Arctic Sovereignty: A Comparative Analysis of American, Canadian & Russian Policies


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Arctic Sovereignty: A Comparative Analysis of American, Canadian & Russian Policies

  1. 1. Arctic Sovereignty:A Comparative Analysis of American, Canadian & Russian Policies<br />Shawna Carrieres, Susan Hancock, Colleen Haynes, Jason Kolt, Robyn Yaredic<br />PCOM 640 | February 6, 2011<br />Image source:<br />
  2. 2. The Arctic<br /><ul><li> Greenland
  3. 3. Norway
  4. 4. Sweden
  5. 5. Finland
  6. 6. Iceland
  7. 7. Russia
  8. 8. United States
  9. 9. Canada</li></ul>1<br />Image source:<br />
  10. 10. The Arctic, continued<br />2<br />Image sources: &<br />
  11. 11. The Arctic, continued<br />P O L I C I E S<br />3<br />
  12. 12. The United States<br />4<br />Image sources: &<br />
  13. 13. The United States,continued<br />Protecting the Arctic environment and conserving its living resources;<br />Promoting environmentally sustainable natural resource management and economic development in the region;<br />Meeting post-Cold War national security and defence needs;<br />Strengthening institutions for cooperation among the eight Arctic nations;<br />Involving the indigenous people of the Arctic in decision-making;<br />Enhancing scientific monitoring and research on local, regional, and global environmental issues.<br />5<br />Image source:<br />
  14. 14. The United States,continued<br />Cooperation in scientific research to specify sources, pathways, links and effects of pollution, in particular, oil, acidification, persistent organic contaminants, radioactivity, noise and heavy metals as well as sharing of these data; <br />Assessment of potential environmental impacts of development activities;<br />Full implementation and consideration of further measures to control pollutants and reduce their adverse effects to the Arctic environment; <br />Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) to monitor the levels of, and assess the effects of, pollutants in all components of the Arctic environment. To this end, an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Task Force will be established. Norway will provide for an AMAP secretariat;<br />Protection of the Marine Environment in the Arctic, to take preventive and other measures directly or through competent international organizations regarding marine pollution in the Arctic irrespective of origin.<br />6<br />Image source:<br />
  15. 15. Russia<br />7<br />Image sources:; & <br />
  16. 16. Russia,continued<br />2008<br />8<br />Image source:<br />
  17. 17. Russia,continued<br />9<br />Usage of the Arctic Zone of Russian as a strategic resource base, allowing for the solution of problems of socio-economic development;<br />Safeguarding the Arctic as a zone of peace & cooperation;<br />Conservation of the Arctic’s unique ecosystems;<br />Using the Northern Sea Route as an integrated national transport-communication system of Russia.<br />Image source:<br />
  18. 18. Russia,continued<br />10<br />Socio-economic development – expanding the resource base of the Arctic Zone, in order to substantially satisfy Russia’s needs in hydrocarbon resources, hydro-biological resources, and other types of strategic raw materials;<br />Military security, defence, and safekeeping of Russian borders that are located in the Arctic Zone;<br />Environmental security –safeguarding the Arctic environment, liquidation of the environmental consequences of economic activities while continuing to grow economically while accounting for climate change;<br />Information technologies and communications – the formation of a unified information space of the Russian Federation in its Arctic Zone;<br />International cooperation – creating a mutually beneficial regime of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. <br />
  19. 19. Canada<br />11<br />Image source:<br />
  20. 20. Canada,continued<br />Russia and Canada have discussed theirinterests in shipping through Arctic waters<br />that may lead to Russian-Canadian-Danishsubmission to the United Nations continental shelf commission...<br />12<br />Image source: &<br />
  21. 21. Controversies<br />Climate change & oil drilling...<br />13<br />Image sources: & <br />
  22. 22. Controversies,continued<br />...Russian floating nuclear power plants...<br />14<br />Image source:<br />
  23. 23. Controversies,continued<br />...territorial disputes (Lomonosov Ridge)...<br />15<br />Image source:<br />
  24. 24. Controversies,continued<br />...Shelagh Grant & Inuit inclusion in Arctic sovereignty...<br />16<br />Image sources: & <br />
  25. 25. Controversies,continued<br />...Bev Buckway & international relations.<br />17<br />Image source:<br />
  26. 26. The Future<br />18<br />Image source:<br />
  27. 27. References<br />Antrim, C. L. (2010). THE NEXT GEOGRAPHICAL PIVOT. Naval War College Review, 63(3), 15-38. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.<br />Arctic ambitions. (2008). Beaver, 88(2), 22.<br />Arctic Seabed mapping renewed. (July 19, 2009). CBC News. Retrieved from<br />Bethune, B. (2010). Historian Shelagh Grant on the coming struggle over the Canadian Arctic, and why we may soon lose our sovereignty in the North. Maclean's, 123(19), 18.<br />Birchall, S. (2006). Canadian sovereignty: Climate change and politics in the Arctic. Arctic, 59(2), 115.<br />Canada ratified united nations convention on the law of the sea. (Nov 6, 2003). Centre for Marine Biodiversity. Retrieved from<br /><br />Galpin, R. (September 22, 1010). The struggle for Arctic riches. BBC News. Retrieved from<br />Gamble, J. (2009). Arctic landgrab. Scientific American Earth 3.0, 19(1), 58.<br />GreenFacts Scientific Board. (n.d.). Scientific facts on arctic climate change. In undefined. Retrieved January 30, 2011, from<br />Gronewold, N. (May 19, 2009). Law of the Sea. Scientific America. Retrieved from<br />Gunitskiy, V. (2008). On thin ice: Water rights and resource disputes in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of International Affairs, 61(2), 261.<br />Jabour, J., & Weber, M. (2008). Is it time to cut the Gordian knot of polar sovereignty? Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, 17(1), 27-40. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9388.2008.00579.x.<br />Mahoney, J. (January 24, 2010). Arctic security: Fighting for the True North. Canadians rank Arctic sovereignty as top foreign-policy priority. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from<br />Mayeda, A. (2010). Oil spill in Arctic waters could have "catastrophic" impact: Scientist. The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved January 30, 2011, from<br />Raineault, L. and Sher, J, (Directors). (2010,May 20). (Television Documentary). Battle for the Arctic. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. <br />The Associated Press. (2010, September 20). Russia Boosts Research to Back Arctic Claims. CBC News.<br />19<br />
  28. 28. References<br />United Nations convention on the law of the sea – A historical perspective. (n.d). Ocean and Law of the Sea: Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Retrieved from<br />Weir, F. (2010, September 23). Russia's Putin says he wants peaceful division of Arctic. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.<br />Zysk, K. (2010). Russia's Arctic Strategy. JFQ: Joint Force Quarterly, (57), 103-110. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.<br />20<br />