involved in promotion are more varied. (Corporación Vitivinícola Argentina), In France according to the study wine tourism management is done by analysed4, this mixture of promoters Bodegas Argentinas, which has a from the economic, political and strategic plan. social realms is not conducive to product innovation. Within the sector In Australia, the wine growers also we find different administrative and promote the wine tourism industry via“Caminos del Vino territorial divisions; professional the Winemakers Federation of associations; chambers of agriculture, Australia. Again, the private sectorde Argentina (Wine commerce and industry; regulatory has taken on the responsibility for bodies; and a wide variety of conducting studies to plan productRoutes of Argentina) businesses. Management of wine development until 2020 with theincludes 16 roads tourism on the national level is also support of a consultancy. complicated by the size of the winewhich pass through tourism area in France. There are a Even today in Spain there is no aeight different 473 French AOCS, (Appellation strategic plan for wine tourism on the dOrigine Contrôlée, equivalent to a state level. However, there is theprovinces, and Spanish Denomination of Origin), a Rutas del Vino project, an ACEVIN logical division for the agricultural initiative which includes some 20 winefollows the sector, but a dysfunctional one for the routes, each belonging to a DO.philosophy of a commercial and tourist sectors. This Argentina has a similar product with a is the reason for a proposal4 on the multi-sector structure (includingproduct club, need to find a balance using ATOUT5 travel agencies, educational classification of 17 wine growing institutions and operators, as well asanother idea backed regions in France. The large number of wineries and accommodationby business institutions and the relative paucity of providers) called Caminos del Vino de state level wine businesses may be Argentina (Wine Routes of Argentina).interests” the result of the strategic plan being The project has 16 routes which pass promoted by the public sector, through eight different provinces, and specifically the Ministry of Tourism it employs the philosophy of a product and the Ministry of Agriculture and club. This project, once again, is led by Fisheries. the business community. France, meanwhile, also has a club, in this Spain has ACEVIN, the Spanish case consisting of two regional and Association of Wine Cities (ACEVIN one state level public institutions. stand for Asociación Española de France, however, has not defined a Ciudades del Vino) which is comprised state-level wine route, but there are 9 of governmental councils, routes which pass through some of associations, municipalities and some the 17 French wine-growing regions. wine tourism route management companies. Promoting collaborative Looking at these different cases, it research among members, and appears that the business sector has working together with its European taken on the leading role in wine counterpart are two of the objectives tourism management in new world of the group. tourist destinations, while public ins- Sources: titutions are the key players in Europe. 5 ATOUT France is the French tourist development agency.
SEGON TRIMESTRE 2010-Nº1 TENDÈNCIES MAY-DEC 2012 ISSUES 3 and 4 TENDÈNCIES ENOTUR 9 12 NEWS AND TALK OF THE PUBLICATIONS TOWN Recently the 4th European Wine of European Wine Day Wine tourism products and services offered Tourism was held, an event promoted by the European in Italy association RECEVIN and put on by three of the nine The Italian national association of wine cities, Città del member countries of the association (Spain, Italy and Vino, in conjunction with the wine tourism observatory Portugal), i.e. the countries with the most members. The (Osservatorio sul Turismo del Vino) has just published a national wine tourism associations ACEVIN, Città del Vino list ranking Italian wine growing regions based on the and AMPV were the proponents of the event, although many products and services offered in each. The report participating RECEVIN member municipalities played pivotal provides a file for each region which includes wine roles in making the day a reality. The importance the event production and the number of quality restaurants, as well has taken on in France is noteworthy, where a promotional as other wine tourism data. If you would like to know campaign was created independently of RECEVIN with the more about this, please follow the link below. publisher Comus&Bacchus. The event had the official sponsorship of the French Secretary of State for European La Nuova Mappa dell’offerta Affairs and the French National Association of Elected Wine Representatives and Wine (Association Nationale des Élus de la Vigne et du Vin). Ranking of wine tourism hotels Trivago, a price comparison site, has produced a ranking In addition to activities directly linked to the world of wine of the top ten hotels for wine tourism in Spain based on (wine tasting, open house days at wineries. etc.) the three the opinions of visitors to the website and other online participating European countries have sponsored other reviews. The Basque Country and La Rioja are two of the activities related to fine dining, culture and entertainment, autonomous communities with the most hotels in the as well as photography competitions, film festivals, concerts ranking. Representing Catalonia, there is one and street entertainment. Of all the objectives of the event, establishment in the ranking in Baix Penedès (Tarragona). the most important is building relationships between the If you would like to learn more about these hotel, please territory and the wine and bringing all of the stakeholders follow the link below. together to work cohesively. Although this year’s event saw a slight decline in activity, the event has grown since the first Trivago’s top ten wine hotels the year it was held in 2009. At that time there were 33 participating cities, by 2011 there were already 60 participating cities. Hong Kong sommeliers visit the Priorat Apparently this type of event is only held in Europe. This September, 15 expert sommeliers from Hong Kong According to the global wine tourism association Great Wine visited the wine-growing region Priorat, as part of a trip Capitals no other similar event is held anywhere in the world, through Spain organised by the business Wine Events. In although there are other activities such as the International the Priorat they were able to taste wines from 30 different Wine Tasting Festival and the International Best of Wine wineries and get to know the main features of the county. Tourism Awards. However, the distribution of the locations of new wine tourism destinations and the recent emergence Read the VadeVi news item. of wine tourism in these regions may lead to the future creation of a global day of wine tourism. Tourism and Leisure Science and Technology Park of the Rovira i Virgili University Vila-seca Campus, +34 977 394 871 firstname.lastname@example.org